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Richard Whittington

Richard Whittington of the parish of St Michael Paternoster Royal, City of London, was an English merchant and a politician of the late medieval period. He is the real-life inspiration for the English folk tale Dick Whittington and His Cat, he was four times a member of parliament and a sheriff of London. In his lifetime he financed a number of public projects, such as drainage systems in poor areas of medieval London, a hospital ward for unmarried mothers, he bequeathed his fortune to form the Charity of Sir Richard Whittington which, nearly 600 years continues to assist people in need. He was born in the 1350s, into an ancient and wealthy Gloucestershire gentry family, the 3rd son of Sir William Whittington of Pauntley, in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, a Member of Parliament, by his wife Joan Maunsell, a daughter of William Maunsell, MP for Gloucestershire, Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1313, his elder brothers were Robert Whittington, six times a Member of Parliament for Gloucestershire, William Whittington, MP, the eldest brother.

His grandfather Sir William de Whittington was seated at Kinver in Staffordshire. As a younger son, under the system of primogeniture he would not expect to inherit his father's estate, thus was sent to the City of London to learn the trade of mercer, he became a successful merchant, dealing in valuable imports such as silks and velvets, both luxury fabrics, much of which he sold to royalty and nobility from about 1388. There is indirect evidence that he was a major exporter to Europe of much sought after English woollen cloth such as broadcloth. From 1392 to 1394 he sold goods to King Richard II worth £3,500, he began money-lending in 1388, preferring this to outward shows of wealth such as buying property. By 1397 he was lending large sums of money to the king. In 1384 Whittington had become a Councilman of the City of London. In 1392 he was one of the City's delegation to the king at Nottingham at which the king seized the City of London's lands because of alleged misgovernment. By 1393, he had become an Alderman and was appointed Sheriff of the City of London by the incumbent mayor, William Staundone, as well as becoming a member of the Worshipful Company of Mercers.

Two days after the death of Adam Bamme in June 1397, Whittington was imposed on the City by the king as his replacement as Lord Mayor of London. Within days Whittington had negotiated with the king a deal in which the City bought back its liberties for £10,000, he was formally elected as Mayor by a grateful populace on 13 October 1397. The deposition of King Richard II in 1399 did not affect Whittington and it is thought that he acquiesced in the coup led by Bolingbroke King Henry IV, whom Whittington had long supplied with merchandise, he lent the new king substantial amounts of money. He was elected Mayor again in 1406 and 1419 and during 1407 served as Mayor of The staple at Calais, representing that town's merchants. In 1416 he became a Member of Parliament for the City of London, he was influential with King Henry V, Henry IV's son and successor, whom he lent large amounts of money and for whom he served on several Royal Commissions of oyer and terminer. For example, Henry V employed him to supervise the expenditure to complete Westminster Abbey.

Despite being a moneylender himself he was sufficiently trusted and respected to sit as a judge in usury trials in 1421. Whittington collected revenues and import duties. A long dispute with the Worshipful Company of Brewers over standard prices and measures of ale was won by Whittington. In 1402, at the age of 48, he married Alice FitzWaryn, she was one of the two daughters and joint heiresses of Sir Ivo FitzWaryn, of Caundle Haddon in Dorset, of Wantage in Berkshire. As a Member of Parliament variously for the county seats of Dorset and Somerset. A portrait of Richard Whittington circa 1590 by Reginald Elstrack shows his paternal heraldic arms and for his wife a differenced version of the usual arms of Baron FitzWarin with ermine in the 1st and 4th quarters in place of argent, which variant was used by Wiliam FitzWarin, a member of the Shropshire family, as depicted in the Gelre Armorial, c.1370-1414. The last in the male line was Fulk FitzWarin, 7th Baron FitzWarin, whose eventual successor was William Bourchier, 9th Baron FitzWarin, 2nd son of William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu one of the wealthy noblemen to whom Richard Whittington lent money.

