Syrah known as Shiraz, is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used to produce red wine. In 1999, Syrah was found to be the offspring of two obscure grapes from southeastern France and Mondeuse Blanche. Syrah should not be confused with Petite Sirah, a cross of Syrah with Peloursin dating from 1880; the style and flavor profile of wines made from Syrah is influenced by the climate where the grapes are grown with moderate climates tending to produce medium to full-bodied wines with medium-plus to high levels of tannins and notes of blackberry and black pepper. In hot climates, Syrah is more full-bodied with softer tannin, jammier fruit and spice notes of licorice and earthy leather. In many regions the acidity and tannin levels of Syrah allow the wines produced to have favorable aging potential. Syrah is used as a blend. Following several years of strong planting, Syrah was estimated in 2004 to be the world's 7th most grown grape at 142,600 hectares, it can be found throughout the globe from France to New World wine regions such as: Chile, South Africa, the Hawke's Bay, New Zealand and Washington.
It can be found in several Australian wine regions such as: Barossa, Coonawarra, Hunter Valley, Margaret River and McLaren Vale. Syrah has a long documented history in the Rhône region of southeastern France, but it was not known if it had originated in that region. In 1998, a study conducted by Carole Meredith's research group in the Department of Viticulture and Enology at University of California, Davis used DNA typing and extensive grape reference material from the viticultural research station in Montpellier, France to conclude that Syrah was the offspring of the grape varieties Dureza and Mondeuse blanche. Dureza, a dark-skinned grape variety from the Ardèche region in France, has all but disappeared from the vineyards, the preservation of such varieties is a speciality of Montpellier. Mondeuse blanche is a white grape variety cultivated in the Savoy region, is still found in small amounts in that region's vineyards today. Both varieties are somewhat obscure today, have never achieved anything near Syrah's fame or popularity, there is no record of them having been cultivated at long distances from their present homes.
Thus, both of Syrah's parents come from a limited area in southeastern France, close to northern Rhône. Based on these findings, the researchers have concluded Syrah originated from northern Rhône; the DNA typing leaves no room for doubt in this matter, the numerous other hypotheses of the grape's origin which have been forwarded during the years all lack support in the form of documentary evidence or ampelographic investigations, be it by methods of classical botany or DNA. Instead, they seem to have been based or on the name or synonyms of the variety. Varying orthography for grape names render dubious any name-based evidence of origins. Origins such as Syracuse or the famous Iranian city of Shiraz have been proposed while the genomic studies had yet to be done; the parentage information, does not reveal how old the grape variety is, i.e. when the pollination of a Mondeuse blanche vine by Dureza took place, leading to the original Syrah seed plant. In the year AD 77, Pliny the Elder wrote in his Naturalis Historia about the wines of Vienne, where the Allobroges made famous and prized wine from a dark-skinned grape variety that had not existed some 50 years earlier, in Virgil's age.
Pliny called the vines of this wine Allobrogica, it has been speculated that it could be today's Syrah. However, the description of the wine would fit, for example and Pliny's observation that vines of Allobrogica were resistant to cold is not consistent with Syrah, it is called Syrah in its country of origin, France, as well as in the rest of Europe, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa. The name "Shiraz" became popular for this grape variety in Australia, where it has long been established as the most grown dark-skinned variety. In Australia, it was commonly called Hermitage up to the late 1980s, but since that name is a French Protected Designation of Origin, this naming practice caused a problem in some export markets and was dropped; the grape's many other synonyms are used in various parts of the world, including Antourenein noir, Candive, Hignin noir, Marsanne noir, Sirac, Syrac and Sereine. Legends of Syrah's origins come from one of Shiraz; because Shiraz, Capital of the Persian Empire, produced the well-known Shirazi wine, legends claim the Syrah grape originated in Shiraz and was brought to Rhône.
