Ride the Lightning

Ride the Lightning is the second studio album by American heavy metal band Metallica, released on July 27, 1984, by the independent record label Megaforce Records. The album was recorded in three weeks with producer Flemming Rasmussen at the Sweet Silence Studios in Copenhagen, Denmark; the artwork, based on a concept by the band, depicts an electric chair being struck by lightning flowing from the band logo. The title was taken from a passage in Stephen King's novel The Stand. Although rooted in the thrash metal genre, the album showcased the band's musical growth and lyrical sophistication; this was because bassist Cliff Burton introduced the basics of music theory to the rest of the band and had more input in the songwriting. Instead of relying on fast tempos as on its debut Kill'Em All, Metallica broadened its approach by employing acoustic guitars, extended instrumentals, more complex harmonies; the overall recording costs were paid by Metallica's European label Music for Nations because Megaforce was unable to cover it.

It was the last album to feature songwriting contributions from former lead guitarist Dave Mustaine, the first to feature contributions from his replacement, Kirk Hammett. At 47 minutes, it is Metallica's shortest studio album. Ride the Lightning received positive response from music critics, who saw it as a more ambitious effort than its predecessor. Metallica promoted the album on the Bang That Head That Doesn't Bang European tour in late 1984, on its North American leg in the first half of 1985; the band performed at major music festivals such as Monsters of Rock and Day on the Green that year. Two months after its release, Elektra Records signed Metallica to a multi-year deal and reissued the album. Ride the Lightning peaked at number 100 on the Billboard 200 with no radio exposure. Although 75,000 copies were pressed for the American market, the album sold half a million by November 1987, it was certified 6× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in 2012 for shipping six million copies in the United States.

Many rock publications have ranked Ride the Lightning on their best album lists, saying it had a lasting impact on the genre. Metallica released their debut album, Kill'Em All, on the independent label Megaforce Records on July 25, 1983; the album helped to establish thrash metal, a heavy metal subgenre defined by its brisk riffs and intense percussion. After finishing its promotional tour, Metallica began composing new material, from September, began performing the songs that were to make up Ride the Lightning at concerts; because the band had little money, its members ate one meal a day and stayed at fans' homes while playing at clubs across the United States. An incident occurred when part of Metallica's gear was stolen in Boston, Anthrax lent Metallica some of its equipment to complete the remaining dates; when not gigging, the band stayed in a rented house in El Cerrito, called the Metallica Mansion. Frontman James Hetfield felt uneasy about performing double duty on vocals and rhythm guitar, so the band offered the job to Armored Saint singer John Bush, who turned down the offer because Armored Saint was doing well at the time.

Hetfield built confidence as lead vocalist and kept his original role. Metallica started recording on February 1984 at Sweet Silence Studios in Copenhagen, Denmark; the album was produced by the founder of Sweet Silence Studios. Drummer Lars Ulrich chose Rasmussen, because he liked his work on Rainbow's Difficult to Cure, was keen to record in Europe. Rasmussen, who had not heard of Metallica, agreed to work on the album though his studio employees questioned the band's talent. Rasmussen listened to Metallica's tapes before the members arrived and thought the band had great potential. Metallica rehearsed the album's material at Mercyful Fate's practice room in Copenhagen. Before entering the studio, Metallica collected ideas on "riff tape" recordings of various jam sessions. Hetfield and Ulrich selected the strongest riffs to assemble into songs. Instruments were recorded separately, with only Hetfield playing rhythm guitar. Rasmussen, with the support of drum roadie Flemming Larsen, taught the basics of timing and beat duration to Ulrich, who had a tendency to increase speed and had little knowledge of rhythm theory.

Drums were recorded in an empty warehouse at the back of the studio, not soundproof, caused reverberation. Although four tracks were arranged, the band members were not used to creating songs in the studio, as they had not done so for Kill'Em All. "For Whom the Bell Tolls", "Trapped Under Ice" and "Escape" were written in Copenhagen, the band put finishing touches on "Fight Fire with Fire", "Ride the Lightning", "Creeping Death", "The Call of Ktulu", which were performed live. Lead guitarist Kirk Hammett took the album's name from a passage in Stephen King's novel The Stand; the cover art, displaying an electric chair in the midst of lightning bolts, was conceived before recording began. Metallica had sound problems, because its gear was stolen three weeks before the band arrived in Copenhagen; the band members slept in the studio by day as they could not afford a hotel and recorded by night, because the studio was booked by other artists during the daytime. Because the group was looking for a major label deal, several A&R representatives from different labels visited the studio.

