Norstedts Förlag is a book publishing company in Sweden. Norstedt's is one of the largest in the country, it was founded in 1823 under the name P. A. Norstedt & Söner; the publishing company began by Per Adolf Norstedt purchasing J. P. Lindh's widow's printing company in 1821; this company had its roots in the Royal Printing firm, founded in 1526. Per Adolf Norstedt brought his sons Carl and Adolf into the business in 1823, the company took the name of P. A. Norstedt & Söner; the company became responsible for Royal publications ten years later. As neither son had an heir, the company was administered by Emilia Nostedt, a niece of Per Adolf, married to the wholesaler Gustaf Philip Laurin. After his passing, the company was managed by their sons Gösta Laurin, Carl Laurin and Albert Laurin. Carl Laurin, a civil engineer, developed the company's technical and printing capabilities and was the chief financial officer. Norstedt's Publishing Group consists of Norstedts, which publishes both fiction and non-fiction, since 1998, Rabén & Sjögren, which publishes children's books.
Several publishers such as Prisma, Nautiska Förlaget, Norstedts Akademiska, Eriksson & Lindgren and Gammafon, that joined the group through mergers, etc, operated under their own names until 2009. Some earlier trading names, such as AWE / Gebers and PAN, are now defunct; the Group has over 100 employees, published about 400 books in 2013 and has an annual turnover of approx 40 000 EUR. It is the owner and part-owner of a number of book clubs. Norstedt's Publishing Group was owned by the Cooperative Association, until June 2016 when Storytel, a digital subscription service acquired the Norstedts Publishing Group for 152 million SEK on 22 June 2016; the publishing house is based at Norstedtshuset at Riddarholmen in central Stockholm. Otto Sjöberg is the CEO since 1 August 2014. Swedish-language writers published by Norstedts Publishing Group include Hjalmar Gullberg, Maria Lang, Stig Dagerman, Birgitta Stenberg, Pär Rådström, Elsa Grave, Ingmar Bergman, Per Olov Enquist, Agneta Pleijel, Torgny Lindgren, Astrid Lindgren, Barbro Lindgren, August Strindberg, Henning Mankell, Sigrid Combüchen, Anders Ehnmark, Mikael Niemi, Majgull Axelsson, Torbjörn Flygt, Carl Henning Wijkmark, Jonas Hassen Khemiri, Frans G. Bengtsson, Kjell Espmark, Per Odensten, Jonas Gardell, Stieg Larsson.
Foreign authors include Nobel Prize laureates Mario Vargas Llosa, Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio, Orhan Pamuk, Imre Kertész and Bob Dylan. Other authors include Graham Greene, EL James, Michael Connelly, Suzanne Brøgger, J. R. R. Tolkien, Isabel Allende and J. K. Rowling. Official website
Magnus III of Sweden
Magnus III was King of Sweden from 1275 until his death in 1290. He was the "first Magnus" to rule Sweden for any length of time, not regarded as a usurper or a pretender. Historians ascribe his epithet "Ladulås" – Barnlock – to a royal decree of 1279 or 1280 freeing the yeomanry from the duty to provide sustenance for travelling nobles and bishops; this king has been referred to as Magnus I, but, not recognized by any Swedish historians today. Magnus, whose birth year has never been confirmed in modern times, was the second son of Birger Jarl and Princess Ingeborg, herself the sister of the childless King Eric XI and daughter of King Eric X. Thus, Valdemar Birgersson was the eldest son and ruled as Valdemar, King of Sweden from 1250-1275, succeeding King Eric, their maternal uncle who ruled until 1250. Birger Jarl had designated Magnus as Jarl, henceforth titled Duke of Sweden, as Valdemar's successor. After Valdemar's coming of age in 1257, Birger Jarl kept his grip over the country. After Birger's death in 1266 Valdemar came into conflict with Magnus who wanted the throne for himself.
In 1275, Duke Magnus started a rebellion against his brother with Danish help, ousted him from the throne. Valdemar was deposed by Magnus after the Battle of Hova in the forest of Tiveden on June 14, 1275. Magnus was elected king at the Stones of Mora. In 1276, Magnus married a second wife Helwig, daughter of Gerard I of Holstein. Through her mother, Elizabeth of Mecklenburg, Helwig was a descendant of Christina, the putative daughter of King Sverker II. A papal annulment of Magnus' alleged first marriage and a dispensation for the second were issued ten years in 1286. Haelwig acted as regent 1290–1302 and 1320–1327; the deposed King Valdemar managed, with Danish help in turn, to regain provinces in Gothenland in the southern part of the kingdom, Magnus had to recognize that in 1277. However, Magnus regained them about 1278 and assumed the additional title rex Gothorum, King of the Goths, starting the tradition of "King of the Swedes and the Goths". King Magnus's youngest brother, Benedict archdeacon, acted as his Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, in 1284 Magnus rewarded him with the Duchy of Finland.
