Rights of Englishmen

The "rights of Englishmen" are the perceived traditional rights of English subjects and English speaking subjects of the British crown. In the 18th century, some of the colonists who objected to British rule in the British colonies in North America argued that their traditional rights as Englishmen were being violated; the colonists wanted and expected the rights that they had enjoyed in England: a local, representative government, with regards to judicial matters and with regards to taxation. Belief in these rights subsequently became a accepted justification for the American Revolution; the American colonies had since the 17th century been fertile ground for liberalism within the center of European political discourse. However, as the ratification of the Declaration of Independence approached, the issue among the colonists of which particular rights were significant became divisive. George Mason, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, stated that "We claim nothing but the liberty and privileges of Englishmen in the same degree, as if we had continued among our brethren in Great Britain."

In the tradition of Whig history, Judge William Blackstone called them "The absolute rights of every Englishman", explained how they had been established over centuries of English history, in his book on Fundamental Laws of England, the first part of his influential Commentaries on the Laws of England. They were certain basic rights that all subjects of the English monarch were understood to be entitled to, such as those expressed in Magna Carta since 1215, the Petition of Right in 1628, the Habeas Corpus Act 1679 and the Bill of Rights 1689. In a legal case in 1608 that came to be known as Calvin's Case, or the Case of the Postnati, the Law Lords decided in 1608 that Scotsmen born after King James I united Scotland and England had all the rights of Englishmen; this decision would have a subsequent effect on the concept of the "rights of Englishmen" in British America. Some scholars "believed" that the case did not fit British America's situation, thus reasoned that the 18th-century colonists could "claim all the rights and protections of English citizenship."

The legal apologists for the American Revolution claimed they had "improved on the rights of Englishmen" by creating additional, purely American rights. Owing to its inclusion in the standard legal treatises of the 19th century, Calvin's Case was well known in the early judicial history of the United States. Consideration of the case by the United States Supreme Court and by state courts transformed it into a rule regarding American citizenship and solidified the concept of jus soli – the right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state – as the primary determining factor controlling the acquisition of citizenship by birth; the Supreme Court Justice Joseph P. Bradley asserted that the "rights of Englishmen" were a foundation of American law in his dissenting opinion on the Slaughter-House Cases, the first Supreme Court interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, in 1873. Civil and political rights Civil liberties in the United Kingdom First Charter of Virginia Natural and legal rights Parliament in the Making Roman citizenship English Bill of Rights

Wasserburg am Inn

Wasserburg am Inn is a town in Rosenheim district in Upper Bavaria, Germany. The historic centre is a peninsula formed by the meandering Inn River. Many Medieval structures remain intact; the town was first mentioned in a document in 1137, when Hallgraf Engelbert moved his residence from the nearby castle Limburg to his "Wasserburg". It is one of the most historic towns of Old Bavaria – somewhat older than Munich, continually fought over by the Bavarian nobility and, up to the 16th century, on an equal footing with larger cities; the privileges afforded by this enabled the salt trade to flourish right into the 19th century. At the junction of the main overland route with the main water route, Wasserburg became the most important trade centre with the Balkans and Italy, a means of attaining power and wealth for the shipping owners and merchants. In the early days, Wasserburg was an important hub in the salt trade, its bridge was the only possibility to cross the river Inn for 30 km in both directions.

On its shore the salt, mined in Berchtesgaden or produced in the Saline at Bad Reichenhall and shipped from there by cart, could be loaded on ships travelling on the Inn River. Up to the 17th century Wasserburg was used as the port of the capital Munich. Up until 1972, when it was merged with the district Rosenheim, Wasserburg was a district capital on its own; the population of Wasserburg is approx. 12,000. Gustav Meyrink's most esoteric novel The White Dominican is set in a mystical version of the town of Wasserburg


Eskimal is a 2011 Mexican short stop motion animated film created by Homero Ramírez Tena. The film is about climate change melting ice at the poles; the film is set in a fantastical version of the polar regions, threatened by pollution. Eskimal and Morsa have to save the Great Glacier; the film was created as Ramírez's graduation project at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, produced in 2008 with the help of the university television station and the Mexican Film Institute. It was filmed in 2009, used several techniques to make the plush puppets appear life like, including using reference footage of the action and deep background green screens. There is some CGI animation used, for example with liquids and to overlay snowdrifts on top of the image; the film won a 2011 grant for postproduction of animated short films, from IMCINE. The film was released on Vimeo, it has been screened at over 100 film festivals around the world, including the Toronto Kids International Film Festival, Havana International Film Festival and the Festival International du Film D'environnement, the Giffoni Film Festival.

The aggregate public score on FilmIn Latino is 8.8/10, where it was recommended for showing "the world and now". The film has won several international awards, including Best Animated Short at both Sydney Latin American Film Festival and at the Margarita Latin American and Caribbean Film Festival, it has won an environment award. Eskimal on IMDb