Richmond Hill, Ontario

Richmond Hill is a city in south-central York Region, Canada. Part of the Greater Toronto Area, it is the York Region's third most populous municipality and the 28th most populous municipality in Canada. Richmond Hill has seen significant population growth since the 1990s; the city is home to the David Dunlap Observatory telescope, the largest in Canada. The village of Richmond Hill was incorporated by a bylaw of the York County Council on June 18, 1872, coming into effect January 1, 1873. In September 1956, the Ontario Municipal Board approved its elevation to Town status, effective January 1, 1957; the Regional Municipality of York was established by Bill 102 An Act to Establish the Regional Municipality of York of the provincial parliament, passed on June 26, 1970 and coming into force on January 1, 1971. The act expanded Richmond Hill's borders, annexing parts of Whitchurch Township, Markham Township, Vaughan Township and King Township into Richmond Hill, expanding the area covered from 1,700 acres to 27,000 acres and the population from a little over 19,000 to some 34,000.

The town grew to encompass the communities of Gormley, Langstaff, Headford, Elgin Mills, Bond Lake, Lake Wilcox, Oak Ridges and Richvale. While Richmond Hill was a prosperous, well developed town, many of the outlying areas annexed were far more rural, with dirt roads, no water mains or sewers and no streetlights, the time needed to bring municipal services up in these areas, combined with residual unequal tax assessments caused considerable conflict in the municipal politics. Policing was taken over by the York Regional Police, but fire protection remained with Richmond Hill, whose firefighting force grew. Having hired its first full-time employee in 1967, it had fourteen full-time employees by 1971. Yonge Street through Richmond Hill expanded from two lanes to four in 1971, relieving congestion on what was known as "Ontario's worst stretch of highway"; the Richmond Hill Dynes Jewellers softball team was the 1972 Softball World Champions. The Royal Canadian Air Farce was recorded at the Curtain Club Theater in Richmond Hill for its first 5 seasons on radio, beginning in 1973.

The Air Farce returned for an anniversary recording in the 1990s. In 1973 was the centennial of the town's incorporation as a village, the town set up a number of celebratory activities, including a beard growing contest, commissioning a centennial song, a parade, a street dance and the unveiling of an historic plaque honoring the town's founding in front of the municipal offices. June 27 was declared Russell Lynett Day, named after the town's clerk, only the third in its existence. 1973 saw the sale of the last of the original rose-growing greenhouses in Richmond Hill. Development had led to increasing property taxes and the H. J. Mills greenhouses relocated to Elgin Mill Road; the site of the greenhouses was developed as a subdivision. The fast-growing town set aside significant areas for parks, with five new parks dedicated in 1973, two more in 1974; the Richmond Hill Historical Society was founded in 1973. The society was dedicated to preserving the history of Richmond Hill and raising awareness of the town's history.

Their first action was to restore a 150-year-old house, known as the Burr House. As the 1970s went on, the population growth of Richmond Hill remained large. In 1976, home prices in Richmond Hill were among the highest in Canada. By this time, the town council was split over; the deadlock over a fifty-five house subdivision named Springmills Estate led to one councilor saying that it was not the reform council it was dubbed, but a "deformed council". Other housing projects faced similar problems as councilors debated many things, including the need for affordable housing and the encroachment of homes into the farmland and the Oak Ridges Moraine. GO train service was extended to Richmond Hill in 1978 opened on April 29, 1978 by Bill Davis. Growth in Richmond Hill slowed towards the end of the 1970s, with M. L. McConaghy Public School closing in 1979 due to dropping enrollment. At the same time, Richmond Hill began to make official plans for future land development; the first official plan concerned a 700-acre industrial park at Leslie Street and Highway 7 named Beaver Creek.

A commercial area within the park spread into the hamlet of Dollar. The plan was rejected, however, by the Ontario Municipal Board, Richmond Hill was the first municipality in Ontario to have its official plan rejected outright by the board; the whole affair was subject to much controversy in the community, although the town council declined to appeal the decision. When the new council convened in 1980, led by new mayor Al Duffy, the town remained without a development plan; the council hired civic planner Peter Walker to produce a new official plan. By September 1981, the new plan was drafted, with limited development of northern Richmond Hill, industrial development centred in the south-east part of town and commercial centres remaining along Yonge Street; the plan was approved in July 1982 by the Ontario Municipal Board. A clash over the use of the land in Langstaff, known as the Langstaff Jail Farm erupted in 1982 between Richmond Hill and Toronto, which owned the land; the 632-acre plot of land had been acquired by Toronto in 1911, was unused in 1982.

Toronto's plans for development clashed with those of Richmond Hill over the balance of industry and residential development, with Richmond Hill favouring more industrial development. The rose business left Richmond Hill in June 1982, with the closure of H. J. Mills florists. Mills died in 1980, leaving the company to his son, but the poor eco

Eric Fowler

Eric Fowler is a former American football wide receiver who played for the Detroit Lions. He was signed by the Pittsburgh Steelers as an undrafted free agent in 2007, he played college football at Grand Valley State. Fowler was a member of the St. Louis Rams. Fowler attended New Haven High School in New Haven and was a student and a letterman in football. In football, after his junior and senior seasons, he won All-Southern Thumb Association honors and All-County honors. Eric Fowler graduated from New Haven High School in 2002. After being undrafted in the 2007 NFL Draft, Fowler signed with the Pittsburgh Steelers on May 9, 2007, he was released on August 27. Fowler was signed to the St. Louis Rams' practice squad on December 12, 2007, he was released on December 13, 2007. Fowler signed with the Detroit Lions on July 27, 2008, he was waived on July 30. He re-signed to the practice squad on August 31, he was released on November 19 and re-signed again on November 24. He was signed to the active roster on December 29.

