The Saluda River is a principal tributary of the Congaree River, about 200 mi long, in northern and western South Carolina in the United States. Via the Congaree River, it is part of the watershed of the Santee River, which flows to the Atlantic Ocean; the Saluda River is formed about 10 mi northwest of the city of Greenville, on the common boundary of Greenville and Pickens Counties, by the confluence of its north and south forks, each of which rises in the Blue Ridge Mountains near the border of North Carolina: The North Saluda River flows south-southwestwardly through northern Greenville County, past Marietta. The South Saluda River flows southeastwardly on the Greenville-Pickens County border, receiving the Oolenoy River and the Middle Saluda River, which rises in Jones Gap State Park and flows southward through northwestern Greenville County. From this confluence the Saluda River flows southeastwardly through the Piedmont region, through or along the boundaries of Pickens, Anderson, Laurens, Newberry, Saluda and Richland Counties, past the towns of Piedmont, West Pelzer, Ware Shoals and West Columbia.
It joins the Broad River in Columbia to form the Congaree River. Dams on the Saluda include: The uppermost dam on the Saluda River, on the border of Greenville and Pickens Counties, forming Saluda Lake Lake Saluda Reservoir Dam near Berea; the old textile mill dam in Piedmont The textile mill dam at Pelzer The Pelzer Mills Dam, near Williamston The Lee Steam Plant Dam near Williamston The Holiday Dam near Belton a still-operating dam built to power the textile mill in Ware Shoals Greenwood dam, creating Lake Greenwood Dreher Shoals Dam creating Lake Murray The Reedy River flows into Lake Greenwood from the north in Laurens County. The Little River flows into the Saluda from the north in Newberry County; the Bush River flows into Lake Murray from the north in Newberry County. The Little Saluda River flows into Lake Murray from the south in Saluda County; as it travels downstream, the Saluda river is crossed several times. Greenville County/Pickens County/Anderson County New Easley Highway (U. S. 123 Old Easley Highway Anderson Road Powdersville/Greenville Interstate 85 Anderson Street in Piedmont, South Carolina Piedmont Highway in Pelzer, South Carolina SC 8 in Pelzer Lee Steam Plant Road Cooley Bridge Road in Belton, South Carolina Holiday Dam Road US 76 in Honea Path, South Carolina Laurens County/Abbeville County/Greenwood County Erwin Mill Road SC 252 in Ware Shoals, South Carolina East Main Street in Ware Shoals US 25 in Ware Shoals Lake Greenwood Old Laurens-Greenwood Highway Greenwood Highway in Lake Shores, South Carolina Newberry County/Saluda County Ninety-Six Highway SC 39 in Chappells, South Carolina Newberry Highway Lake Murray Kempson Bridge Road SC 391 near Prosperity, South Carolina Dreher Shoals Dam Columbia Interstate 20 Interstate 26 Riverbanks Zoo According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Saluda River has been known as: Chickawa Corn River Saludy River Saluta River Salutah River Santee River Seleuda RiverThe river is named after an Indian tribe that once lived along its banks near the community of Chappells, South Carolina.
In 2008, a collective of local citizens based in Marietta, Greenville County, South Carolina initiated a campaign to "Save Our Saluda" following what they perceived to be aggressive property development. Their mission is to " and the headwaters of the Saluda watershed through concerned citizens action". In April 2009, the Saluda River was named by American Rivers, a leading river conservation group to a list of rivers in the United States that are under imminent threat by dams, industry or development; the article, posted on CNN on April 7, 2009 stated "Excess levels of sewage waste threaten the drinking water of more than 500,000 South Carolina residents, conservationists say. Sewage in the river increases phosphorus and algae levels, depletes oxygen, kills fish and other aquatic life. American Rivers is asking the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control to improve sewage-treatment standards and ensure the river reduces its phosphorus levels by 25 to 50 percent." List of South Carolina rivers Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme.
