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Right Livelihood Award

The Right Livelihood Award is an international award to "honour and support those offering practical and exemplary answers to the most urgent challenges facing us today." The prize was established in 1980 by German-Swedish philanthropist Jakob von Uexkull, is presented annually in early December. An international jury, invited by the five regular Right Livelihood Award board members, decides the awards in such fields as environmental protection, human rights, sustainable development, health and peace; the prize money is shared among the winners numbering four, is EUR 200,000. One of the four laureates receives an honorary award, which means that the other three share the prize money. Although it is promoted as an "Alternative Nobel Prize", it is not a Nobel prize, it does not have any organizational ties at all to the awarding institutions of the Nobel Prize or the Nobel Foundation, unlike the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, not technically a Nobel prize but is administered by the Nobel Foundation.

However, the Right Livelihood Award is sometimes popularly associated with the Nobel prizes. The Right Livelihood Award committee arranged for awards to be made in the Riksdag of Sweden the day before the Nobel prizes and the economics prize are awarded in Stockholm. However, the Right Livelihood Awards are understood as a critique of the traditional Nobel prizes; the establishment of the award followed a failed attempt to have the Nobel Foundation create new prizes in the areas of environmental protection, sustainable development and human rights. The prize has been awarded to a diverse group of people and organisations, including Wangari Maathai, Astrid Lindgren, Bianca Jagger, Mordechai Vanunu, Leopold Kohr, Arna Mer-Khamis, Felicia Langer, Petra Kelly, Survival International, Amy Goodman, Edward Snowden and Greta Thunberg. Since 1985, the ceremony has taken place in Stockholm's old Parliament building, in the days before the traditional Nobel prizes are awarded in the same city. A group of Swedish Parliamentarians from different parties host the ceremony.

However, in 2014 when it became public that one of the recipients of the 2014 prize was whistleblower Edward Snowden, the ceremonial group was disinvited from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs building in Stockholm. In 2019, marking the 40th anniversary of the foundation of the Award, the ceremony was held at Cirkus before a live audience of more than 1,200 people. World-renowned artists such as José González and Ane Brun were among the night's performers; some media refer to the prize as the Alternative Nobel Prize, the prize is understood as a critique of the traditional Nobel prizes. The prize differs from the Nobel Prizes: it is not a fulfillment of Alfred Nobel's bequest and thus not one of Nobel's own prizes, it is €200,000 compared to about €1,000,000 for a Nobel Prize. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences is financed by the Sveriges Riksbank. Jakob von Uexküll, a philanthropist, sold his stamp collection worth one million US dollars, which provided the initial funding for the award.

Before establishing the award in 1980, von Uexkull had tried to persuade the Nobel Foundation to establish new prizes to be awarded together with the Nobel Prizes. He suggested new prize categories to be created: one in development. Like the Nobel Economics Prize, this would have been possible with an amendment to the Nobel Foundation statutes and funding of the prize amount separate from Nobel's fortune; the Nobel Prize amount was 880,000 Swedish kronor at that time, which corresponded to 195,000 US dollars. However, as a result of the debate that followed the establishment of the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the Nobel Foundation had decided not to associate the Nobel Prize with any additional awards, so von Uexküll's proposal was rejected. From 1980-2019, the foundation presented awards to 178 Laureates from 70 countries, its self-described purpose is to bestow prizes and thus publicize the work of recipients' local solutions to worldwide problems.

Right livelihood List of awards for contributions to society List of environmental awards List of human rights awards List of humanitarian and service awards List of civil awards and decorations Pathiravitana, S.. A Great Son of Lanka. Sri Lanka Daily News, 8 November 2007. A history of the award. Retrieved on 2008-06-03 from https://web.archive.org/web/20080110104454/http://www.dailynews.lk/2007/11/08/fea01.asp. Official website Right Livelihood Laureates Discuss Their Battles for Social Justice – video report by Democracy Now

Integrated services

In computer networking, integrated services or IntServ is an architecture that specifies the elements to guarantee quality of service on networks. IntServ can for example be used to sound to reach the receiver without interruption. IntServ specifies a fine-grained QoS system, contrasted with DiffServ's coarse-grained control system. Under IntServ, every router in the system implements IntServ, every application that requires some kind of QoS guarantee has to make an individual reservation. Flow specs describe what the reservation is for, while RSVP is the underlying mechanism to signal it across the network. There are two parts to a flow spec: What does the traffic look like? Done in the Traffic SPECification part known as TSPEC. What guarantees does it need? Done in the service Request SPECification part known as RSPEC. TSPECs include token bucket algorithm parameters; the idea is that there is a token bucket which fills up with tokens, arriving at a constant rate. Every packet, sent requires a token, if there are no tokens it cannot be sent.