At least two different versions of the myth are reported, giving different accounts of how the variety is supposed to have been brought from Shiraz to Rhône and differing up to 1,800 years in dating this event. In one version, the Phocaeans could have brought Syrah/Shiraz to their colony around Marseilles, founded around 600 BC by the Greeks; the grape would later have made its way to northern Rhône, never colonized by the Phocaeans. No documentary evidence exists to back up this legend, it requires the variety to vanish from the Marseilles region without leaving any trace; the legend connecting Syrah with the city of Shiraz in Iran may, however, be of French origin. James Busby wrote in Journal of a recent visit to the principal vin
Viticulture or winegrowing is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, ranges from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, the vine has demonstrated high levels of adaptability to new environments. For this reason, viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Duties of the viticulturist include monitoring and controlling pests and diseases, irrigation, canopy management, monitoring fruit development and characteristics, deciding when to harvest, vine pruning during the winter months. Viticulturists are intimately involved with winemakers, because vineyard management and the resulting grape characteristics provide the basis from which winemaking can begin. A great number of varieties are now approved in the European Union as true grapes for winegrowing and viticulture; the earliest evidence of grape vine cultivation and winemaking dates back 7,000 years.
The history of viticulture is related to the history of wine, with evidence that humans cultivated wild grapes to make wine as far back as the Neolithic period. Evidence suggests that some of the earliest domestication of Vitis vinifera occurred in the area of the modern countries Georgia and Armenia; the oldest-known winery was discovered in the "Areni-1" cave in Armenia. Dated to c. 4100 BC, the site contained a wine press, fermentation vats and cups. Archaeologists found V. vinifera seeds and vines. Commenting on the importance of the find, McGovern said, "The fact that winemaking was so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology goes back much earlier." There is evidence of grape domestication in the Near East in the early Bronze Age, around 3200 BC. Evidence of ancient viticulture is provided by cuneiform sources, plant remains, historical geography, archaeological excavations; the remnants of ancient wine jars have been used to determine the culture of wine consumption and cultivated grape species.
In addition to winemaking, grapes have been grown for the production of raisins. The earliest act of cultivation appears to have been the favoring of hermaphroditic members of the Vitis vinifera species over the barren male vines and the female vines, which were dependent on a nearby male for pollination. With the ability to pollinate itself, over time the hermaphroditic vines were able to sire offspring that were hermaphroditic. At the end of the 5th century BC, the Greek historian Thucydides wrote: The period that Thucydides was most referencing was the time between 3000 BC and 2000 BC, when viticulture emerged in force in Asia Minor and the Cyclades Islands of the Aegean Sea. During this period, grape cultivation developed from an aspect of local consumption to an important component of international economies and trade. From 1200 BC to 900 BC, the Phoenicians developed viticulture practices that were used in Carthage. Around 500 BC, the Carthaginian writer Mago recorded such practices in a two-volume work, one of the few artifacts to survive the Roman destruction of Carthage during the Third Punic War.
The Roman statesman Cato the Elder was influenced by these texts, around 160 BC he wrote De Agricultura, which expounded on Roman viticulture and agriculture. Around 65 AD, the Roman writer Columella produced the most detailed work on Roman viticulture in his twelve-volume text De Re Rustica. Columella's work is one of the earliest to detail trellis systems for raising vines off the ground. Columella advocated the use of stakes versus the accepted practice of training vines to grow up along tree trunks; the benefits of using stakes over trees was to minimize the dangers associated with climbing trees, necessary to prune the dense foliage in order to give the vines sunlight, to harvest them. Roman expansion across Western Europe brought Roman viticulture to the areas that would become some of the world's best-known winegrowing regions: the Spanish Rioja, the German Mosel, the French Bordeaux, Burgundy and Rhône. Roman viticulturists were among the first to identify steep hillsides as one of the better locations to plant vines, because cool air runs downhill and gathers at the bottom of valleys.
While some cool air is beneficial, too much can rob the vine of the heat it needs for photosynthesis, in winter it increases the risk of frost. In the Middle Ages, Catholic monks were the most prominent viticulturists of the time period. Around this time, an early system of Metayage emerged in France with laborers working the vineyards under contractual agreements with the landowners. In most cases, the prendeurs were given flexibility in selecting their crop and developing their own vineyard practice. In northern Europe, the weather and climate posed difficulties for grape cultivation, so certain species were selected that better suited the environment. Most vineyards grew white varieties of grape, which are more resistant to the damp and cold climates. A few species of red grape, such as the Pinot Noir, were introduced. Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry dates back to 1416 and depicts horticulture and viticulture in France; the images illustrate peasants bending down to prune grapes from vines behind castle walls.
