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Rifle

A rifle is a single-person portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for accurate shooting to be held with both hands and braced against the shooter's shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore wall. The term was rifled gun, with the verb "rifle" referring to the early modern machining process of creating groovings with cutting tools; the modern noun "rifle" is used for any long-shaped handheld ranged weapon designed for well-aimed discharge activated by a trigger. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, small game hunting, competitive target shooting and casual sport shooting; the distinct feature that separates a rifle from the earlier smoothbore long guns is the rifling within its gun barrel. The raised areas of a barrel's rifling are called "lands", which make contact with and exert torque on the projectile as it moves within the bore, imparting a spin around its longitudinal axis.

When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin persists and lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile due to conservation of angular momentum, preventing yawing and tumbling in flight, in the same way that a spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This allows the use of more elongated and aerodynamically-efficient bullets and thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles are used extensively in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles.

The difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are. Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century.

Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm; this might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease.

The black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting. Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final dir

John Nangle, 16th Baron of Navan

John Nangle, 16th Baron of Navan ) was an Irish nobleman of the early Tudor era. He was renowned in his own lifetime as a courageous soldier, who fought with distinction at the Battle of Knockdoe, he was the son of Thomas Nangle, 15th Baron of Navan: his mother was Ismay Welles, daughter of Sir William Welles, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, his wife Anne Barnewall. The Nangle family had come to Ireland around 1172 and became substantial landowners in County Meath, although it has been said that most of them played a "curiously obscure" role in Irish history; the Baron of Navan was a feudal baron:that is, he was entitled to style himself a Baron but he was not a peer and did not have a seat in the Irish House of Lords. The date of Thomas's death is uncertain, but John had succeeded to the title by 1487. Like all of the Anglo-Irish nobility, Lord Navan appears to have followed without question the policies pursued by Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, who dominated Irish political life between the late 1470s and his death in 1513.

Along with nearly all the Irish nobility, Lord Navan joined with Kildare in 1487 in declaring that the pretender Lambert Simnel was the rightful King of England. Simnel was crowned in Christ Church Cathedral and invaded England with a Irish army, but was crushed at the Battle of Stoke Field; the victorious King Henry VII showed remarkable clemency by pardoning all of the surviving rebels, including Navan, as well as Simnel himself, given a job in the royal household. In 1488 Sir Richard Edgcumbe accepted Navan's pledge of fealty to King Henry. Lambert Simnel in Ireland. Lord Navan remained a loyal supporter of the Earl of Kildare and fought under his command against the Burkes of Clanricarde at the Battle of Knockdoe in 1504. Navan was praised for his courage in the fight. According to the account of the battle in the Book of Howth: MacSweeney struck Darcy such a blow that he put Darcy on his knee: that Nangle, Baron of Navan, being a lusty gentleman, that day gave MacSweeney such payment that he was satisfied after.

Navan's date of death is not recorded, but it must have been before 1508 when a deed refers to his widow having remarried. She was daughter of Sir Thomas Dowdall of Newtown, she and Navan had at least 2 children: Thomas, 17th Baron of Navan Elizabeth, who married Christopher Preston, a younger son of her stepfather Lord Gormanston by his first wife. Nangle, Frank A Short History of the Nangle Family 1986 Burke's Peerage 107th Edition Delaware 2003 Lodge and Archdall, Mervyn Peerage of Ireland Dublin 1789

Tippecanoe darter

The Tippecanoe darter is a species of darter endemic to the eastern United States. One of the smallest darters, E. tippecanoe never reaches lengths over 2.0 in. The body and fins of the male is dusky with vertical banding. Blue-black bars on the sides are darkest at the rear, it has 40-65 lateral scales. A breeding male will develop a bright orange throat, spots at the caudal fin base and fins margins; the female has dark vertical bars on its sides that are most visible near the tail, but they are less distinct than those on a male. The female has two yellow spots at the caudal fin base. All of their fins are clear with many dark spots scattered across them forming rows. On both sexes, the belly will bear few scales. A distinguishing characteristic is the two light spots at the base of the caudal fin, creating an hourglass shape; the circular banding around the head is distinctive. The center portion of their pelvic fins is a dark blue-black color; the Tippecanoe darter is distributed through Pennsylvania, Indiana, West Virginia and Tennessee, most in medium to large streams and rivers.

Adults are found in deeper, gravel/cobble riffles. Juveniles are segregated to shallower riffles. Most of their time is spent between rocks and under gravel, so they can be difficult to find. Previous specimen capture attempts have shown their preference to American water willow. <warren> Other similar plant species can be good indicators for possible E. tippecanoe habitat. This species has expanded its range in some areas, including the 2017 discovery of Tippecanoe Darters in Alum Creek on Ohio Dominican University's campus in Columbus, Ohio. In general, the Tippecanoe darter is an opportunistic darter species. Studies show; this darter is a general ambush-type feeder. The darter will lie in wait and "dart" up to grab passing insects from overhead. Juveniles consume; this could be related to ease of capture or because of availability. Juvenile Tippecanoe darters are displaced into shallower riffles, chironomids may be more prevalent in these areas. Adult darters consumed prey longer than 6 mm. During times of low food availability, E. tippecanoe may become more specialized due to interspecific competition in the area.

It is a direct competitor with other Etheostoma species in its habitat, including E. zonale, E. blennioides, E. flabellare. Localized human pollution that affects insect availability can have a direct effect on the Tippecanoe darter; as less food becomes available, E. tippecanoe will be lost because of its inability to alter prey size selection. Spawning activity takes place in spring to early summer when the temperature reaches and exceeds an average of 25 °C. E. tippecanoe is mature at one year and is ready to breed. A dominant male will establish a territory around large flat stones and attract multiple females to his nesting site; the females will bury themselves in gravel, with their caudal fins exposed. The dominate males will not tolerate other males in his territory and will vigorously defend his mates; the females will lay eggs and the males will fertilize them while the females are still in the gravel. During fertilization, a visible increase in male coloration can be observed. After fertilization, the males will leave the female to guard the eggs.

The eggs, on average, will hatch about 211 hours after being laid. Gravid females on average have been observed with 120 eggs. Hatchling range from 5.0 to 5.1 mm. E. tippecanoe may be a fractional spawner and could possible generate more eggs during the year. Egg burying by E. tippecanoe is thought to be preadaptive for the evolution of egg-clumping found in related species. Spawning activity of the Tippecanoe darter is similar to other related darters, such as the orangethroated darter Because the Tippecanoe darter needs clean gravel to spawn its eggs, it is sensitive to siltation. An area with poor erosion control upstream could easily wipe out a breeding population quickly; the Tippecanoe darter is listed as vulnerable in Kentucky and imperiled in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. The species is vulnerable to turbidity and siltation. In parts of the species native range where it is considered threatened, streamside management is an important tool. Improper forestry practices and road construction are all threats to the reproductive health of the species.

The Clean Water Act is the most important piece of legislation for this species. Another bill regulating nonpoint source pollution is pending a vote in Congress and could help the Tippecanoe darter. Indiana uses a common approach to address nonpoint source pollution known as the watershed approach, which assesses the total geographic area that drains storm water into a particular stream, aquifer, or other water body; this attempts to quantify all potential sources of pollution within a watershed. Management of the species requires monitoring of native populations; the Tippecanoe darter is a good indicator species and will be one of the first species to disappear after a pollution event. Because of its selectivity in breeding areas, it is important to monitor this species below logging or construction operations. Presence-absence surveys are important considering the short lifespan of the darter; the small size of the darter makes effective electroshocking difficult. Kick sei