At first, it seemed that Metallica was going to sign with Bronze Records, but the deal fell through, because Bronze executive Gerry Bron did not appreciate the work done at Sweet Silence Studios, wanted the US edition to be remixed by engineer Eddie Kramer, considered re-recording the album in anothe

Wabbit Twouble

Wabbit Twouble is a Merrie Melodies cartoon starring Bugs Bunny, produced by Leon Schlesinger Productions and released on December 20, 1941 by Warner Bros. Pictures; this is the first of several Bugs Bunny cartoon titles that refers to Elmer Fudd's speech impediment, making the names of Robert Clampett, Sid Sutherland, Carl Stalling as well as the roles of Story and Musical Direction intentionally misspelled in the credits to receive the perfect match for Elmer's speech impediment. In the cartoon, Elmer expects to find relaxation at Jellostone National Park, he mistakenly sets camp in the neighborhood of Bugs' rabbit hole, Bugs don't have much leisure in mind. It was the first Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd cartoon directed by Robert Clampett, with a story by Dave Monahan and musical direction by Carl Stalling. Sid Sutherland is the only credited animator, although Virgil Ross, Rod Scribner, Robert McKimson animated the short. Mel Blanc provided the voices for Bugs and the bear, Arthur Q. Bryan provided the voice for Elmer.

Elmer, driving his Ford Model T jalopy to a Conga beat, makes his way to Jellostone National Park while looking forward to getting some rest. Elmer sets up his campsite by setting a camp fire, an hanging mirror on a tree and, beneath it, a wash basin on a table, hanging a hammock, pitching his tent; the tent is positioned directly over Bugs Bunny's rabbit hole. From down there, Bugs drags it inside. Elmer reaches in and, in spite of resistance from below, retrieves the tent, tied in knots. Bugs welcomes Elmer to Jellostone and pulls Elmer's hat over his eyes. Elmer tries to yank Bugs out. After several attempts, Elmer pulls his hands out to find, he nails a board over the hole. However, Bugs pushes it open, steps out and mimics Elmer. Bugs balloons up to Elmer's size and repeats what Elmer had said, labeling it "phooey". Elmer settles into his hammock and falls fast asleep, muttering to himself. Bugs places a pair of glasses on Elmer's face, paints the lenses black and sets the alarm clock to go off at noon.

When it wakes Elmer, he thinks. He goes to his tent, takes off his day clothes to reveal night clothes underneath, goes to bed. Bugs removes the glasses from Elmer and crows like a rooster, awakening Elmer who believes it is the next morning. Elmer washes his face but cannot reach his towel because it is hanging on a branch that Bugs keeps at a steady, short distance from him. Elmer blindly follows the towel, he causes Elmer to step off a cliff edge. Elmer looks at the miraculous view of the Grand Canyon, but realizes he is in midair, he holds on to Bugs for dear life. Bugs admits he is the one pulling these gags and runs off, with a furious Elmer giving chase after retrieving a gun from his tent. However, he runs into a black bear; the bear starts growling, so Elmer turns to a wildlife handbook for advice, which directs him to play dead. The bear soon gives up, but Bugs climbs onto Elmer and starts growling like the bear, he misbehaves in various ways to keep Elmer on the ground with his eyes shut, but just as he starts biting Elmer's foot, Elmer sees what is going on and grabs his shotgun.

The bear returns and Bugs runs away just as Elmer swings the gun, clobbering the bear rather than the rabbit. A chase ensues with Elmer and the bear running through the trees to the tune of the "William Tell Overture." The bear freaks Elmer out by riding on top of him. When the bear is knocked off him after hitting a tree branch, Elmer gives up and packs everything into his car, he backs up and reads it again. He declares its promise of "a restful retreat" to be "bawogney!" and, to teach the park not to give false advertisement, he chops the sign to bits with an ax and stomps on the pieces while calling the park's "peace and wewaxation" promises "wubbish!" A ranger appears, has an angry expression on his face. Elmer is arrested for the destruction of government property, from his jail cell window he tells us that "anyway" he is "wid of that gwizzwy bear and scwewy wabbit! West and wewaxation at wast!" He turns to find out that somehow he is sharing his cell with both Bugs and the black bear. They both ask.