Additional illustrations depict grape vines being harvested, with each vine being cut to three spurs around knee height. Many of the viticultural practices developed in this time period would become staples of European viticulture until the 18th century. Varietals were studied more intently to see which vines were the most suitable for a particular area. Around this
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to the New World where it found new homes in places like California's Santa Cruz Mountains, Paso Robles, Napa Valley, New Zealand's Hawkes Bay, Australia's Margaret River and Coonawarra regions, Chile's Maipo Valley and Colchagua. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s. However, by 2015, Cabernet Sauvignon had once again become the most planted wine grape, with a total of 341000ha under vine worldwide. Despite its prominence in the industry, the grape is a new variety, the product of a chance crossing between Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc during the 17th century in southwestern France.
Its popularity is attributed to its ease of cultivation—the grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and low yielding, budding late to avoid frost and resistant to viticultural hazards such as rot and insects—and to its consistent presentation of structure and flavours which express the typical character of the variety. Familiarity and ease of pronunciation have helped to sell Cabernet Sauvignon wines to consumers when from unfamiliar wine regions, its widespread popularity has contributed to criticism of the grape as a "colonizer" that takes over wine regions at the expense of native grape varieties. The classic profile of Cabernet Sauvignon tends to be full-bodied wines with high tannins and noticeable acidity that contributes to the wine's aging potential. In cooler climates, Cabernet Sauvignon tends to produce wines with blackcurrant notes that can be accompanied by green bell pepper notes and cedar which will all become more pronounced as the wine ages. In more moderate climates the blackcurrant notes are seen with black cherry and black olive notes while in hot climates the currant flavors can veer towards the over-ripe and "jammy" side.
In parts of Australia the Coonawarra wine region of South Australia, Cabernet Sauvignon wines tend to have a characteristic eucalyptus or menthol notes. For many years, the origin of Cabernet Sauvignon was not understood and many myths and conjectures surrounded it; the word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derived from the French sauvage meaning "wild" and to refer to the grape being a wild Vitis vinifera vine native to France. Until the grape was rumored to have ancient origins even being the Biturica grape used to make ancient Roman wine and referenced by Pliny the Elder; this belief was held in the 18th century, when the grape was known as Petite Vidure or Bidure a corruption of Biturica. There was belief that Vidure was a reference to the hard wood of the vine, with a possible relationship to Carménère, once known as Grand Vidure. Another theory was. While the period when the name Cabernet Sauvignon became more prevalent over Petite Vidure is not certain, records indicate that the grape was a popular Bordeaux planting in the 18th century Médoc region.
The first estates known to have grown the variety were Château Mouton and Château d'Armailhac in Pauillac. The grape's true origins were discovered in 1996 with the use of DNA typing at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology, by a team led by Dr. Carole Meredith; the DNA evidence determined that Cabernet Sauvignon was the offspring of Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc and was most a chance crossing that occurred in the 17th century. Prior to this discovery, this origin had been suspected from the similarity of the grapes' names and the fact that Cabernet Sauvignon shares similar aromas with both grapes—such as the blackcurrant and pencil box aromas of Cabernet franc and the grassiness of Sauvignon blanc. In 2016 scientists at the UC Davis announced they had sequenced a draft of the whole genome of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape, the first genome of a commercial wine-producing grape to be sequenced. While not as prolific in mutating as Pinot noir, nor as used in production of offspring, Cabernet Sauvignon has been linked to other grape varieties.
In 1961, a cross of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache produced. Cygne blanc is a white-berried seedling of Cabernet Sauvignon, discovered in 1989 growing in a garden in Swan Valley, Western Australia. Cabernet blanc is a crossing of Cabernet Sauvignon and an unknown hybrid grape variety, discovered in Switzerland in the late 20th century. In 1977 a vine producing'bronze' grapes was found in the vineyards of Cleggett Wines in Australia, they propagated this mutant, registered it under the name of Malian, sold pale red wines under that name. In 1991 one of the Bronze Cabernet vines started producing white grapes. Cleggett registered this "White Cabernet" under the name of Shalistin. Compared to its Cabernet parent, Malian appears to lack anthocyanins in the subepidermal cells but retains them in the epidermis, whereas Shalistin has no anthocyanins in either layer; the team that went on to discover the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes that control grape color have suggested that a gene involved in anthocyanin production has been deleted in the subepidermis of Malian, subepidermal cells invaded the epidermis to produce Shalistin.