South Carolina Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-237-4. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Saluda River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Little Saluda River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Middle Saluda River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: North Saluda River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: South Saluda River SC DNR Middle Saluda River Save Our Saluda website
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Lake Murray (South Carolina)
Lake Murray is a reservoir in the U. S. state of South Carolina. It is 50,000 acres in size, has 500 miles of shoreline, it was impounded in the late 1920s to provide hydroelectric power to the state of South Carolina. Lake Murray is fed by the Saluda River, which flows from upstate South Carolina near the North Carolina state line; the Saluda Dam was an engineering feat at the time of its construction. The dam, using the native red clay soil and bedrock, was the largest earthen dam in the world when it was completed in 1930. Lake Murray itself is named after William S. Murray; the Saluda Dam is 1.5 miles long and 220 feet high. Lake Murray is 41 miles long, 14 miles wide at its widest point. At the time when the lake was finished, it was the world's largest man-made reservoir. In addition to serving as a source of hydroelectric power for the region, the lake has become a recreational attraction, with fishing and boating being popular activities. Dreher Island State Recreation Area, located in the Western part of the lake, provides multiple activities—all focused on the lake.
The Saluda River was named after the Saluda Indian tribe. For reasons unclear, the Saluda tribe migrated to Pennsylvania beginning in the early 18th century and were replaced by Cherokee from the north; the lower Saluda River valley was settled in the early 1750s by German and Swiss emigrants. The region had two major settlements: the Saxe-Gotha township. In 1755, the Cherokee signed a peace treaty with the British and the Cherokee withdrew from the area, leaving much of the land for open settlement; the Dutch Fork was the most densely settled, becoming home to 483 settler families by 1760. It has been estimated that by the year 1765 there were about 8,000 Dutch-Germans and German-Swiss and an additional 1000 Moravians of German origin who had come to the province of South Carolina. A total of 9000 Germans was the number or 8.4% of population in 1765. Because of this common nationality and language, the Dutch Fork community remained cohesive and somewhat isolated through the years. Today, the surnames of area reflect this: Sligh, Cannon, Lindler, Corley, Sease, Bowers, Kinard, Summer, Dreher, Dominic, Epting, Huffstetler, McCartha, etc.
Many of these family groups live on land, under the original land grant from the King of England still today. During the American Revolution, the Dutch Fork area was patriot, unlike the surrounding regions that held large groups of English settlers; the only major engagement of the Revolution, fought in the vicinity occurred in the nearby town of Ninety-Six, located up the Saluda River. It was the first land battle south of New England in the war; the Saluda River was a strategic boundary, since there was no bridge on the river at that time, the ferries near the Dutch Fork area were vital to the movement of troops and material westward toward the frontier. The most important of these ferries were Kimpson's Ferry. During the war, Hessian mercenaries came to South Carolina to fight for the British. Many of them had been pressed into the service and brought to the Colonies against their will, therefore many deserted the army and found shelter in Dutch-German settlements such as the Dutch Fork. Today, many locals know of specific ancestors that were brought to fight the young United States and became citizens.
After the war ended, things in the Dutch Fork returned to peaceful normalcy until the American Civil War. When South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union, numerous volunteer regiments were created from people in these settlements. By 1928, about 5,000 people were living in the Saluda River valley; the community included 3 churches, 6 schools, 193 graveyards. There had been interest in water power generation on the Saluda River for more than a hundred years; as the demand for electricity in the developing Southern United States increased, it became apparent that harnessing the flow of large rivers such as the Saluda would be needed. In 1904, Lexington Water Power Company was incorporated by G. A. Guignard of Columbia, South Carolina; the company acquired the flowage rights on the Saluda River from Dreher Shoals to 20 miles upstream. Two dams were considered to be built, one at Dreher Shoals, 10 miles west of Columbia, the other at Bear Creek, five miles upstream. However, in 1907 the company sold the lands necessary for construction of the lower dam at Dreher Shoals to James W. Jackson, of Augusta, Georgia and W. T. Van Brunt of New York.