Fowler was subsequently reverted to injured reserve. On November 4, 2009, Fowler was re-signed to the practice squad after the Lions released Taurus Johnson. Fowler was waived by the Lions on December 12 and added to the practice squad on December 15, he was promoted to the active roster again on December 24 when the team waived long snapper Nathan Hodel. Fowler was released by the Lions on August 30, 2010. Detroit Lions bio Grand Valley State Lakers bio Pittsburgh Steelers bio

Controversies surrounding the Society of Saint Pius X

There have been several controversies surrounding the Society of St. Pius X, many of which concern political support for non-democratic regimes, alleged antisemitism, the occupation of church buildings; the Society of St. Pius X is an international organisation founded in 1970 by the French traditionalist Catholic archbishop Marcel Lefebvre. There is an overlap in French society between the SSPX's constituency of support and support for reactionary political positions. In the French context, such positions include: Condemnation of the 1789 French Revolution and of the French Republic, accompanied by support for the restoration of the absolutist French monarchy. Archbishop Lefebvre vocally condemned the French Revolution, the ensuing dechristianization of France, Reign of Terror by the Jacobin Club; the Archbishop called the Revolution's principles "Masonic and Anti-Catholic". He expressed regret that the Classical Liberalism personified by the Revolution had entered "mitered heads," before and after Vatican II.

Lefebvre's close associate Fr. Paul Aulagnier, who has since left the SSPX and been reconciled with the Church hierarchy, was quoted in an SSPX periodical in 2001 as saying, while serving in Belgium: "I am pleased to be in Brussels – I who detest the republic and hate democracy." Support for the Vichy government. Lefebvre spoke approvingly of the "Catholic order of Pétain", referring to the Vichy Premier Marshal Philippe Pétain, convicted of treason and collaboration with Nazi Germany; the Society organises pilgrimages to Pétain's tomb, during the 1987 pilgrimage the Archbishop referred to him as having "restored spiritually and morally". The Society's official journal in Belgium has denounced the anti-Vichy trials conducted after World War II by the mainstream republican followers of Charles De Gaulle; the trials resulted in 791 executions and 50,000 forfeitures of civil rights. There have been allegations that the SSPX had links with the Vichy functionary Paul Touvier and that Vichy songs were learned at a scout camp of the Society.

Support for the Front National political party and its former leader, Jean-Marie le Pen, on the far right of the political spectrum. In 1985, Lefebvre was quoted in the French far-right periodical Présent as endorsing Jean-Marie Le Pen, though his endorsement was made on the basis that Le Pen was the only major French politician who unambiguously condemned abortion. In 1991, the SSPX priest Fr. Philippe Laguérie called the Front National "the party least removed from the natural law". Archbishop Lefebvre's first biographer, the English traditionalist writer Michael Davies, wrote in the first volume of his Apologia Pro Marcel Lefebvre: In France political feeling tends to be more polarized, more extreme, far more felt than in England.... Since the war, since Vatican II, the official French Church has veered to the left.... Thus, a large proportion of right-wing Catholics was predisposed to support any religious movement opposed to the policies of the French hierarchy; the political views of some of the French Catholics who support the Archbishop would be odious to many English-speaking traditionalists – although such views are more understandable within the French context.

However, if they wish to support the Archbishop there is nothing he can do about it.... The French hierarchy has replaced social teaching with diluted Marxism to such an extent that anyone adopting the Catholic position is now automatically accused of fascism. In 1977, a group of SSPX priests and laypeople led by Monsignor François Ducaud-Bourget entered the parish church of St Nicolas du Chardonnet in central Paris and celebrated Mass, they subsequently refused to leave, the church remains in the possession of the SSPX to this day. The various French municipal authorities have had ownership of the older churches in France since the enactment of the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, though the buildings are permitted to be used by the appropriate religious denominations. Ducaud-Bourget maintained that the Traditionalist Catholics represented by the SSPX were the true heirs of the Catholics of 1905. Although the occupation was declared illegal by the French courts, the authorities reached the conclusion that, by comparison with forcibly evicting the SSPX, the continuing occupation would cause less disturbance to public order.

An SSPX attempt in 1993 to occupy another church in Paris, that of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, was unsuccessful. The views of Bishop Williamson have been a particular source of controversy. For example, the bishop has written: However, until they re-discover their true Messianic vocation, they may be expected to continue fanatically agitating, in accordance with their false messianic vocation of Jewish world-dominion, to prepare the Anti-Christ's throne in Jerusalem. So we may fear their continuing to play their major part in the agitation of the East and in the corruption of the West. Here the wise Catholic will remember that, the ex-Christian nations have only their own Liberalism to blame for allowing free circulation within Christendom to the enemies of Christ. In an interview with Swedish Television in November 2008, whose broadcast on 21 January 2009, the date on which the Holy See lifted the excommunication of the four SSPX bishops, gained wide publicity, Williamson repeated his opinion that the accepted history of the Holocaust is wrong.

He accepted an estimate of only 200,000-300,000 Jews who perished in Nazi concentration camps, denied that any were killed in gas chambers. Subsequently, former SSPX seminarians have come forward with additional infor