Brickyard Cove Pond
Brickyard Cove Pond is a small lake in the Brickyard Cove District of Richmond, California. It was formed from quarrying of Nicholl's Knob the surrounding hill, it is fed by a series of underground springs. Before the early 19th Century it was a swimming pond for local boys who went skinny dipping at the lake; however this ceased. List of lakes in California List of lakes in the San Francisco Bay Area
Richmond is a city in western Contra Costa County, United States. The city was incorporated on August 7, 1905. Located in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, Richmond borders the cities of San Pablo, Albany, El Cerrito and Pinole in addition to the unincorporated communities of North Richmond, Hasford Heights, Kensington, El Sobrante, Bayview-Montalvin Manor, Tara Hills, East Richmond Heights, for a short distance San Francisco on Red Rock Island in the San Francisco Bay. Richmond is one of two cities, the other being San Rafael, that sits on the shores of San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay simultaneously. Under the McLaughlin Administration, Richmond was the largest city in the United States served by a Green Party mayor; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city's population is at 103,710, making it the second largest city in the United States named Richmond; the largest, Virginia, is the namesake of the California city. The Ohlone were the first inhabitants of the Richmond area, settling an estimated 5,000 years ago.
They spoke the Chochenyo language, subsisted as hunter-gatherers and harvesters. The name "Richmond" appears to predate actual incorporation by more than fifty years. Edmund Randolph from Richmond, represented the city of San Francisco when California's first legislature met in San Jose in December 1849, he became state assemblyman from San Francisco, his loyalty to the town of his birth caused him to persuade a federal surveying party mapping the San Francisco Bay to place the names "Point Richmond" and "Richmond" on an 1854 geodetic coast map, the geodetic map at the terminal selected by the San Francisco and San Joaquin Valley Railroad. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad had its terminus at Richmond; the first post office opened in 1900. Richmond was founded and incorporated in 1905, carved out of Rancho San Pablo, from which the nearby town of San Pablo inherited its name; until the enactment of prohibition in 1919, the city had the largest winery in the world. Starting in 1917, continuing through the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan was active in the city.
In 1930 the Ford Motor Company opened an assembly plant called Richmond Assembly Plant which moved to Milpitas in 1956. The old Ford plant has been a National Historic Place since 1988, in 2004 was purchased by developer Eddie Orton and has been converted into an events center; the city was a small town at that time, until the onset of World War II brought a rush of migrants and a boom in the industrial sector. Standard Oil set up operations here in 1901, including what is now the Chevron Richmond Refinery and tank farm, which are still operated by Chevron. There is a pier into San Francisco Bay south of Point Molate for oil tankers; the western terminus of the Santa Fe Railroad was established in Richmond with ferry connections at Ferry Point in the Brickyard Cove area of Point Richmond to San Francisco. At the outset of World War II, the four Richmond Shipyards were built along the Richmond waterfront, employing thousands of workers, many recruited from all over the United States, including many African-Americans and women entering the workforce for the first time.
Many of these workers lived in specially constructed houses scattered throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, including Richmond and Albany. A specially built rail line, the Shipyard Railway, transported workers to the shipyards. Kaiser's Richmond shipyards built 747 Victory and Liberty ships for the war effort, more than any other site in the U. S; the city broke many records and built one Liberty ship in a record five days. On average the yards could build a ship in thirty days; the medical system established for the shipyard workers at the Richmond Field Hospital became today's Kaiser Permanente HMO. It remained in operation until 1993 when it was replaced by the modern Richmond Medical Center hospital, that has subsequently expanded to a large multiple building campus. Point Richmond was the commercial hub of the city, but a new downtown arose in the center of the city, it was populated by many department stores such as Kress, J. C. Penney, Macy's, Woolworth's. During the war the population increased and peaked at around 120,000 by the end of the war.
