Sir Ridley Scott is an English filmmaker. Following his commercial breakthrough in 1979 with the science fiction horror film Alien, further works include the neo-noir dystopian film Blade Runner, the road adventure film Thelma & Louise, the historical drama Gladiator and the science fiction film The Martian. Beginning his career in advertising where he honed his filmmaking skills by making inventive mini-films for television commercials, Scott's work is known for its atmospheric concentrated visual style. Though his films range in setting and period, they showcase memorable imagery of urban environments, whether 2nd-century Rome, 12th-century Jerusalem, Medieval England, contemporary Mogadishu, the future cityscapes of Blade Runner, or the distant planets in Alien, The Martian and Alien: Covenant. Several of his films are known for their strong female characters. Scott has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Directing. In 1995, both Ridley and his brother Tony received a BAFTA for Outstanding British Contribution To Cinema.
In 2003, Scott was knighted for his "services to the British film industry". In a 2004 BBC poll, Scott was named the tenth most influential person in British culture. In 2015, he received an honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art in London, in 2018 received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement. Scott was born in County Durham to Elizabeth and Colonel Francis Percy Scott. Scott's great uncle Dixon Scott was a pioneer of the cinema chain. One of Dixon's cinemas, Tyneside cinema, is still operating in Newcastle, it is the last remaining open newsreel cinema operating in the United Kingdom. Ridley Scott was born shortly before the Second World War, he was brought up in an army family, his father, an officer in the Royal Engineers, was absent for most of his early life. His elder brother, joined the British Merchant Navy when he was still young, the pair had little contact. During this time the family moved around, living in Cumberland in North West England and Germany, he had a younger brother, who became a film director.
After World War II, the Scott family moved back to their native North East settling on Greens Beck Road in Hartburn, County Durham, whose industrial landscape would inspire similar scenes in Blade Runner. His interest in science fiction began by reading the novels of H. G. Wells as a child, he was influenced by films: "The science-fiction films I saw around were things like It!, Them! and The Day the Earth Stood Still. They kind of got me going a little but nothing really caught my attention until I saw Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey. Once I saw that I knew what I could do." He studied at Grangefield Grammar School and West Hartlepool College of Art from 1954 to 1958, obtaining a diploma in design. Scott went on to study at the Royal College of Art in London, contributing to college magazine ARK and helping to establish the college film department. For his final show, he made a black and white short film and Bicycle, starring both his younger brother and his father. In February 1963 Scott was named in title credits as "Designer" for the BBC television programme Tonight, about the severe winter of 1963.
After graduation in 1963, he secured a job as a trainee set designer with the BBC, leading to work on the popular television police series Z-Cars and science fiction series Out of the Unknown. He was assigned to design the second Doctor Who serial, The Daleks, which would have entailed realising the serial's eponymous alien creatures. However, shortly before Scott was due to start work, a schedule conflict meant he was replaced by Raymond Cusick. In 1965, he began directing episodes of television series for the BBC, only one of which, an episode of Adam Adamant Lives!, is available commercially. In 1968, Ridley and Tony Scott founded Ridley Scott Associates, a film and commercial production company. Working alongside Alan Parker, Hugh Hudson and cinematographer Hugh Johnson, Ridley Scott made many commercials at RSA during the 1970s, including a 1973 Hovis bread advertisement, "Bike Round", filmed in Gold Hill, Dorset. A nostalgia themed television advert that captured the public imagination, it was voted the UK's favourite commercial in a 2006 poll.
