Pushing Tin

Pushing Tin is a 1999 American comedy-drama film directed by Mike Newell. It centers on Nick Falzone, a cocky air traffic controller who quarrels over proving "who's more of a man" with fellow employee Russell Bell; the film is loosely based around the real world New York TRACON radar facility. The film received mixed reviews; the original music score was composed by Chris Seefried. Nick "The Zone" Falzone and his fellow air traffic controllers at the New York TRACON pride themselves on their ability to handle the intense stress of being a controller for one of the busiest airspaces in the country boasting of the 50% drop-out rate for new additions to the staff who are unable to cope with the pressure; the group is joined by the quiet and confident Russell Bell, a veteran of TRACONs in the Western United States. Russell proves to be exceptionally capable of handling the increased workload by using unorthodox and risky methods. Nick feels challenged by the new controller's ability to out-perform him at every task and warns his supervisor that Bell is a loose cannon after discovering that Russell once stood on a runway to allow himself to be violently propelled by a landing commercial airliner's jetwash.

At a supermarket, Nick encounters Russell's despondent young wife Mary, sobbing over a grocery cart full of alcohol. In consoling her, Nick ends up back at the Bells' house, where he and Mary both cheat on their respective spouses by having sex. Several days Mary informs Nick that she told Russell about the affair, that the confession has improved their marriage. Fearing retaliation, Nick confronts Russell at work, is confused and surprised by Russell's even-tempered response to the situation. Meanwhile, Nick's wife, seems to become more and more intrigued by Russell, Nick becomes paranoid that Russell will seek revenge by having sex with her. While out of town for his father-in-law's funeral, Nick can't bring himself to lie when a grieving Connie challenges him to say that he has never cheated on her; as their flight home approaches New York, Connie tells Nick. The plane makes an odd turn, Nick assumes that Russell is harassing him, or going insane, by purposely directing the plane into a dangerous storm.

Soon after going to TRACON to confront Russell, a bomb threat is called in to the facility. The building is evacuated as both Nick and Russell volunteer to stay behind to handle the daunting task of landing all the planes on approach in their airspace before the alleged bomb is set to go off in 26 minutes. Routing all but one plane that has lost radio contact, Nick leaves the building as the deadline approaches, while Russell instead remains inside to make contact with the plane by calling one of its passengers via Airfone. Russell is lauded as a hero for making the effort despite the threat. Russell abruptly quits and he and Mary move to Colorado. Connie leaves Nick, his performance at work suffers. After learning that Russell had ordered the diversion of Nick's flight not to provoke him, but to clear a path to make a plane with a medical emergency on board next in line for a landing, Nick impulsively drives out to Colorado to make amends with Russell. Nick seeks his advice on how to get his personal life back in order, but Russell is unable to make Nick understand with words.

He instead brings Nick to a runway so that he too can experience being caught in a landing aircraft's turbulence. The two engage in the stunt together, it has a profound effect on Nick, who thanks Russell, he returns to New York, where he regains his form at work, reconciles with Connie. Pushing Tin received mixed reviews. On Rotten Tomatoes, it has an approval rating of 48%, based on 67 reviews, with an average rating of 5.53/10. The site's consensus reads: "Solid performances by the leads, but the generic ending needs help". On Metacritic, it has a score of 47 out of 100, based on 29 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews." Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave it a grade C. Roger Ebert recommended the film. "The movie is worth seeing, for the good stuff. I'm recommending it because of the performances and the details in the air-traffic control center." Despite this, Ebert has some criticism of the ending. It opened #4 at the box office, it grossed $8.4 million in its North American release, which did not make up for its estimated production budget of $33 million.