Once the war ended the shipyard workers were no longer needed, beginning a decades-long population decline. The Census listed 99,545 residents in 1950. By 1960 much of the temporary housing built for the shipyard workers was torn down, the population dropped to about 71,000. Many of the people who moved to Richmond came from the Midwest and South. Most of the white men were overseas at war, this opened up new opportunities for ethnic minorities and women; this era brought with it the innovation of daycare for children, as a few women could care for several dozen women's children, while most of the mothers went off to work in the factories and shipyards. In the 1970s the Hilltop area, including a large shopping mall, was developed in the northern suburbs of the city. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the Richmond Parkway was built along the western industrial and northwestern parkland of the city connecting Interstates 80 and 580. In the early 1900s, the Santa Fe railroad established a major rail yard adjacent to Point Richmond.
The railroad constructed a tunnel through the Potrero San Pablo ridge to run a track from their yard
Contra Costa County, California
Contra Costa County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,049,025; the county seat is Martinez. It occupies the northern portion of the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, is suburban; the county's name is Spanish for "opposite coast", referring to its position on the other side of the bay from San Francisco. Contra Costa County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In prehistoric times the Miocene epoch, portions of the landforms now in the area were populated by a wide range of now extinct mammals, known in modern times by the fossil remains excavated in the southern part of the county. In the northern part of the county, significant coal and sand deposits were formed in earlier geologic eras. Other areas of the county have ridges exposing ancient but intact seashells, embedded in sandstone layers alternating with limestone. Layers of volcanic ash ejected from geologically recent but now extinct volcanoes and now tilted by compressive forces, may be seen at the site of some road excavations.
This county is an agglomeration of several distinct geologic terranes, as is most of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, one of the most geologically complex regions in the world. The great local mountain Mount Diablo has been formed and continues to be elevated by compressive forces resulting from the action of plate tectonics and at its upper reaches presents ancient seabed rocks scraped from distant oceanic sedimentation locations and accumulated and lifted by these great forces. Younger deposits at middle altitudes include pillow lavas, the product of undersea volcanic eruptions. There is an extensive but little recorded human history pre-European settlement in this area, with the present county containing portions of regions populated by a number of Native American tribes; the earliest definitively established occupation by modern man appears to have occurred six to ten thousand years ago. However, there may have been human presence far earlier, at least as far as non–settling populations are concerned.
The known settled populations were hunter-gatherer societies that had no knowledge of metals and that produced utilitarian crafts for everyday use of the highest quality and with graphic embellishments of great aesthetic appeal. Extensive trading from tribe to tribe transferred exotic materials such as obsidian throughout the region from far distant Californian tribes. Unlike the nomadic Native American of the Great Plains it appears that these tribes did not incorporate warfare into their culture but were instead cooperative. Within these cultures the concept of individual or collective land ownership was nonexistent. Early European settlers in the region, did not record much about the culture of the natives. Most of what is known culturally comes from preserved contemporaneous and excavated artifacts and from inter-generational knowledge passed down through northerly outlying tribes of the larger region. Early interaction of these Native Americans with Europeans came with the Spanish colonization via the establishment of missions in this area, with the missions in San Jose and San Francisco and the establishment of a Presidio in 1776.
Although there were no missions established within this county, Spanish influence here was direct and extensive, through the establishment of land grants from the King of Spain to favored settlers. In 1821 Mexico gained independence from Spain. While little changed in ranchero life, the Mexican War of Independence resulted in the secularization of the missions with the re-distribution of their lands, a new system of land grants under the Mexican Federal Law of 1824. Mission lands extended including portions of Contra Costa County. Between 1836 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 15 land grants were made in Contra Costa County; the smallest unit was one square league, or about seven square miles, or 4,400 acres, maximum to one individual was eleven leagues, or 48,400 acres, including no more than 4,428 acres of irrigable land. Rough surveying was based on a map, or diseño, measured by streams, and/or horseman who marked it with rope and stakes.