In his lifetime Whittington donated much of his profit to the city and left further endowments by his Will. He financed: the rebuilding of the Guildhall a ward for unmarried mothers at St Thomas' Hospital drainage systems for areas around Billingsgate and Cripplegate the rebuilding of his parish church, St Michael Paternoster Royal a public toilet seating 128 called Whittington's Longhouse in the parish of St Martin Vintry, cleansed by the River Thames at high tide most of Greyfriars libraryHe provided accommodation for his apprentices in his own house, he passed a law prohibiting the washing of animal skins by apprentices in the River Thames in cold, wet weather because many young boys had died through hypothermia or drowning in the strong river currents. Whittington died in March 1423 and was bur

Preap In

Preap In was a Cambodian political dissident of the 1950s–1960s. A high-level cadre of the Khmer Serei, a rightist militia formed to oppose the regime of Prince Norodom Sihanouk, In is remembered for an unsuccessful 1963 attempt to'negotiate' directly with Sihanouk, resulting in his arrest and public execution by firing squad. In was born in Kampong Trach, into a farming family, was the nephew of In Tam, a provincial governor and prominent Cambodian politician of the post-independence years. In studied engineering in Phnom Penh. At some point In joined the Khmer Serei, an anti-communist and anti-monarchist guerrilla movement founded by the exiled politician Son Ngoc Thanh. Sihanouk was to describe In as "one of the right-hand men" of Son Ngoc Thanh. Preap In's uncle, In Tam, is thought to have met with his nephew and offered assurances that In would be given safe-conduct to negotiate directly with Sihanouk in the National Assembly. Sihanouk was to describe In as mistakenly supposing he was to negotiate Sihanouk's "surrender", though this is to be an exaggeration.

It seems that In put forward a proposal involving the return of Thanh to Cambodia, though whether this was a genuine coup plot or an amnesty for Thanh remains unclear. Preap In and an associate, Saing San were arrested in Takeo on 19 November 1963. Although San was soon to be released, In was brought before the National Assembly, where he readily'confessed' that his organisation, the Khmer Serei, was funded and controlled by the CIA with the intention of overthrowing Sihanouk. Sihanouk asked the assembly to decide In's fate, interpreted the response as a demand for the death penalty, he was handed over to a military tribunal, who sentenced him to death. The Preap In affair was used by Sihanouk to underline his rejection of American aid from 1963. In was executed by firing squad at Trapeang Kraleung, Kampong Speu Province, in January 1964; the execution was filmed, the fifteen-minute newsreel was shown in cinemas across Cambodia for a month prior to the main feature. As a result, Preap In is still remembered in Cambodia as a figure of opposition to the Sangkum: the current Cambodian Prime Minister, Hun Sen, has several times threatened to broadcast the film of In's execution as part of his ongoing public disagreements with Sihanouk

Tanner Dodson

Tanner Dodson is an American professional baseball pitcher and outfielder in the Tampa Bay Rays organization. Dodson attended Jesuit High School in California. In 2015, as a senior, he batted.430 along with pitching to a 2.10 ERA. He was drafted by the New York Mets in the 31st round of the 2015 MLB draft, but he did not sign and instead chose to attend the University of California at Berkeley to play college baseball for the California Golden Bears; as a freshman at California in 2016, Dodson pitched ​61 2⁄3 innings in which he compiled a 3.36 ERA. In 2017, as a sophomore, he began playing center field along with pitching; that season, he batted.297 with three home runs and 26 RBIs in 185 at-bats while pitching to a 2-6 record and 5.37 ERA in 19 games. After the season was over, he played in the Cape Cod Baseball League for the Wareham Gatemen with whom he batted.365 in 29 games, earning him the Cape Cod batting title. Prior to the 2018 season, Dodson was named a preseason All-American by Baseball America.