During a ser
Cupertino is a U. S. city in Santa Clara County, directly west of San Jose on the western edge of the Santa Clara Valley with portions extending into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The population was 58,302 as of the 2010 census. In 2015, Forbes ranked Cupertino as one of the most educated places in the U. S. in respect to the percentage of high school and college graduates. An affluent area, Cupertino is the nation's 11th wealthiest city with a population over 50,000, it is known as the home of Apple Inc.'s corporate headquarters. Cupertino was named after Arroyo San José de Cupertino; the creek had been named by Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza's cartographer, who named it after Saint Joseph of Cupertino. Saint Joseph was born Giuseppe Maria Desa, was named after the town of Copertino, where he was born, in the Apulia region of Italy; the name Cupertino first became used when John T. Doyle, a San Francisco lawyer and historian, named his winery on McClellan Road Cupertino. After the turn of the 20th century, Cupertino displaced the former name for the region, West Side.
Although the meaning of Copertino is uncertain, it is a compound word meaning "little shelter." The -ino suffix in Italian words indicates "small" or "little", while coprire means "to cover". Cupertino in the 19th century was a small rural village at the crossroads of Stevens Creek Road and Saratoga-Mountain View Road. Back it was known as the West Side and was part of Fremont Township; the primary economic activity was fruit agriculture. All of the land within Cupertino's present-day boundaries was covered by prune, plum and cherry orchards. A winery on Montebello Ridge overlooking the Cupertino valley region was in operation by the late 19th century. Soon railroads, electric railways, dirt roads traversed the West Side farmlands. Monta Vista, Cupertino's first housing tract, was developed in the mid-20th century as a result of the electric railway's construction. After World War II, a population and suburban housing boom shifted the demographics and economy of the Santa Clara Valley, as the "Valley of Heart's Delight" was beginning to transform into "Silicon Valley".
In 1954, a rancher, Norman Nathanson, the Cupertino-Monta Vista Improvement Association, the Fact Finding Committee, began a drive for incorporation. On September 27, 1955, voters approved the incorporation of the city of Cupertino. Cupertino became Santa Clara County's 13th city on October 10, 1955; the first city council consisted of Ralph Lindenmayer, Werner Wilson, John Saich, R. Ivan Meyerholz and Norman Nathanson. In fact, there's a residential road in northern Cupertino named after this influential rancher. Lindenmeyer was selected as the first mayor of Cupertino a week after the September 27 election. A major milestone in Cupertino's development was the creation by some of the city's largest landowners of VALLCO Business and Industrial Park in the early 1960s. Of the 25 property owners, 17 decided to pool their land to form VALLCO Park, 6 sold to Varian Associates, two opted for transplanting to farms elsewhere; the name VALLCO was derived from the names of the principal developers: Varian Associates and the Leonard, Lester and Orlando families.
A neighborhood outdoor shopping center and, much the enclosed Vallco Fashion Park renamed Cupertino Square, were developed. De Anza College opened in 1967; the college, named for Juan Bautista De Anza, occupies a 112-acre site, the location of a winery built at the turn of the 20th century, called Beaulieu by its owners and Ella Baldwin. Their mansion has now become the California History Center. De Anza College now has about 22,000 students. Housing developments were constructed in the following years as developers created neighborhoods, including Fairgrove, Garden Gate, Monta Vista, Seven Springs, other developments; the city is known for its high real estate prices. On December 1, 2009, Cupertino became the first city in Northern California to have an Asian-American-majority city council. 63 percent of Cupertino's population was of Asian ancestry in 2010, compared to 32 percent in Santa Clara Country overall. Money's Best Places to Live, "America's best small towns", ranked Cupertino as #27 in 2012, the second highest in California.