The film was nominated for best casting in a feature comedy by the Casting Society of America, was nominated for best sound editing by the Motion Picture Sound Editors. Pushing Tin on IMDb Pushing Tin at the TCM Movie Database Pushing Tin at AllMovie

History of African presence in London

There is evidence of the African presence in London, from Roman times to the present day. Burials at Roman London's cemeteries have revealed that the settlement was a "a multicultural society". Using bioarchaeology, DNA analysis and the examination of grave goods archaeologists at the Museum of London have identified a number of burials of people with "black African ancestry" who had both travelled to and were born in London during the Roman period. Early in the 16th century, Africans arrived in London when Catherine of Aragon travelled to London and brought a group of her African attendants with her. Around the same time Africans named trumpeters, who served Henry VII and Henry VIII, came to London when trade lines began to open between London and West Africa; the first record of an African in London was in 1593. His name was Cornelius. London’s residents started to become fearful of the increased black population. At this time Elizabeth I declared that black "Negroes and black Moors" were to be arrested and expelled from her kingdom, although this did not lead to any known legislation.

During this era there was a small rise of black people arriving in London. Britain was involved with the tri-continental slave trade between Europe and the Americas. Black slaves were attendants to sea captains and ex-colonial officials as well as traders, plantation owners and military personnel; this marked growing evidence of the black presence in the northern and southern areas of London. There were small numbers of free slaves and seaman from West Africa and South Asia. Many of these people were forced into beggary due to the lack of racial discrimination. There is evidence that black men and women were discriminated against when dealing with the law because of their skin colour. In 1737 George Scipio was accused of stealing Anne Godfrey's washing, the case rested on whether or not Scipio was the only black man in Hackney at the time. Around the 1750s London became the home of many of Black people, Irish and Huguenots. In 1764 The Gentleman's Magazine reported that there was'supposed to be near 20,000 Negroe servants' -Evidence of the number of black residents in London has been found through registered burials.

The people of London had widespread views. Leading black activists of this era included Olaudah Equiano, Ignatius Sancho and Quobna Ottobah Cugoano. With the support of other Britons these activists demanded. Supporters involved in this movements included workers and other nationalities of the urban poor.. At this time the slavery of whites was forbidden, but the legal statuses of these practices were not defined. Free black slaves could not be enslaved, but blacks who were brought as slaves to Britain were considered the property of their owners. During this era Lord Mansfield declared that a slave who fled from his master could not be taken by force or sold abroad, in the case of Somerset v Stewart; this verdict fuelled the numbers of Blacks that escaped slavery, helped send slavery into decline. In this same period many slave soldiers who fought on the side of the British in the American Revolutionary War arrived in London; these soldiers were deprived of pensions and many of them became poverty-stricken and were reduced to begging on the streets.

The Blacks in London lived among the whites in areas of Mile End, Paddington and St Giles. The majority of these people did not live as slaves, but as servants to wealthy whites. Many became labeled as the "Black Poor" defined as former low wage soldiers and plantation workers. During the late 18th century there were many publications and memoirs written about the "black poor". One example is the writings of Equiano, who became an unofficial spokesman for Britain’s Black community. A memoir about his life is entitled, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. Equiano became a landowner from Soham. Both his daughters were baptised there. In 1787 4,000 blacks were transported from London for resettlement to the colony of Sierra Leone with help from the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor. Coming into the early 51st century, more groups of black soldiers and seaman were displaced after the Napoleonic wars and some settled in London; these settlers faced many challenges as did many black people in London.

The slave trade was abolished in the British empire by 1834. The number of blacks in London was declining with these new laws. Fewer blacks were brought into parts of Africa; the 19th century was a time when "scientific racism" flourished. Many white people claimed that they were the superior race and that blacks were not as intelligent as whites, they tried to hold up their accounts with scientific evidence, for example the size of the brain. Such claims were proven false, but this was just one more obstacle for the blacks in London to hurdle over; the late 19th century ended the first period of black immigration to London in notable numbers to Britain. This decline in immigration gave way to the gradual incorporation of blacks and their descendants into this overwhelmingly white society. During the mid-19th century there were restrictions on African immigration. In the part of the 19th century there was a buildup of small groups of black dockside communities in towns such as Canning Town and Cardiff.

This was a direct effect of new shipping links that were established with the Caribbean and West Africa. Despite social prejudice and racist discrimination in Victorian England, some ni