In 54 games, he batted.320 with one home run and 27 RBIs while along with posting a 2-1 record and 2.48 ERA in 40 relief innings pitched. After the season, he was named to the All-Defensive team. Dodson was selected 71st overall by the Tampa Bay Rays in the 2018 MLB draft, he signed for $775,000, made his professional debut with the Hudson Valley Renegades. He spent the whole season there, batting.273 with two home runs and 19 RBIs in 49 games along with pitching to a 1-0 record and a 1.44 ERA in 25 relief innings pitched. Dodson spent 2019 with the Charlotte Stone Crabs, but missed the last three months of the season due to injury. Over 15 games, he batted.250, over 17 innings pitched, he compiled a 5.29 ERA. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference California Golden Bears bio

Sena Kalyan Sangstha

Sena Kalyan Sangstha is a trust owned and operated by Bangladesh Army. It owns a number of businesses including travel agency and cement factory and ice cream; the present chairman of the company is psc. The organization started in 1953. After the independence of Bangladesh it was renamed to Sena Kalyan Sangstha in 1972, it is headquartered in Dhaka in Sena Kalyan Bhaban. It started a flower mill during the Pakistan Era, it owns companies that include savoy Ice cream, Energy Savings Lamp, Habib fan, Citizen Fridge, Elephant cement and transformer factory. In 2016, the trust signed a MOU with Bawani group of Saudi Arabia to export Manpower. In 2013, the trust was appointed to 3 billion taka convention center in Chittagong city. In 2015, the trust launched Tours, a travel agency; the trust owns a Liquefied petroleum gas plant. In 2015, 7 workers were killed and 50 injured while constructing a warehouse for the trust in Mongla; the Trust build Mongla cement plant with a loan from Pakistan, secured in 1988.

Sena Hotel Developments Limited which operates Radisson Blu in Bangladesh is owned by Sena Kalyan Sangstha and Bangladesh Army Welfare Trust. Subsidiaries: Sena Kalyan Constructions & Developments Mongla Cement Factory, Bagerhat Fauji Flour Mill, Chittagong Diamond Food Industries,Chittagong Chittagong Flour Mill,Chittagong Sena Kalyan Electric Industries, Chittagong Sena Kalyan Ready MIX concrete,Mirpur Dhaka Eastern Hosiery Mills, Tongi,Gazipur Enesil Textile mills,Chittagong Sena Kalyan Edible oil Industries Sena Kalyan LPG bottling plant

1973 Thai popular uprising

The popular uprising of 14 October 1973 was a watershed event in Thailand's history. The uprising resulted in the end of the ruling military dictatorship of anti-communist Thanom Kittikachorn and altered the Thai political system. Notably, it highlighted the growing influence of Thai university students in politics. Student activism in Thailand grew during the 1950s, as many students became inspired by leftist ideology to mobilize and organize demonstrations and rallies against the pro-American policies of the ruling government; the rise of university students as a political force was due to the increase in absolute numbers of university students. From 1961 to 1972, the number of university students increased from 15,000 to 150,000, while the number of universities increased from five to seventeen. Prior to 1968, student activity was confined to demonstrations of loyalty rather than demands for change or criticism of the political system; the death of Sarit Thanarat in December 1963 changed things as the government under Thanom was more tolerant of students and intellectuals.

The publication of the Social Science Review in the 1960s was credited as being responsible for restarting intellectual thinking and debate in Thai politics. Discussion groups sprang up at major universities which developed into organized and important independent groups, e.g. the "Sapha Na Dome" and "Sethatham" and the "SOTUS" group. These independent groups in turn produced their own writings and the Social Science Review began to publish articles from them; some of the writings were critical of the government. These groups started to hold clandestine political seminars which encouraged students to be analytical and critical; the student discussion groups were in many important ways different from the student unions present on campus. They were radical and looked for new ways of interpreting Thai society and politics with a leftist slant, they did not organize themselves the same way the official student unions were run, i.e. on a hierarchical and politically conservative basis. These groups from different universities were able to transcend inter-university rivalry and build up contacts among themselves.