Between 1908 and 1911, ownership of the Dreher Shoals property shifted several times but it was purchased by the Richland Public Service Company, a subsidiary of Columbia Railway, Gas & Electric Company. Since 1916, a man named Thomas Clay Williams had been proposing the development of hydroelectric power on the Saluda and Cooper rivers in South Carolina, but his propositions did not generate much serious interest. T. C. Williams was not an engineer, his belief that massive power could be generated from the swamps and coastal plains of the state did not meet much enthusiasm with the leading engineers of South Carolina, it was not until the plans were brought before an engineer from New York, William Spencer Murray, that an engineer realized Williams's dream and its potential. William S. Murray was an engineer with much experience in generation. In 1920, Congress
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Broad River (Carolinas)
For other rivers with the same name, see Broad River. The Broad River is a principal tributary of the Congaree River, about 150 miles long, in western North Carolina and northern South Carolina in the United States. Via the Congaree, it is part of the watershed of the Santee River, which flows to the Atlantic Ocean; the Broad River originates in the Blue Ridge Mountains of eastern Buncombe County, North Carolina and flows south-southeastwardly, through or along the boundaries of Rutherford and Cleveland Counties in North Carolina. In North Carolina, the river is dammed to form Lake Lure. Principal tributaries of the Broad River include the Green, Second Broad and First Broad Rivers in North Carolina; this is an incomplete list of dams starting at Lake Lure and moving downstream North Carolina Lake Lure Cliffside Steam Station on the Border of Rutherford and Cleveland Counties. South Carolina Gaston Shoals Dam Cherokee Falls Ninety Nine Islands Dam adjacent to the abandoned Cherokee Nuclear Power Plant Dam and canal at Lockhart Neal Shoals Dam Parr Shoals Dam forming Parr Reservoir Columbia Canal and Dam in Columbia The Broad River is crossed several times by many highways North Carolina Rutherford County US 64 / US 74 Alt.
NC 108 Grays Road Union Road US 74 Poors Ford Road Big Island Road Jack McKinney Road US 221 US 221 Alt. Cleveland County NC 150 South Carolina Gaffney/Cherokee County SC 18 I-85 US 29 SC 211 Chester and Union Counties SC 9 / SC 49 in Lockhart SC 72 / SC 215 in Carlisle Fairfield and Newberry Counties SC 34 SC 213 in Peak Columbia I-20 US 176 I-126 According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Broad River has been known as Eswa Huppeday Eswawpuddenah Line River Main Broad River Eswan HappedawIt was known in colonial times as the English Broad River to distinguish it from the French Broad River which originates in western North Carolina, but flows northwest into what was part of the claimed territory of New France; the present name is descriptive of the river's width. French Broad River List of North Carolina rivers List of South Carolina rivers
The Congaree River is a short but wide river in South Carolina in the United States. The river serves an important role as the final outlet channel for the entire Lower Saluda and Lower Broad watersheds, before merging with the Wateree River just north of Lake Marion to form the Santee River, it is formed in Columbia by the confluence of the Saluda and Broad rivers near the Piedmont Fall Line. It serves as part of the boundary between Richland and Lexington counties; the only cities near the river are Columbia on the east, Cayce and West Columbia on the west. Despite the vast bottomland swamp below Columbia, the Congaree is navigable along much of its length at high water by barge traffic; this travels upriver from the Port of Charleston (approximately 100 miles away through the Santee-Cooper Lakes to within 5 miles of the fall line. The Congaree National Park, one of the main recreational attractions of the river, is located about halfway down the river's course; the 22,200-acre park contains some of the last remaining old growth bottomland hardwood forest in North America.
Recreational opportunities include hiking, bird watching, botanical interests, canoeing. The river was named for the Congaree Indians. Below is a list of crossings from the river's origin in Columbia downstream to its confluence with the Wateree, where it forms the Santee River: Columbia/West Columbia/Cayce Jarvis Klapman Blvd Gervais Street Bridge Blossom Street Bridge Granby/Olympia Mills railroad trestles Interstate 77/Southeastern Beltway, Gills Creek forms near the I-77 Bridge Eastover railroad trestle near confluence McCords Ferry Road, connecting Eastover and Saint Matthews List of South Carolina rivers Congaree National Park South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources South Carolina DHEC The River Alliance: Congaree River