Thus, the rate at which tokens arrive dictates the average rate of traffic flow, while the depth of the bucket dictates how'bursty' the traffic is allowed to be. TSPECs just specify the token rate and the bucket depth. For example, a video with a refresh rate of 75 frames per second, with each frame taking 10 packets, might specify a token rate of 750 Hz, a bucket depth of only 10; the bucket depth would be sufficient to accommodate the'burst' associated with sending an entire frame all at once. On the other hand, a conversation would need a much higher bucket depth; this is because there are pauses in conversations, so they can make do with less tokens by not sending the gaps between words and sentences. However, this means the bucket depth needs to be increased to compensate for the traffic being burstier. RSPECs specify what requirements there are for the flow: it can be normal internet'best effort', in which case no reservation is needed; this setting is to be used for webpages, FTP, similar applications.

The'Controlled Load' setting mirrors the performance of a loaded network: there may be occasional glitches when two people access the same resource by chance, but both delay and drop rate are constant at the desired rate. This setting is to be used by soft QoS applications. The'Guaranteed' setting gives an bounded service, where the delay is promised to never go above a desired amount, packets never dropped, provided the traffic stays within spec; the Resource Reservation Protocol is described in RFC 2205. All machines on the network capable of sending QoS data send a PATH message every 30 seconds, which spreads out through the networks; those who want to listen to them send a corresponding RESV message which traces the path backwards to the sender. The RESV message contains the flow specs; the routers between the sender and listener have to decide if they can support the reservation being requested, and, if they cannot, they send a reject message to let the listener know about it. Otherwise, once they accept the reservation they have to carry the traffic.

The routers store the nature of the flow, police it. This is all done in soft state, so if nothing is heard for a certain length of time the reader will time out and the reservation will be cancelled; this solves the problem if either the sender or the receiver crash or are shut down incorrectly without first cancelling the reservation. The individual routers may, at their option, police the traffic to check that it conforms to the flow specs. In order for IntServ to work, all routers along the traffic path must support it. Furthermore, many states must be stored in each router; as a result, IntServ works on a small-scale, but as the system scales up to the size of the Internet, it is difficult to keep track of all of the reservations. One way to solve the scalability problem is by using a multi-level approach, where per-microflow resource reservation is done in the edge network, while in the core network resources are reserved for aggregate flows only; the routers that lie between these different levels must adjust the amount of aggregate bandwidth reserved from the core network so that the reservation requests for individual flows from the edge network can be better satisfied.

RFC 1633 - Integrated Services in the Internet Architecture: an Overview RFC 2211 - Specification of the Controlled-Load Network Element Service RFC 2212 - Specification of Guaranteed Quality of Service RFC 2215 - General Characterization Parameters for Integrated Service Network Elements RFC 2205 - Resource ReSerVation Protocol Cisco.com, Cisco Whitepaper about IntServ and DiffServ

Adairsville High School

Adairsville High School is a four-year public high school located in Adairsville, United States. It enrolls students in grades 9-12; the many clubs and societies available to the students include: Band Fellowship of Christian Athletes Future Business Leaders of America Future Farmers of America Health Occupations Students of America Matheletes National Beta Club Newspaper One-Act Play Pep Club Prom Committee Renaissance Program Rotary International Science Club Students Against Destructive Decisions Thespian Club The Adairsville Tigers play in the GHSA's AAA division. In the fall of 2015 the Adairsville High football team went to the third round of the playoffs. In 2013 the Adairsville Tigers competition cheerleading team made it to the state championships for the first time in school history On March 22, 2008, the Tiger Battalion Drill and Color Guard teams competed at state, where they took home first place in male unarmed squad and female color guard. On March 24, 2011, the Tiger Battalion Drill team competed at the sixth brigade state drill competition and took first place in male armed platoon.

On November 8, 2008, the male and female Tiger Battalion Raider teams competed at the National Raider Meet, where the female team took home second place. In 2013, Adairsville's female Raider team won its first national championship. In 2014, Adairsville's male and female Raider teams won the Georgia state raider championship; the female team won their second consecutive national championship. The boys' tennis team won back-to-back region championships in 1995 and 1996, they were the Class A #1 ranked public school team in the state both years. In 2004, Armando Miccoli submitted several forms to the United States Army JROTC program and the Bartow County School Board to add the JROTC program to Adairsville High School. Two years Major David Sexauer came to Adairsville with the program; that year, Sergeant First Class Charles Gibbs joined Maj. Sexuaer, the two created Raiders, Drill Team, Color Guard for the program. On October 15, 2008, the Battalion was approved to start a Rifle Team. Since First Sergeant Jerry Queen has joined the Tiger Battalion as AI in place of Sgt.

Gibbs. On March 27, 2008 they took part in a Brigade Inspection; every three years all JROTC Battalions must participate in a formal inspection led by a member from the Sixth Brigade Headquarters and other senior members from various other schools. Subjects in the inspections include various areas of the battalion, such as the supply room, personnel records, public relations; the Battalion Staff gave the inspectors a formal military style briefing over their different jobs. Each company was inspected for correct uniform wear and knowledge over questions. A Drill and Color Guard team was inspected. Tiger Battalion scored a 589 out of a possible, 600 giving it the title of Honor Unit with Distinction. Vic Beasley - defensive end for the Atlanta Falcons