In 2014, Movoto Real Estate ranked Cupertino the seventh "happiest" suburb in the United States, ranking in the categories of income, safety and education. According to the 2005–2007 American Community Survey of the US Census Bureau, the median income for a household in the city was $118,635, the median income for a family was $140,199; the per capita income for the city was $44,774. About 3.6% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2005–2007 American Community Survey, White Americans made up 37.4% of Cupertino's population. Black Americans now made up 1.5% of Cupertino's population and American Indians made up 0.4% of the city's population. In addition, Cupertino now has an Asian American majority as this group now represents 55.7% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans remained at 0.1% of the population. 2.5% of the population are from some other race and 2.4% of the population are from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos remaine
Santa Cruz Mountains
The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central and northern California, United States. They form a ridge down the San Francisco Peninsula, south of San Francisco, they separate the Pacific Ocean from the San Francisco Bay and the Santa Clara Valley, continue south to the Central Coast, bordering Monterey Bay and ending at the Salinas Valley. The range passes through the counties of San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Benito and Monterey, with the Pajaro River forming the southern boundary; the northernmost portion of the Santa Cruz Mountains, north of Half Moon Bay Road, is known as Montara Mountain. The highest point in the range is Loma Prieta Peak, 11 miles west of Morgan Hill, with a height of 3,786 feet, near, the epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Other major peaks include Mount Umunhum at 3,486 feet, Mount Thayer at 3,479 feet, Mount Bielawski at 3,231 feet, El Sombroso at 2,999 feet, Eagle Rock at 2,488 feet, Black Mountain at 2,800 feet, Sierra Morena at 2,417 feet.
The San Andreas Fault runs near the ridge line throughout the range. The interior east side of the mountains drops abruptly towards this fault line near the towns of Woodside and Saratoga. For much of the San Francisco Peninsula, State Route 35 runs along the ridge, is known as "Skyline Boulevard", while Interstate 280 runs east of the ridges; the major routes across the mountains are: SR 92 from Half Moon Bay to San Mateo, SR 84 from San Gregorio to Redwood City, SR 9 from Santa Cruz to Saratoga, SR 17 from Santa Cruz to Los Gatos, SR 152 from Watsonville to Gilroy, SR 129 from Watsonville to San Juan Bautista, US Highway 101 from Salinas to Gilroy. Meanwhile, SR 1 runs parallel to the mountains from Daly City to Castroville while SR 85 runs parallel from Cupertino to San Jose. There are over 30 wineries located in this region and the Santa Cruz Mountains have been a defined American Viticultural Area since 1981. Wine has been produced there since at least the 1840s; the Santa Cruz Mountain AVA has emerged as premier producer of top wines as recognized in the historic Judgment of Paris wine competition on May 26, 1976.
The Santa Cruz Mountains are the result of compressive uplift caused by a leftward bend of the San Andreas Fault. The Salinian Block basement rocks are overlain by Miocene rock strata of the Lompico Sandstone, the Vaqueros Sandstone and the Santa Margarita Formation; the Santa Cruz Mountains are a region of great biological diversity, encompassing cool, moist coastal ecosystems as well as warm, dry chaparral. Much of the area in the Santa Cruz mountains is considered temperate rainforest. In valleys and moist ocean-facing slopes some of the southernmost coast redwoods grow, along with coast Douglas-fir. coast live oak, Pacific madrone, Pacific wax myrtle, big leaf maple, California bay laurel, California black oak occur in the Santa Cruz Mountains. There do exist several small and isolated stands of old-growth forest, most notably at Henry Cowell Redwoods and Portola Redwoods State Parks and one sizeable old-growth redwood forest at Big Basin. At higher elevations and on sunny south slopes a more drought-resistant chaparral vegetation dominates: manzanita, California scrub oak and chaparral pea.
Spring wildflowers are widespread throughout the range. The area welcomes a tremendous number of species of birds.. Black-tailed deer, a subspecies of mule deer are common, as are western gray squirrels and raccoons. Periodic sightings of black bears indicate they frequent the mountains or wander north from Big Sur, where black bears are established. Foxes, bobcats and human-introduced Virginia opossums inhabit the region but are seen. Rattlesnakes are inhabitants in the high, dry chaparral; the Santa Cruz Mountains have a Mediterranean type climate typical of most of California, with the majority of the annual precipitation falling between November and April. According to the National Weather Service, this totals more than 50 inches annually. Heavy summer fogs cover the western ocean-facing slopes and valleys, resulting in drizzle and fog drip caused by condensation on the redwoods and other trees, which sustains the moisture-loving redwood forests. Due to a rain shadow effect, precipitation on the eastern side of the range is less, about 25 inches a year.