In the 1970s the Chanel No. 5 brand needed revitalisation having run the risk of being labelled as mass market and passé. Directed by Scott in the 1970s and 1980s, Chanel television commercials were inventive mini-films with production values of surreal fantasy and seduction, which "played on the same visual imagery, with the same silhouette of the bottle."Five members of the Scott family are directors, all have worked for RSA. His brother Tony was a successful film director. Jake and Jordan both work from Los Angeles. In 1995, Shepperton Studios was purchased by a consortium headed by Ridley and Tony Scott, which extensively renovated the studios while expanding and improving its grounds; the Duellists marked Ridley Scott's first feature film as director. Shot in Europe, it was nominated for the main prize at the Cannes Film Festival, won an award for Best Debut Film; the Duellists had limited commercial impact inter
The evergreen toad is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is threatened by habitat loss, but is still categorized as a least-concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. A species cannot be assigned to the least-concern category unless it has had its population status evaluated; the evergreen toad can be colored with browns and yellows. These colors on its back and other areas of the body are arranged in a camouflage pattern that can be unique between each member of the species, its eyes are green with vertically slitted pupils. Adult males of the species can measure 53–72 mm and adult females 76–94 mm. Females and males in adulthood or easy to tell apart due to males having just abit brighter coloring. However, when they haven't metamorphosed yet and females are indistinguishable as all the tadpoles look identical, it is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Panama. The toad is found in lowland wet and moist forest zones, is less found in per-mountain wet forest and lower mountain wet forest zones.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, freshwater marshes, rural gardens, urban areas, degraded former forest. The Pacific Equatorial Forest is this green toad's home, it is present up to 1,550 m above sea level
The mango tilapia is a species of fish from the cichlid family, native to fresh and brackish waters in Africa and the Levant. Other common names include Galilaea tilapia, Galilean comb, Galilee St. Peter's fish, St. Peter's fish.. This is a large cichlid at up to 41 centimetres in total length and about 1.6 kilograms in weight. It is important to local fisheries and the species is aquacultured. In addition to the nominate subspecies, four subspecies were recognized in the past, but today the species is considered monotypic, it is a bi-parental mouthbrooder. The mating strategies can vary. Both uni-parent and bi-parent mouthbrooding is used, monogamous or polygamous behaviour; this widespread species is found in lakes and other fresh or brackish habitats in northern and central Africa, ranging as far south as the Guinea region, the Congo River Basin, Lake Albert and Lake Turkana. Outside Africa it is found in Syria and Israel, it is one of the few cichlids, found in Africa north of the Sahara and in Asia.
The typical temperature range is 22–28 °C, but it has been recorded from waters as cold as 9 °C. Mating is monogamous for the mango tilapia; the male and female will create a depression in the substrate, in which the female will lay her eggs. Afterwards, the male will fertilize the eggs. Mouth brooding is a tactic which, either male or female or both male and female and carries the eggs in their mouth for a time period of about two weeks. However, pair bonding ends. An experiment studying mate choice in the mango tilapia shows results of the correlation between operational sex ratio, characteristics of the body and pairing. In this study, the fish were exposed to different OSR's. Pair bonding was formed quicker between larger fish, there was a long delay in pairing for the most abundant sex in the OSR. In addition, this study showed that mango tilapia that mate within a similar size group have greater reproductive success. There is flexibility for male mango tilapia in their mating styles. During spawning, males can adapt the mating style of non territoriality.
Males can adapt other mating styles, like brooding participating or non participating in egg brooding and pairing or not pair bonding with the selected female. In addition to the multiple mating styles, the males show that they are able to select alternate reproductive styles, which are combinations of the mating styles that are mentioned above. Territoriality males were the most dominant group, but male reproductive behavior changes between different reproductive cycles; these mating styles are important factors in parental care. There are many levels of parental care in mango tilapia: biparental parental care. For the mango tilapia, parental care is important for the survival of the offspring. Parents who shared the job of incubation had double the reproductive success of other parents who did the job alone. Rather, for uniparental parental care, the parent's reproductive success for each brood was 20% higher. In terms of the relationship between caring strategies and clutch size, either parent is capable of caring for its offspring.
Levels of parental care in mango tilapia depend on the costs and benefits of staying versus departing. Some costs of both males and females were the growth and prolonged time until the next time they reproduce. In addition, parental care decreased a female's future ability to reproduce; this is plausible. Female mango tilapia have high parental care costs, which can be thought to be separated in two parts: egg production cost and parental care cost. In experiments studying parents deserting their children, deserting was more frequent in males and females when there were higher parental care costs and males deserting was more frequent when there was a reduced benefits from parental care; the Israel Mango tilapia is known there as "Galilee St. Peter's fish", in Arabic مشط أبيض musht'abyad, white and larger than the "Common St. Peter's fish". Another "St. Peter's fish" is the "Jordan St. Peter's fish", traditionally coming down the Jordan River from Lake Huleh to the Sea of Galilee and is black and larger than the white "Common St. Peter's fish"