Lands outside rancho grants were designated el sobrante, as in surplus or excess, considered common lands. The law required the construction of a house within a year. Fences were forbidden where they might interfere with roads or trails. Locally a large family required 2000 head of cattle and two square leagues of land to live comfortably. Foreign entrepreneurs came to the area to provide goods that Mexico couldn’t, trading ships were taxed. Rancho Canada de los Vaqueros was granted to Francisco Alviso, Antonio Higuera, Manuel Miranda. Two ranchos, both called Rancho San Ramon, were granted by the Mexican government in the San Ramon Valley. In 1833, Bartolome Pacheco and Mariano Castro shared the two square league Rancho San Ramon. Jose Maria Amador was granted a four square league Rancho San Ramon in 1834. In 1834 Rancho Monte del Diablo was confirmed with 17,921 acres to Salvio Pacheco; the Pacheco family settled at the Rancho in 1846. The boundary lines w
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Cruz. Home to 7.68 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns and associated regional and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes twelve counties, is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 8.75 million people.
The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example half of the region's residents are Hispanic, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 3000 BC. In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento.
A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco ended the U. S.'s war with Japan. Since the Bay Area has experienced numerous political and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $800 billion, home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, supporting a number of endangered species.
The region is known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes; the climate is temperate and very mild, is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. The Bay Area is host to seven professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music and the arts, it is host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area is multifaceted and involves numerous local and regional actors, each with wide-ranging and overlapping responsibilities; the borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not delineated, the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area.
Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U. S. city-region is as definitionally challenged."When the region began to develop during and after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties. Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. Various U. S. Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition.
For example, the Federal Communications Commission which regulates broadcast and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oaklan
San Pablo Creek
San Pablo Creek is an 18.7-mile-long creek in Contra Costa County, United States, which drains the canyon or valley between the San Pablo Ridge and the Sobrante Ridge, parts of the Pacific Coast Ranges east of San Francisco Bay. The creek runs from the southeast to the northwest, originating near Orinda and flowing into San Pablo Bay, it drains one of the largest watersheds in the East Bay. The creek has 34 named tributaries; the creek was dammed in 1919. Briones Reservoir, constructed in 1964, dams the Bear Creek tributary. San Pablo Reservoir splits the creek in two, with about half of the creek and its related feeder creeks on either side of the artificial lake; the East Bay Municipal Utility District gets less than 10% of its water from the creek. The tributaries are as follows: Appian Creek, Baden Creek, Barn Creek, Bear Creek, Big Oak Creek, Briones Reservoir, Cascade Creek, Castro Creek, Coal Mine Creek, Clark Creek, Dutra Creek, El Toyonal Creek, Greenridge Creek, Inspiration Creek, Kennedy Creek, La Colina Creek, Lauterwasser Creek, Leastrot Creek, Lila Creek, Miner Creek, Newell Creek, Oak Creek, Oursan Creek, Overhill Creek, Rose Creek, Russel Creek, San Pablo Reservoir, Sather Creek, Schoolhouse Creek, Siesta Valley Creek, Tarry Creek, Tin House Creek, Wagner Creek, Wilkie Creek and Wire Ranch Creek.
The creek is helped by many community organizations. The city of San Pablo has organized cleanups; the San Pablo Watershed Neighbors Education and Resources Society goes further than just garbage and weed cleanups and includes restoration efforts and watershed studies. SPAWNERS has built and maintained a creek bank restoration site and California native plant demonstration gardens at the El Sobrante Library adjacent to downtown El Sobrante since 2000. SPAWNERS maintains a creek re-vegetation site at the El Sobrante Boys and Girls Club as well as an outdoor classroom project along Wilkie Creek behind De Anza High School; the damming of the creek has limited threatened steelhead spawning sites but has allowed it to continue to survive there. Native Ohlone shell mounds were once found along the creek near San Pablo Bay. San Pablo Creek's delta, located within the city limits of Richmond, is known as San Pablo Creek Marsh, its 300 acres are filled with an abundance of wildlife, including endangered species such as the California clapper rail, the salt marsh harvest mouse, the threatened black rail, the salt marsh wandering shrew, the San Pablo vole.
