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The Riigikogu is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. All important state-related questions pass through the Riigikogu. In addition to approving legislation, the Riigikogu appoints high officials, including the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, elects the President; the Riigikogu ratifies significant foreign treaties that impose military and proprietary obligations, bring about changes in law, etc.. April 23, 1919, the opening session of the Estonian Constituent Assembly is the birthday of the Estonian Parliament; the first elections to the Riigikogu took place in 1920. From 1920 to 1938, there were five more elections to the Riigikogu, but several were on the basis of different constitutions. In 1920–1923 there was a closed list, while from 1926 to 1934 there was an optional open list choice; the basis of election was until 1932 proportional representation. The elections were on a regional basis, without any threshold in the first two elections, but from 1926 a moderate threshold was used.

From 1938–1940 the National Assembly was divided into two chambers: The Chamber of Deputies and the National Council. It was replaced by the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia. Since 1922, the sessions of the Riigikogu have taken place in the Toompea castle, where a new building in an unusual Expressionist style was erected in the former courtyard of the medieval castle in 1920–1922. During the subsequent periods of Soviet occupation, German occupation and the second Soviet occupation the Riigikogu was disbanded; the castle and the building of the Riigikogu were used by the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR during the second Soviet occupation. In September 1992, a year after Estonia had regained its independence from the Soviet Union, elections to the Riigikogu took place according to the Constitution of Estonia adopted in the summer of the same year. According to the 1992 constitution, the Riigikogu has 101 members; the present Riigikogu was elected on March 3, 2019.

The main differences between this system and a pure political representation, or proportional representation, system are the established 5% national threshold, the use of a modified D'Hondt formula. This modification makes for more disproportionality. Reform Party 34 party leader: Kaja Kallas Centre Party 25 party leader: Jüri Ratas Conservative People's Party of Estonia 19 party leader: Mart Helme Pro Patria 12 party leader: Helir-Valdor Seeder Social Democratic Party of Estonia 10 party leader: Jevgeni Ossinovski Independent 1 independent MP: Raimond Kaljulaid The salary of the speaker is €5,288 per month. Riigikogu's website Riigikogu's website Riigkogu's election law List of members of the Parliament of Estonia Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic


Porites is a genus of stony coral. They are characterised by a finger-like morphology. Members of this genus have spaced calices, a well-developed wall reticulum and are bilaterally symmetrical. Porites Porites lutea form microatolls. Corals of the genus Porites often serve as hosts for Christmas tree worms. Specimens of Porites are sometimes available for purchase in the aquarium trade. Due to the strict water quality and dietary requirements, keeping Porites in captivity is difficult. Most Porites that are collected have Christmas tree worms that bore into the coral, serving as additional aesthetic livestock; these particular Porites specimens are called "christmas tree worm rocks" or "christmas tree worm coral". Porites corals have been shown to be accurate and precise recorders of past marine surface conditions. Measurements of the oxygen isotopic composition of the aragonitic skeleton of coral specimens indicate the sea-surface temperature conditions and the oxygen isotopic composition of the seawater at the time of growth.

The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater can indicate the precipitation/evaporation balance because oxygen atoms of the more abundant mass 16 will preferentially evaporate before the more rare mass 18 oxygen. The relationship between temperature and the oxygen isotopic composition of Porites corals is important for reconstructing past climates, associated large-scale patterns such as the El-Nino Southern Oscillation, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the mean state of the climate system. Corals in the genus Porites are found in reefs throughout the world, it is a dominant taxon on the Pandora platform of the Great Barrier Reef. Potts et al. identified 7 dominant species: P. lobata, P. solida, P. lutea, P. australiensis, P. mayeri, P. murrayensis, P. anae. The oldest of six colonies in this reef was 700 years old, was estimated to be growing at 10.3 mm per year. Meyer and Schultz demonstrated that P. furcata has a mutualistic relationship with the schools of French and white grunts that rest in their heads during the day.

The fish provide it with ammonium and phosphorus compounds. Coral heads with resting grunts experience higher growth rates and nitrogen composition than those without. Representatives of this genus are found in both the Caribbean basins; some species in this genus demonstrate high levels of halotolerance. In the Gulf of Thailand P. lutea tolerates daily tidal shifts of 10-30‰ salinity. Moberg et al. determined that when the salinity declines, the symbiotic zooxanthellae decrease their photosynthesis rate as the coral contracts its polyps to protect them. The corals maintain their metabolic rate by temporarily switching to heterotrophy, consuming prey such as brine shrimp and other zooplankton. Porites growth rates can be determined by examining annual rings in their skeleton; this method was used to determine that P. astreoides grows its skeleton about the central axis by 3.67mm/year, calcifies at 0.55g/cm²/year, increases density in this region of the body at 1.69g/cm³/year. Additionally and Schultz reported that coral growth varies seasonally.