Snow falls a few times a year on the highest ridges, more the higher valleys receive light dustings. The National Weather Service's cooperative weather stations in the mountains have included Black Mountain 2WSW – average annual rainfall 36.65 inches, maximum annual rainfall 80.66 inches, average annual snowfall 0.7-inch, maximum annual snowfall 8.0 inches. No temperature records were kept at these stations; the Santa Cruz Mountains are subject to sharp diurnal temperature fluctuations. The highs and low within a 24-hour period are ~20–30 °F apart on average but can be as much as 50 °F apart during heat waves depending on location. There is con
SRI International is an American nonprofit scientific research institute and organization headquartered in Menlo Park, California. The trustees of Stanford University established SRI in 1946 as a center of innovation to support economic development in the region; the organization was founded as the Stanford Research Institute. SRI formally separated from Stanford University in 1970 and became known as SRI International in 1977. SRI performs client-sponsored research and development for government agencies, commercial businesses, private foundations, it licenses its technologies, forms strategic partnerships, sells products, creates spin-off companies. SRI's annual revenue in 2014 was $540 million. SRI's headquarters are located near the Stanford University campus. William A. Jeffrey has served as SRI's president and CEO since September 2014. SRI employs about 2,100 people. Sarnoff Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of SRI since 1988, was integrated into SRI in January 2011. SRI's focus areas include biomedical sciences and materials, computing and space systems, economic development and learning, energy and environmental technology and national defense, as well as sensing and devices.
SRI has received more than 4,000 patent applications worldwide. In the 1920s, Stanford University professor Robert E. Swain proposed creating a research institute in the Western United States. Herbert Hoover a trustee of Stanford University, was an early proponent of an institute, but became less involved with the project after he was elected president of the United States; the development of the institute was delayed by the Great Depression in the 1930s and World War II in the 1940s, with three separate attempts leading to its formation in 1946. In August 1945, Maurice Nelles, Morlan A. Visel, Ernest L. Black of Lockheed made the first attempt to create the institute with the formation of the "Pacific Research Foundation" in Los Angeles. A second attempt was made by Henry T. Heald president of the Illinois Institute of Technology. In 1945, Heald wrote a report recommending a research institute on the West Coast and a close association with Stanford University with an initial grant of $500,000.
A third attempt was made by Stanford University's dean of engineering. Terman's proposal followed Heald's, but focused on faculty and student research more than contract research; the trustees of Stanford University voted to create the organization in 1946. It was structured so that its goals were aligned with the charter of the university—to advance scientific knowledge and to benefit the public at large, not just the students of Stanford University; the trustees were named as the corporation's general members, elected SRI's directors. Research chemist William F. Talbot became the first director of the institute. Stanford University president Donald Tresidder instructed Talbot to avoid work that would conflict with the interests of the university federal contracts that might attract political pressure; the drive to find work and the lack of support from Stanford faculty caused the new research institute to violate this directive six months through the pursuit of a contract with the Office of Naval Research.
This and other issues, including frustration with Tresidder's micromanagement of the new organization, caused Talbot to offer his resignation, which Tresidder accepted. Talbot was replaced by Jesse Hobson, who had led the Armour Research Foundation, but the pursuit of contract work remained. SRI's first research project investigated whether the guayule plant could be used as a source of natural rubber. During World War II, rubber was imported into the U. S. and was subject to strict rationing. From 1942 to 1946, the United States Department of Agriculture supported a project to create a domestic source of natural rubber. Once the war ended, the United States Congress cut funding for the program. SRI's first economic study was for the United States Air Force. In 1947, the Air Force wanted to determine the expansion potential of the U. S. aircraft industry. In 1948, SRI began research and consultation with Chevron Corporation to develop an artificial substitute for tallow and coconut oil in soap production.
