Kmart Corporation is an American big box department store chain headquartered in Hoffman Estates, United States. The company was incorporated in 1899 as S. S. Kresge Corporation and renamed to Kmart Corporation in 1977; the first store with the Kmart name opened in 1962. At its peak in 1994, Kmart operated 2,323 discount stores and Super Kmart Center locations in the United States. After declaring bankruptcy in 2002 and again in 2018, the chain's store count has been reduced to 202 locations. From 2005 through 2019, Kmart was a subsidiary of Sears Holdings Corporation and is now a subsidiary of Transform Holdco LLC. S. S. Kresge, the founder of the company that would become Kmart, met variety-store pioneer Frank Winfield Woolworth while working as a traveling salesman and selling to all 19 of Woolworth's stores at the time. In 1897 Kresge invested $6,700 saved from his job into a five-and-dime store in Tennessee, he jointly owned the first store with John McCrory. Kresge and McCrory added a second store in downtown Detroit the following year.
These were the first S. S. Kresge stores. After two years of partnership, he traded McCrory his share in the Memphis store, plus $3,000, for full ownership of the Detroit store, formed the Kresge & Wilson Company with his brother-in-law, Charles J. Wilson. In 1912, Kresge incorporated the S. S. Kresge Company in Delaware with eighty-five stores. In 1916, Kresge incorporated a new S. S. Kresge took over the operations of the original company; the company was first listed on the New York Stock Exchange on May 23, 1918. During World War I, Kresge experimented with raising the limit on prices in his stores to $1. By 1924, Kresge was worth $375 million and owned real estate of the approximate value of $100 million. Growth early in the 20th century remained brisk, with 257 stores in 1924, rising to 597 stores by 1929. Kresge retired as president in 1925; the Great Depression reduced profitability and resulted in store closings, with the number rising to 682 in 1940. After the war, shopping patterns changed and many customers moved out of the cities into the suburbs.
The Kresge Company closed and merged many urban stores. Under the leadership of executive Harry Cunningham, S. S. Kresge Company opened the first Kmart-named store on March 1, 1962, in Garden City, just four months before the first Walmart opened. Eighteen Kmart stores opened that year. Kmart Foods, a now-defunct chain of Kmart supermarkets, opened in that decade. Though the store chain continued to open Kmart branded stores, the store chain was still called S. S. Kresge Company. Company founder Kresge died on October 18, 1966. Around the time of the opening of the first Kmart, some poorly performing S. S. Kresge stores were converted to a new "Jupiter Discount Stores" brand, conceived as a bare-bones, deep discount outfit. During the 1970s, Kmart put a number of competing retailers out of business. Kresge and Kmart stores competed with other store chains like Zayre, Bradlees, Caldor and those that were operated by MMG-McCrory Stores. In 1977, S. S. Kresge Company changed its name to K Mart Corporation.
In 1980, Vice Chairman Bernard M. Fauber was elected as the CEO of Kmart. In 1981, the 2,000th Kmart store opened. By the end of 1981, there were 2,055 Kmart stores across the United States and Puerto Rico. In 1987, the Kmart Corporation sold its remaining 76 Kresge and Jupiter stores in the United States to McCrory Stores, the brands were entirely discontinued, although Canadian Kresge and Jupiter stores continued to operate until 1994. Kmart experimented with co-branding in 1985, when the in-store cafeteria at the store in Canton, was converted to a Wendy's; until November 1990, when it was passed by Walmart, Kmart was the second-largest retailer in the United States, after Sears. During the 1980s, the company's fortunes began to change. In the late 1980s and into the 1990s, the corporate office shifted much of its focus from the Kmart stores to other companies it had acquired or created, such as Sports Authority, Builders Square, Waldenbooks; the original Blue Light Special, first introduced in 1965, was retired in 1991.
The company brought back the Blue Light Special in 2001, but again discontinued it in 2002. The concept was revived in 2005, though Kmart at that time had no plans to use the concept long-term. Blue Light Specials were revived again in 2009 on Saturdays, offering surprise hour-long sales on selected merchandise, but were discontinued again. Blue Light Specials were revived once again in November 2015. In 1990, in an effort to update its image, Kmart introduced a new logo, it dropped the old-style italic "K" with a turquoise "mart" in favor of a red block letter K with the word "mart" written in script and contained inside the "K". Kmart began remodeling stores shortly thereafter; this logo was replaced in 2004 with the current logo. In 1990, Little Caesars Pizza Station opened its first in-store Kmart restaurant in Rochester, Michigan. Coincidentally, both Little Caesars and Kmart were founded in Garden City, Michigan, in 1959 and 1962 respectively. In 1995, Kmart tried to reinvent itself by using the short-lived name Today's Kmart.
