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Richmond, California

Richmond is a city in western Contra Costa County, United States. The city has a city council. Located in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, Richmond borders the cities of San Pablo, Albany, El Cerrito and Pinole in addition to the unincorporated communities of North Richmond, Hasford Heights, Kensington, El Sobrante, Bayview-Montalvin Manor, Tara Hills, East Richmond Heights, for a short distance San Francisco on Red Rock Island in the San Francisco Bay. Richmond is one of two cities, the other being San Rafael, that sits on the shores of San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay simultaneously. During the mayoralty of Gayle McLaughlin, Richmond was the largest city in the United States served by a Green Party mayor; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city's population is at 103,710, making it the second largest city in the United States named Richmond; the largest, Virginia, is the namesake of the California city. The Ohlone were the first inhabitants of the Richmond area, settling an estimated 5,000 years ago.

They spoke the Chochenyo language, subsisted as hunter-gatherers and harvesters. The name "Richmond" appears to predate actual incorporation by more than fifty years. Edmund Randolph from Richmond, represented the city of San Francisco when California's first legislature met in San Jose in December 1849, he became state assemblyman from San Francisco, his loyalty to the town of his birth caused him to persuade a federal surveying party mapping the San Francisco Bay to place the names "Point Richmond" and "Richmond" on an 1854 geodetic coast map, the geodetic map at the terminal selected by the San Francisco and San Joaquin Valley Railroad. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad had its terminus at Richmond; the first post office opened in 1900. Richmond was founded and incorporated in 1905, carved out of Rancho San Pablo, from which the nearby town of San Pablo inherited its name; until the enactment of prohibition in 1919, the city had the largest winery in the world. Starting in 1917, continuing through the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan was active in the city.

In 1930 the Ford Motor Company opened an assembly plant called Richmond Assembly Plant which moved to Milpitas in 1956. The old Ford plant has been a National Historic Place since 1988, in 2004 was purchased by developer Eddie Orton and has been converted into an events center; the city was a small town at that time, until the onset of World War II brought a rush of migrants and a boom in the industrial sector. Standard Oil set up operations here in 1901, including what is now the Chevron Richmond Refinery and tank farm, which are still operated by Chevron. There is a pier into San Francisco Bay south of Point Molate for oil tankers; the western terminus of the Santa Fe Railroad was established in Richmond with ferry connections at Ferry Point in the Brickyard Cove area of Point Richmond to San Francisco. At the outset of World War II, the four Richmond Shipyards were built along the Richmond waterfront, employing thousands of workers, many recruited from all over the United States, including many African-Americans and women entering the workforce for the first time.

Many of these workers lived in specially constructed houses scattered throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, including Richmond and Albany. A specially built rail line, the Shipyard Railway, transported workers to the shipyards. Kaiser's Richmond shipyards built 747 Victory and Liberty ships for the war effort, more than any other site in the U. S; the city broke many records and built one Liberty ship in a record five days. On average the yards could build a ship in thirty days; the medical system established for the shipyard workers at the Richmond Field Hospital became today's Kaiser Permanente HMO. It remained in operation until 1993 when it was replaced by the modern Richmond Medical Center hospital, that has subsequently expanded to a large multiple building campus. Point Richmond was the commercial hub of the city, but a new downtown arose in the center of the city, it was populated by many department stores such as Kress, J. C. Penney, Macy's, Woolworth's. During the war the population increased and peaked at around 120,000 by the end of the war.

Once the war ended the shipyard workers were no longer needed, beginning a decades-long population decline. The census listed 99,545 residents in 1950. By 1960 much of the temporary housing built for the shipyard workers was torn down, the population dropped to about 71,000. Many of the people who moved to Richmond came from the Midwest and South. Most of the white men were overseas at war, this opened up new opportunities for ethnic minorities and women; this era brought with it the innovation of daycare for children, as a few women could care for several dozen women's children, while most of the mothers went off to work in the factories and shipyards. In the 1970s the Hilltop area, including a large shopping mall, was developed in the northern suburbs of the city. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the Richmond Parkway was built along the western industrial and northwestern parkland of the city connecting Interstates 80 and 580. In the early 1900s, the Santa Fe railroad established a major rail yard adjacent to Point Richmond.

The railroad constructed a tunnel through the Potrero San Pablo ridge to

Little Kern golden trout

The Little Kern golden trout is a brightly colored subspecies of rainbow trout native to the main stem and tributaries of the Little Kern River in Tulare County, California. Together with the California golden trout and the Kern River rainbow trout, the Little Kern golden trout forms what is sometimes referred to as the "golden trout complex" of the Kern River basin; the evolutionary relationships between salmonoids is a matter of ongoing discovery, there are different opinions about how specific populations should be grouped and named. The same can be said for the Little Kern golden trout, which has experienced several classification revisions since its first formal description; the Little Kern golden trout was first described as Salmo Whitei in 1906 by the biologist Barton Warren Evermann in his book... The Golden Trout of the Southern High Sierras. Everman had been sent to the Kern Plateau by Theodore Roosevelt, after Roosevelt's friend Stewart Edward White had expressed concern that the brightly colored trout of the region were at risk of being fished into extinction.