Magnus died. Magnus ordered his kinsman Thurchetel Canuteson, the Lord High Constable of Sweden as the guardian of his heir, the future King Birger, about ten years old at father's death. In spring 2011, archaeologists and osteologists from the University of Stockholm were given permission to open one of the royal graves in Riddarholm Church in order to study the remains of what was presumed to be Magnus Ladulås and some of his relatives. SVT broadcast a presentation of the preliminary studies. Carbon-14 tests dated the bones to the 15th century, indicating the remains could not be those of the king and his family. In December 2011, the researchers applied for permission to open the neighbouring sarcophagus, which has hitherto been presumed to contain the bones of a king, Charles VIII. From his alleged first marriage to an unknown woman: Eric Magnusson From his second marriage to Helwig of Holstein: Ingiburga Magnusdotter of Sweden. Birger, King of Sweden Eric Magnuson, Duke of Sudermannia in 1302 and Halland etc.
C 1305, born c. 1282. Died of starvation in 1318 at Nyköpingshus Castle while imprisoned by his brother King Birger. Waldemar Magnuson, Duke of Finland in 1302 and Öland 1310. Died of starvation 1318 at Nyköpingshus Castle while imprisoned by his brother, King Birger. Richeza Magnusdotter of Sweden, Abbess of the convent of St. Clare's Priory, Stockholm
Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden
The Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden is the supreme court and the third and final tier for administrative court cases in Sweden, is located in Stockholm. It has a parallel status to that of the Supreme Court of Sweden, the supreme court for criminal and civil law cases, it hears cases which have been decided by one of the four Administrative courts of appeal, which represent the second tier for administrative court cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided, a leave to appeal must be obtained, only granted when the case is of interest as a precedent; the bulk of its caseload consist of taxation and social security cases. Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court are appointed by government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. By law, there shall be fourteen Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court or such a higher a number as may be required, at the government's discretion; as of 2009, there were eighteen Justices in the court.
One of the Justices serves as president and head of the court, is appointed by the government to this function. Since 3 January 2011, Justice Mats Melin serves as the court's president. In total the court has 100 employees; the court was founded in 1909. Before that, the Supreme Court of Sweden handed administrative court matters as well. From 1972 until 2009, the Supreme Administrative Court resided in the Stenbock Palace on the Riddarholmen islet in central Stockholm. Since 2011 the court sits in the Sparre Palace on Riddarholmen. Courts of Sweden: The Supreme Administrative Court
Riddarholm Church is the church of a former medieval abbey in Stockholm, Sweden. The church serves as the final resting place of most Swedish monarchs. Riddarholm Church is located on the island of Riddarholmen, close to the Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden; the congregation was dissolved in 1807 and today the church is used only for burial and commemorative purposes. Swedish monarchs from Gustavus Adolphus to Gustaf V are entombed here, as well as the earlier monarchs Magnus III and Charles VIII, it has been discontinued as a royal burial site in favor of the Royal Cemetery and today is run by departments of the Swedish Government and Royal Court. It is one of the oldest buildings in Stockholm, parts of it dating to the late-13th century, when it was built as a greyfriars monastery. After the Protestant Reformation, the monastery was closed and the building transformed into a Protestant church. A spire designed by Flemish architect Willem Boy was added during the reign of John III, but it was destroyed by a lightning strike on July 28, 1835 after which it was replaced with the present cast iron spire.
Coats of arms of knights of the Royal Order of the Seraphim are on the walls of the church. When a knight of the Order dies, his coat of arms is hung in the church and when the funeral takes place the church's bells are rung without pause from 12:00 to 13:00. Gamla stan Storkyrkan The Riddarholm Church at the Royal Court's website
Geography of Stockholm
The City of Stockholm is situated on fourteen islands and on the banks to the archipelago where Lake Mälaren meets the Baltic Sea. The city centre is situated on the water; the area of Stockholm is one of several places in Sweden with a joint valley terrain. In these landscapes erosion along geological joints has split the flattish upper surfaces into low-lying plateaus. In the case of Stockholm the plateau surfaces are remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain; the access to fresh water is excellent in Stockholm today, in contrast to the horrible state of things, when lakes and watercourses were used as refuse dumps and latrines, causing epidemic cholera and many other diseases. By the 1860s things changed, as water fetched from Årstaviken, the waters south of Södermalm, was treated in the first water-purifying plant at Skanstull and from there distributed through water mains. In modern times the city gets its water from Lake Mälaren purified by plants at Norsborg and Lovön, together producing 350,000 m³ per day, which means Stockholmers are consuming 200 litres per day on average.