In 1991, the company changes its pronunciation to Kmart Corporation. In 1992, Kmart entered the Eastern European market with the purchase of 13 stores in
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Stewartville is a city in Olmsted County, United States. The population was 5,916 at the 2010 census, was estimated to have grown to a population of 6,119 as of 2017. Stewartville has experienced growth as a result of its location just south of Rochester. Stewartville was founded in the 1850s by Charles Stewart, named for him. A post office has been in operation at Stewartville since 1858. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.09 square miles, of which 3.04 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. U. S. Route 63 and Minnesota State Highway 30 are two of the main routes in the city. Interstate 90 is north and west of Stewartville. Stewartville is part of MN Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,916 people, 2,318 households, 1,596 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,946.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,425 housing units at an average density of 797.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.5% White, 0.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 2,318 households of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.1% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 34.6 years. 28.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,411 people, 2,013 households, 1,417 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,579.6 people per square mile. There were 2,074 housing units at an average density of 988.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.10% White, 0.70% African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population. There were 2,013 households out of which 41.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.2% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 19.2% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,135, the median income for a family was $52,037. Males had a median income of $34,162 versus $24,838 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,780. About 2.9% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under age 18 and 14.8% of those age 65 or over.
Jill Billings, Wisconsin State Assembly John Paul Goode, a geographer and cartographer Jason Hammel, half of Indie-Pop duo Mates of State David C. Hodge, president of Miami University Richard Warren Sears, founder of Sears, Roebuck & Company The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfb"
The station master is the person in charge of a railway station in the United Kingdom and many other countries outside North America. In the United Kingdom, where the term originated, it is now historical or colloquial, with the contemporary term being station manager. However, the term station master remains current on many heritage railways, in many countries outside the United Kingdom, notably the extensive Indian Railways network. A male occupation, women were sometimes appointed to the position, the gender variation station mistress was sometimes employed in such cases. In the United States the role is termed station agent; the station master is responsible for the management of other station employees and holds responsibility for safety and the efficient running of the station. The term was employed across stations of all sizes, leading to variation in the precise role. At a major city terminus, with hundreds of employees, the station master's duties would focus on personnel management and public relations.
At smaller town and country stations, with a more limited staff, the station master would have far more customer interaction with travelling passengers, would deputise for other members of staff in their absence. On the contemporary British rail network a station manager at a major station has duties similar to those described above; the more localised role of station master at small country stations no longer exists, with group station managers taking responsibility for two or more stations. In rural areas a station manager may be responsible for a large number of stations, or for all the stations on a local branch line; the station master was deputised by an Assistant Station Master. In large stations this might be a full-time position. In smaller local stations the ASM title was attached to another post, such as senior booking clerk, or head porter. On heritage railways the ASM role is unchanged from this historic role; the ASM post continues in many Commonwealth nations, other countries which have experienced British influence.
In contemporary British railway operations the station manager is deputised by one or more shift station managers. The number of other employees at a railway station varies according to size. A historic station master would manage a number of booking clerks and ancillary staff in catering, left luggage, maintenance roles. Although technically part of the engineering department, a station master might have day-to-day management of signalmen in the station's signal box. From the late Victorian era onwards, station masters became prominent figures in local communities. Invariably they would be provided with a substantial house and, in rural communities would have significant social standing; the uniforms worn by station masters, whilst varying between different railway companies incorporated gold braid embroidery, peaked caps with gold banding, giving the office-holder a high profile in the community. With his uniform, official housing, public prominence, the station master was respected and attributed with seniority in the local community.
Some station masters achieved legendary fame in their communities. The late James Miller, long-serving station master at Oxford railway station, received widespread recognition for his devoted service in the post, including civic decoration, a public-subscription retirement gift, the award of the British Empire Medal, the naming of a carriage siding after him. In the Beeching cuts of the 1960s many small stations were closed and the station master's house, along with other railway property, sold off; these buildings retained their original name and in many communities the Station Master's House can still be found as a private dwelling or converted into a restaurant. In current Indian society station masters continue to enjoy a high social standing, there is considerable competition for vacancies. Indian Railways staff who have attained the grade of assistant station master, or station master, have their own professional body or trade union, the All India Station Masters' Association. List of railway industry occupations
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four