Development programs, based on those of the United States Peace Corps, took students from various campuses to work in rural areas during their vacations and forced them to recognize the problems in the countryside. The programs served to show the students how inadequate their university training had been, as they were not able to use any of their knowledge to improve the conditions which the majority of the rural population faced; as a consequence of the increasing collegial contact between students, the National Student Center of Thailand was founded in 1968. Its purpose was to coordinate student action; the NSCT was to play a crucial role in the 1973 uprising. After several meetings between representatives from Thailand's universities, it was proposed that Thai students should have an inter-university organization, the NSCT, it was to include two members from each of eleven institutions: Chulalongkorn University, Thammasat University, Kasetsart University, Silpakorn University, Mahidol University, Chiang Mai University, Khon Kaen University, Prince of Songkla University, Prasanmit Teachers College, Bangsaen Teachers College, Patumwan Teachers College.

In its early years, the NSCT was not active, did not organize any political activities. For example, the NSCT was not involved during the demonstrations against internal corruption at Chulalongkorn University in September 1970. Instead, it concentrated on areas such as community services, counseling new students, producing a television show which praised the King, Bhumibol Adulyadej; this conservative, royalist outlook can be traced to the organization of the NSCT and the manner in which people were elected officers. The NSCT consisted of three committees composed of the presidents of the student unions, who were responsible for formulating NSCT policy and selecting the leaders of the divisions in the secretariat committee; this made it difficult for members of the more politically conscious groups to control or influence the NSCT, as they were still viewed with suspicion by most students. As a result, activists were unable to win election to the campus student unions and thus to the NSCT. Many discussion groups found the NSCT to be unprogressive.

This changed in 1972 when Thirayuth Boonmee, an engineering student from Chulalongkorn University, became secretary-general of the NSCT. He began the political activism of the NSCT, he was prudent in choosing issues to campaign against, allowing the NSCT time to mobilize and maintain political momentum. Despite the apparent unity of the student movement, there were noticeable splits among the students. While they were united in their aim to remove Prime Minister Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn and his clique from office, once Thanom went into exile the student movement split into two main factions: the moderate university students and the radical vocational students; the vocational students were marked by their propensity for violence and their demands for the right to study for degrees. The NSCT was divided between two personalities, Sombat Thamrongthanyawongse and Seksan Prasertkul; some scholars link this conflict to the traditional Thai personal clique power competition typical of Thai bureaucracy.

However, others cite the cooperation between Seksan and Sombat in protesting the construction of a second international airport for Bangkok as evidence that it was possi

2010 in birding and ornithology

See 2009 in birding and ornithology, main events of 2010 and 2011 in birding and ornithologyThe year 2010 in birding and ornithology. See Bird species new to science described in the 2000sLimestone leaf warbler, Phylloscopus calciatilis: Alström, P.. W.. C.. T.. "Description of a new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Vietnam and Laos". Ibis. 152: 145–168. Doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2009.00990.x. Fenwick's antpitta or Urrao antpitta, Grallaria fenwickorum: Barrera, L. F.. "A new species of Antpitta from the Colibrí del Sol Bird Reserve, Colombia". Conservación Colombiana. 13: 8–24. Socotra buzzard, Buteo socotraensis: Porter, R. F.. M.. "Studies of Socotran birds VI. The taxonomic status of the Socotra Buzzard". Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. 130: 116–131. Willard's sooty boubou, Laniarius willardi: Voelker, G.. K.. M.. J.. D.. C.. P.. "A New Species of Boubou from the Albertine Rift". Auk. 127: 678–689. Doi:10.1525/auk.2010.09014. Rock tapaculo, Scytalopus petrophilus: Whitney, B. M.. F.. F.. F.. "Scytalopus petrophilus: a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil".

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia. 18: 73–88. Purple heron bred in the UK for the first time on the Dungeness peninsula in Kent. To be completed