Other animals present are the shy salt marsh harvest sparrows which live in the sloughs, while salt marsh yellow throats live among the willows that grow along the transition between fresh creek water and salty bay water. The San Pablo Canyon through which the creek flows was in the early 19th century an open grazing area shared by adjoining Mexican ranch owners. In the latter years of the 19th century, a narrow gauge railroad, the California and Nevada, ran down the canyon as far as Orinda; the company intended to construct their line past Orinda all the way to the mining districts of Nevada, but the railroad was plagued by washouts in the canyon every winter, was relegated to serving weekend picnickers traveling from the cities on San Francisco Bay. The line through the canyon was abandoned upon the acquisition of the California and Nevada by the Santa Fe Railroad. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area San Pablo Creek -- Guide to San Francisco Bay Area Creeks SPAWNERS, San Pablo Watershed Neighbors Education and Resources Society.
Creek Walkthorugh with many images
San Pablo Reservoir
The San Pablo Reservoir is an open cut terminal water storage reservoir owned and operated by the East Bay Municipal Utility District. It is located in the valley of San Pablo Creek, north of Orinda, United States, south of El Sobrante and Richmond, east of the Berkeley Hills between San Pablo Ridge and Sobrante Ridge; the earthen San Pablo Dam, built in 1919, is located at the El Sobrante end of the reservoir, above Kennedy Grove. The reservoir has a watershed of 23.37 square miles. A water tunnel runs under the hills to the west from the reservoir to a pumping plant in Kensington; the San Pablo Dam Road runs along the west side of the reservoir. EBMUD's Briones Reservoir is in the hills southeast of the San Pablo Reservoir and drains into the reservoir. Although the dam impounds the waters of San Pablo Creek, the great bulk of its water is imported via the Mokelumne Aqueduct from Pardee Reservoir located over a hundred miles to the east in the Sierra Nevada foothills. EBMUD owns and maintains the San Pablo Reservoir Recreation Area, which consists of boating and fishing access to the reservoir itself, some watershed land on the west side of the reservoir.
EBMUD charges $7 for daily entrance into the park. The recreation area is managed under contract by Urban Parks Concessionaires and includes a restaurant and gift shop, where fishing permits can be purchased and boats can be rented. There are a children's play area and a boat launch ramp; because this reservoir is a storage facility for drinking water and wading are prohibited. Fishing and canoeing are allowed. However, to reduce the possibility of gasoline components in the reservoir, only four-cycle engines using MTBE-free gasoline are allowed. There is a 5 1⁄2 miles biking trail along the west side of the reservoir. Most of this trail is on the Old San Pablo Dam Road, replaced in the 1950s by the current San Pablo Dam Road, it is not possible to circumnavigate the reservoir on hiking trails. While there are trails on the east side of the reservoir to accommodate a circumnavigation, they are off-limits to people with EBMUD Trail Permits, the roadway on top of San Pablo Dam proper is restricted.
Many anglers fish on the reservoir for smallmouth bass, white sturgeon and crappie, along with the planted trout and catfish. The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in the San Pablo Reservoir based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in local species. San Pablo Reservoir was the potential venue for the rowing and canoe races in the case that San Francisco would host the 2024 Summer Olympics; this would not have been the first time. Since May 2015, the Oakland Strokes have organized the USRowing Southwest Masters Regional Championships on San Pablo. In October 2004, a study commissioned by EBMUD concluded that a major earthquake on the Hayward Fault could cause the San Pablo Dam to settle as much as 35 feet; as a short-term measure, the district lowered the reservoir level by 20 feet to create a 35-foot buffer. The dam was seismically retrofitted without going out of commission by mixing concrete into the soil at the toe of the dam.
A new buttress layer has been added above that on the downstream side of the dam. Construction began in August 2008 and was completed in September 2010. List of lakes in the San Francisco Bay Area EBMUD San Pablo Recreation Area website UPC San Pablo Recreation Area website EBMUD website "EBMUD Trail Map North". U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Pablo Reservoir
Richmond Long Wharf
The Richmond Long Wharf is a major tanker terminal and port facility in Richmond, California. The terminal receives petroleum, oil and other petro-chemical imports destined for the Chevron Richmond Refinery and other installations, it is located in the Point Richmond neighborhood. Chevron has cited the sensitivity of the general area in stonewalling attempts to complete the Bay Trail between Point Richmond and the Point Molate Area