Procter & Gamble used the substance as the basis for Tide laundry detergent. The institute performed much of the early research on air pollution and the formation of ozone in the lower atmosphere. SRI sponsored the First National Air Pollution Symposium in Pasadena, California, in November 1949. Experts gave presentations on pollution research, exchanged ideas and techniques, stimulated interest in the field; the event was attended by 400 scientists, business executives, civic leaders from the U. S. SRI co-sponsored subsequent events on the subject. In April 1953, Walt and Roy Disney hired SRI to consult on their proposal for establishing an amusement park in Burbank, California. SRI provided information on location, attendance patterns, economic feasibility. SRI selected a larger site in Anaheim, prepared reports about operation, provided on-site administrative support for Disneyland and acted in an advisory role as the park expanded. In 1955, SRI was c
Pinot blanc is a white wine grape. It is a point genetic mutation of Pinot noir. Pinot noir is genetically unstable and will experience a point mutation in which a vine bears all black fruit except for one cane which produces white fruit. In Alsace, Luxembourg, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, the wine produced from this grape is a full-bodied white. In 2000, there were 1,300 hectares of Pinot blanc in France, with most of the plantations found in Alsace, where it is used for both still white wines and is the most common variety used for sparkling wine, Crémant d'Alsace. Somewhat confusingly, the designation "Pinot blanc" for Alsace AOC wine does not mean that the wine is varietally pure Pinot blanc. Rather, the designation means. Under Alsace appellation rules, the varieties Pinot blanc, Auxerrois blanc, Pinot gris and Pinot noir may all be used, but a blend of Pinot blanc and Auxerrois blanc is the most common; the most full-bodied "Pinot blanc" wines from Alsace, with a spicy and smokey character and moderate acidity, are dominated by Auxerrois grapes.
Pinot blanc was used both in Burgundy and Champagne. It is still allowed in Bourgogne blanc blend and small amounts of Pinot blanc may in principle be blended into some Burgundy wines, but small amounts are cultivated in either region. In the Champagne region, Pinot blanc is called Blanc vrai. In Germany, where it is known as Weißer Burgunder or Weißburgunder, there were 3,491 hectares of Pinot blanc in 2006; the most powerful versions are made in Baden and Palatinate. In the United States it is produced in California. In the United States, many of the vines called Pinot blanc are a different variety, Melon de Bourgogne/Muscadet, that resembles Chardonnay when on the vine; this mistake was discovered around the mid-1980s by a French oenologist, examining rootstock while visiting University of California and now Pinot blanc purchased from a nursery will be the genuine article. The grape is grown in Austria and Hungary as well as in Burgundy, France. In Canada, Pinot blanc is used to make ice wine.
Canada's Okanagan Valley has developed a reputation for Pinot blanc as its signature wine. Pinot blanc has been confused with Chardonnay, wineries vinify it in a similar style, using barrel fermentation, new oak and malolactic fermentation, it can be treated more and made into a crisper wine that still has some ability to age. During a series of trials between 1930 and 1935, Pinot blanc was crossed with Riesling to create the white Italian wine grape variety Manzoni bianco. In Alsace and Hungary, the wine produced from this grape is a full-bodied dry white wine while in Germany and Austria they can be either dry or sweet. One of the components of the wine Vin Santo can be Pinot blanc. In France the grape is blended with Klevner, sometimes referred to by locals as "true Pinot," and Auxerrois grapes, in order to give it a more alsacian flavor. Bottles labeled Pinot Blanc offer fruity aromas of apple, citrus fruit, floral characteristics. Bottles that are varietally pure, although more difficult to find, provide stronger floral characteristics, stone fruits and a headier minerality.
Regardless of their exact composition, most wines under the label'Pinot Blanc' are rather high in acidity and are vinified in tank, though more prestigious examples are fermented in large, 100% used oak barrels. Pinot blanc wines are made for immediate consumption. Pinot blanc's name varies by region. In Austria it may be bottled as Klevner. Weissburgunder is used in the Südtirol/Alto Adige region of north east Italy and in Germany. Hungary calls it Fehér Burgundi. Spain and Italy refer to it as Pinot bianco. In the Czech Republic it is known as Rulandské Bílé, in Slovakia Rulandské Biele and in Croatia Pinot bijeli or Burgundac bijeli. In Serbia it is called Бели пино, Бели бургундац, Пино блан. International variety