For the cartoon, Elmer was redesigned as a fat man in an attempt to make him funnier. The "fat Elmer" would only make three more appearances in the Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies canon – The Wabbit Who Came to Supper, The Wacky Wabbit and Fresh Hare, in addition to a cameo appearance in the non-canon war bond advertisement Any Bonds Today? – before returning to the slimmer form by which he is better known, for The Hare-Brained Hypnotist. This cartoon was the only time, that the Fat Elmer had a red nose; this is the only cartoon with the "fat" version of Elmer to remain under copyright. Bugs would show up in a prison two more times: in Big House Bunny. At the ends of Rabbit Tra

Irish Fright

The Irish Fright was a mass panic that took place in England in December 1688, during the Glorious Revolution. It accompanied the final days of King James II's regime after his thwarted attempt to flee into exile in France. Troops of the Jacobite Irish Army were stationed in England to prop up James II's authority but were detested by the predominantly Protestant population of England. Rumours began to circulate in mid-December that the Irish soldiers were preparing to carry out a campaign of massacre and pillage against the English population in revenge for James's overthrow. False reports of the Irish burning English towns and massacring inhabitants spread the panic from London to at least nineteen English counties, whose inhabitants formed armed militias to guard against supposed Irish marauders; the panic subsided after a few days. It was never determined, responsible for sparking it, though contemporaries suspected that it may have been the work of Orangist sympathisers seeking to further discredit James II.

James II inherited an army in Ireland on his accession in 1685. At the time it amounted to 8,238 men, all of whom were supposed to be Protestants and required to provide certificates confirming that they received the Church of England's sacrament twice a year. By 1688 its strength had grown to 8,938, of which 2,820 were sent to England in September 1688 to reinforce the English Army against the expected invasion by William, Prince of Orange, James II's son-in-law, invited to enter the country by English politicians opposed to James II's rule. Many of them were stationed in Portsmouth, where they became objects of fear. A newsletter of early October 1688 reported that Portsmouth's inhabitants were making "great complaints of the rude Irish who have caused many families to leave that place, having committed many robberies", their presence in England further stoked long-standing fears that Irish or Catholic forces were poised to launch an anti-Protestant uprising. In Staffordshire in 1641, Protestants were so afraid that their Catholic neighbours would attack them that they "durst not go to Church unarmed".

That same year, a panic in the towns of Ludlow and Bewdley led the inhabitants of both towns to mobilise on the night of 19–20 November, watching for what they believed was the arrival of insurgent Catholics. In 1681 the House of Lords announced the existence of "a horrid and treasonable Plot and Conspiracy and carried on by those of the Popish Religion in Ireland, for massacring the English, subverting the Protestant Religion, the ancient established Government of that Kingdom."After spending three tense months garrisoned in Portsmouth, the Irish troops were sent north to fight in the Battle of Reading on 9 December 1688, the only substantial military action of the Glorious Revolution. They were defeated and a portion of the Irish troops were ordered to return to Portsmouth. Others were sent to Uxbridge west of London. Rather than fight William's invasion, the Earl of Feversham disbanded James's forces and released the Irish troops from their obligations. On Thursday 13 December, according to Bishop Gilbert Burnet, "Country Fellows, arriving about Midnight at Westminster caused a sudden Uproar, by Reporting that the Irish, in desperate Rage, were advancing to London, putting all before them to Fire and Sword."

Another newswriter reported that in the early hours of 13 December "an alarm was spread through City and suburbs of'Rise, arm! the Irish are cutting throats'."The alert sparked a mass panic and 100,000 men were reported to have mobilised to defend their homes within half an hour. Buildings were illuminated to ensure that marauding Irishmen could not sneak up in the early morning darkness; the Grand Duke of Tuscany's ambassador in London wrote that he had seen young and old alike, all discharging firearms, drums beating and women, for greater noise, beating warming-pans and frying pans, such things: which lie resulted in good against the intention of him who gave it out, because with the city so armed, with attention to another revolt, the rabble did not create other disorders. False reports. Philip Musgrave wrote that Lord Feversham's disbandment of the Irish Army "hath increased our miseries, for he did not disarm any of them, the Irish and Roman Catholics... are in a great body about Uxbridge who burn and destroy all they meet with."

The House of Lords convened at 3 a.m. at Whitehall to discuss the situation and send for word of the supposed burning of Uxbridge. The Irish Fright thereafter spread across England, it reached Norfolk around 14 December. Kent descended into mass panic on the morning of 14 December, while in Surrey, Kingston-upon-Thames was said to have been burned and the inhabitants cut down trees to block the path of the supposed Irish insurgents. In Cambridge, four to six thousand Irishmen were supposed to have destroyed Bedford and massacred its inhabitants and were on their way to Cambridge to repeat the deed; the news caused some of Cambridge's inhabitants to flee, but travellers arriving from Bedford were able to discredit the rumours and calm the situation. The panic reached the Midlands on the same day. Brookes was evidently an unusually martial clergyman, as he rai