Everman named the fish in honor of White's role in its recognition. In 1989, morphological and genetic studies by Gerald Smith and Ralph Stearley indicated that trouts of the Pacific basin were genetically closer to Pacific salmon than to the Salmos. Furthermore, in 1992 the Little Kern golden trout was classified as a subspecies of rainbow trout by Robert J. Behnke; this led to the classification most accepted today. The Little Kern golden trout is a brightly colored fish with profuse black spots on the back and tail; the belly and cheeks are a bright orange to orange-red. The lower sides of the fish range from a light yellow to bright gold; the back is olive green. The pectoral and anal fins are orange with white tips. Unlike many varieties of rainbow trout, but similar to other redband trout and trout in the "golden trout complex", the Little Kern golden trout retain into adulthood up to ten parr marks along their sides. There is often an intermediate row of smaller parr marks occurring above and/or below the main row of parr marks.

Morphologically, the Little Kern golden trout sits somewhat in between the California golden trout and the typical coastal rainbow trout. Compared to the California golden trout, the brilliance of coloration in the Little Kern golden trout is a bit more subdued. Little Kern goldens tend to have more black spots along its back anterior to the caudal peduncle, onto its head in comparison to California golden trouts. Compared to coastal rainbow trout, Little Kern goldens tend to have fewer and rounder spots. Little Kern golden trout in their native small stream habitat exceed 12 inches in length and any fish exceeding 10 inches would be considered large. Little Kern golden trout occupied 100 miles of the Little Kern River and its tributaries above a natural waterfall barrier preceding its confluence with the main stem Kern River; as a result of hybridization with hatchery rainbow trout introduced into its watershed, the Little Kern golden trout as a distinct subspecies experienced a widespread contraction in its range.

By the 1960s it was limited to only about 8 miles of small headwater streams above three natural barriers. To address the problems of hybridization, planting of non-native trout ceased in the 1950s, the California Department of Fish and Game began surveys in 1965 to initiate restoration efforts. Allozyme electrophoretic analyses begun in 1976 at UC Davis identified, what they thought were six pure populations of Little Kern Golden Trout. Restoration efforts began in 1975 with the first rotenone treatments being used to kill off non-native fish in the historic habitat. After chemical treatments there was a period of restocking of treated waters with pure Little Kern golden trout raised at the Kern River Fish Hatchery near Kernville, California from broodstock collected in the six "pure" populations identified. Additional restoration efforts included construction of barriers to the upstream movement of non-native trout, habitat improvement of streams damaged by cattle grazing, public education, continued monitoring of fish populations, their genetic integrity, habitat conditions.

By 1996, restoration was believed to have been complete. Studies showed that one of the six populations used to form the Little Kern River golden trout broodstock, clustered genetically with California golden trout and rainbow trout instead of Little Kern golden trout; this study showed that one individual fish collected as broodstock from Deadman Creek genetically clustered with hatchery rainbow trout reference populations. This individual was inadvertently mixed with pure Little Kern Golden trout at the Kern River Fish Hatchery; the consequence of these two oversights meant that fish hybridized with rainbow trout and California golden trout were reintroduced back into Little Kern habitat. An additional shortfall of the recovery is that the broodstock populations all came from small headwater streams with small individual populations and low genetic diversity, it is that the original removal of hybridized fish from the Little Kern Basin removed some native Little Kern golden genetic diversity that now cannot be restored.

There is concern that the adaptability of the species has suffered as a result leading to an increased risk of extinction from disease or climate change. Furthermore, these populations are markedly divergent from each othe

Henry Archer

Henry Archer was the son of an Irish landowner and was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He was spent most of his time between North Wales and London. In railway circles, Archer is known for the Ffestiniog Railway, the major work of his life, a fiery temper, a large frame and an larger personality. A few recall his long running but fruitless championship of the various Porth Dinllaen railway and harbour projects; the Ffestiniog slate industry should be grateful to Henry Archer for being in the right place at the right time. It was at the Penygroes Inn in 1829 that Archer met Samuel Holland Jnr. of Rhiwbryfdir slate mine at Blaenau Ffestiniog, returning from Caernarfon where he banked with Williams and Co. He had travelled between Caernarfon and Penygroes as a passenger on the horse drawn Nantlle Tramway and had called at the Inn for a cup of tea before collecting his horse and riding home. In conversation, Archer expressed an interest in the Nantlle Railway, quietly seeking a purchaser. Holland, it is said, suggested that Archer should leave Nantlle to its fate and turn his energies to building a proper railway from Ffestiniog to Porthmadog.

A detailed discussion followed and Archer became involved with Holland in the promotion of the Ffestiniog Railway Company. It was left to Archer as the Managing Director designate to raise the initial capital of £24,185 on the Dublin Stock Exchange, he was the driving force in steering the bill through Parliament and in managing the company during construction and through its early years when Archer had to persuade a suspicious slate industry to entrust its slate transport to a railway. Archer quarrelled with his fellow directors, with the Oakeley Estate and with James Spooner and was less active in FR company affairs after the railway opened. In 1836 he received a substantial settlement. Nominally he remained as Managing Director until 1856 and as a director until 1860, when the FR Co. gave him a pension of £100 per annum as the originator of the FR and for devoting many years to its service. Philatelists know Henry Archer as the inventor of the first postage stamp perforating machine, which he patented in 1848, to facilitate stamp separation.

Following the successful Prince Consort Essay trials in 1853, he sold his copyright and patents to the Postmaster General for £4,000. In early trials, his alternative Archer Roulette machines failed to work well. Archer died in France in 1863. Boyd, J. I. C.. The Festiniog Railway, volume 1; the Oakwood Press. Lewis, M. J. T. Lewis. How Ffestiniog Got Its Railway; the Railway & Canal Historical Society. The Ffestiniog Railway Company's website