Water is purified at three plants at Bromma and Loudden, together filtering some 400,000 m³ sewage per day from pollution, including nitrogen and phosphorus, before discharging it into the Baltic Sea. Levels of several pollutants in lakes in the central parts of the city on the western side, are far above average, including substances such as cadmium, copper and lead. Decreasing usage of several of these substances has reduced these levels in the upper sediments of the lakes; the Stockholm area used to contain a lot more lakes and watercourses than it does today, much due to post-glacial rebound, but because of lake reclaims for settlements and health. Historical lakes, such as Fatburssjön on Södermalm and Träsket on Norrmalm, were filthy and associated with the high mortality in Stockholm until the late 19th century. Other historical lakes, like Packartorgsviken and its interior part Katthavet, were filled with mud and stinky. Other lakes still present today were once much larger – such as Magelungen, Judarn, Råstasjön – while some bays of today once were proper lakes – Brunnsviken and Hammarby sjö.
Like in many other urban areas, the lakes of Stockholm are directly affected by the city's sewer system and pollution from settlements and industry. Sewers reduce the catchment areas of smaller lakes by redirecting surface water to Lake Mälaren or Lake Saltsjön. While nutritious substances such as phosphorus and nitrogen are derived from agriculture, urban areas produce high amounts of metals and organic compounds. In Stockholm, this applies to central bays – such as Klara sjö, Årstaviken, Ulvsundasjön, Riddarfjärden, Hammarby Sjö - but waters surrounded by bungalows and villas – like Långsjön in Älvsjö; the historical name for Stockholm Old Town was "The city between the bridges", a name, still used for the entire city which spans over numerous islands and hills. During the course of centuries, the city has seen many bridges relieve each other. In an urban code dated 1350, King Magnus IV prescribed the bridges leading over Norrström and Söderström to be built and maintained by the city of Stockholm together with six other cities surrounding Lake Mälaren, as they were the only land passage between the provinces Uppland and Södermanland and south of the city respectively.
In the view of the king, the city, a hundred years after its foundation, still couldn't afford to maintain its own bridges. Still, these first bridges were in no sense technically complicated or physically impressive, but rather simple wooden bridges, either floating bridges or beam bridges resting on poles or stone caissons, in either case with spans of no more than a few metres; the width corresponded to the directions for public roads, eight ell or 4,8 metres, more than enough for many centuries. The long and narrow bridges were demolished in case of siege, which besides the drawbridges necessary for the passing of ships, was an important defensive strategy; as the accounts of the city tells, spring floods and ice break-ups resulted in the frequent destruction of the bridges. By the mid 17th century, the population of the city had resulted in settlements north and south of Gamla stan, on Norrmalm and Södermalm, the number of bridges had grown if not their dimensions or quality. In a map dated 1640, three bridges connects Stadsholmen to Norrmalm passing over Helgeandsholmen, at the time still a group of islets.
Several new bridges of considerable length connected Norrmalm to the islets east of it. By the end of the 17th century, population growth resulted in an additional bridge north of Stadsholmen. One of the oldest bridges was located where today Stallbron is found south of the Riksdag Building; the first stone bridge, was built in front of the Royal Palace under Gustav III. Not until the 20th century, Stockholm was able to surpass the bays surrounding the city. Half of the about 30 bridges in central Stockholm were built most of them during the 1930s; this development was due to increasing traffic loads caused by a fivefold increase of vehicles in the 1920s. At Slussen, passing ships caused stationary rows of trams several hundreds metres long; the situatio
Grey Friar's Abbey, Stockholm
The Grey Friar's Abbey on the island of Riddarholmen in Stockholm was a monastery for males of the Franciscan Order, in operation from 1270 until the Swedish Reformation of 1527. The monastery was founded upon donation by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1270, in 1288, he donated the Skeppsholmen area to the abbey, it was because of the abbey that Riddarholmen has been called Gråbrödraholm, Gråmunkeholm or Gråmunkeholmen. During the 15th-century, the island of Kungsholmen was called Munklägret because of the activities of the abbey in the area. After the Siege of Tre Kronor on 9 May 1502, the defeated Queen, Christina of Saxony, was kept prisoner here by Sten Sture the Elder. In 1527, the abbey was dissolved because of the reformation; the monks were forced to leave the buildings, which were used as a hospital and as a residence for the former nuns of St. Clare's Priory, Stockholm; the hospital was moved to Danviken Hospital in 1551, the building housed the theological school Collegium Regium Stockholmense in 1576-1593, the Nicolai Trivial School until 1666.
Riddarholm Church is. Part of the area south of Riddarholm Church was excavated in 2010; the skeleton of a medieval monk was found buried complete, save for its left leg, lost during renovations in 1945
Gamla Riksarkivet is a building at Arkivgatan 3 on Riddarholmen in Stockholm, Sweden. Riksarkivet, the Swedish National Archives, were located in the building until 1968; the 19th century Brick Romanesque architecture of the building is alluding to the medieval history of Riddarholmen. The plan of the building is, typical for public buildings of its era, the grand style central portion articulated in the façade together with the huge windows of the reading-room; the building is connected to the Stenbock Palace where the archive was once started in 1863. It is similar in style to the Norstedt Building located just north of it. List of streets and squares in Gamla stan "Gamla Riksarkivet, Riddarholmen i Stockholm". Statens fastighetsverk. Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-01-09