They observed that P. furcata's growth rate peaked between May and August, summertime in their Caribbean habitat. Threats to corals in the genus Porites include predation, climate change, anthropogenic pollution; when exposed to increased temperatures and copper, P. cylindrica slowed its rate of production. Additionally, the symbiotic zooxanthellae reduced their photosynthesis rate when exposed to both stressors. Done and Potts observed that when settled, larvae in Porites are vulnerable to competition from other corals and predation from sea urchins. Additionally, mortality likelihood increases following strong storms

Liturgy of Saint Tikhon

The Liturgy of St. Tikhon is one of the Divine Liturgies authorized for use by the Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate of the Orthodox Church, it is authorized for use in the AWRV in two forms—that of the Orthodox Missal and that of the Saint Andrew's Service Book. The Liturgy of St Tikhon was produced in the 1970s for use by Episcopalians who wished to convert to Orthodoxy but retain the liturgy to which they were accustomed; the text of the liturgy, therefore, is based upon the Episcopal Church's 1928 Book of Common Prayer, along with certain features of the Tridentine Mass, as well certain modifications to make it conform to Orthodox theology and practice. The adaptation of the rite was the work of Father Joseph Angwin; the naming of the liturgy after St Tikhon the Enlightener of America is based upon events that occurred when St Tikhon was the ruling bishop of the American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. Some Episcopalians who wished to become Orthodox asked Bishop Tikhon whether they might be allowed to continue to use their Anglican liturgy, that of the American 1892 Book of Common Prayer.

He sent the BCP to Moscow. The final report addressed the changes that would need to be made in the BCP in order to make it suitable for Orthodox worship, but neither the commission nor Bishop Tikhon approved a rite. Asperges Collect for Purity Summary of the Law Kyrie eleison Gloria in excelsis Collect of the Day Epistle Gradual Alleluia Gospel Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed Offertory Prayer for the whole state of Christ's Church Confession of sin and absolution Comfortable Words Dialogue Preface Sanctus Canon Lord's Prayer Fraction Agnus Dei Prayer of Humble Access Holy Communion Prayer of thanksgiving after Communion Dismissal Blessing of the faithful Last Gospel Orthodox Missal Saint Andrew's Service Book, 2nd edition Western Rite Orthodoxy Text of the Liturgy of St. Tikhon Russian observations on the American Prayer Book St. Tikhon Liturgy not Cranmerian

Television in Latin America

Television in Latin America includes more than 1,500 television stations and more than 60 million TV sets throughout the 20 countries that constitute Latin America. Due to economic and political problems television networks in some countries of this region have developed less than the North American and European networks, for instance. In other countries like Colombia or Chile, television broadcasting has been public-broadcast dominated until the 1990s; the largest commercial television groups are Mexico-based Televisa, Brazil-based Globo and Canada-based Canwest Latin American Group. Due to the shared language of Spanish by two thirds of Latin Americans a lot of programmes and broadcasters operate throughout the region, offering both United States television and Spanish-language television. El Trece Telefe Canal 9 TV Pública América 2 Online TV TyC Sports Activa TV PAT Bolivisión Rede Globo Rede Record Rede Bandeirantes SBT RedeTV! TV Cultura TV Brasil Rede Gazeta UCV Televisión, channel 5 Canal 13, channel 13 Chilevisión, channel 11 TVN, channel 7 Mega, channel 9 La Red, channel 4 Telecanal, channel 2 Caracol TV RCN TV Canal Uno Canal 38 Estereo Conexion TV Repretel 4 Repretel 6 Repretel 9 Repretel 11 Sinart Teletica UCR TV TeleAntillas - Channel 2 Corporación Estatal de Radio y Television CERTV - Channel 4 Public TV Station Telemicro Antena Latina - Channel 7 Color Visión Telesistema Dominicano - Channel 11 Telecentro - Channel 13 Sport Vision - Channel 35 Cana TV - Popular local morning shows, news coverage, cooking shows and family entertainment Vegateve CDN 37 SuperCanal Canal 12 Ágape TV Canal 8 Megavisión Telecorporacion Salvadoreña Televisión Cultural Educativa VHF Canal 3 Canal 5 TV Maya Canal 7 Televisiete Canal 9 TV Congreso Canal 11 Tele-Once Canal 13 Trecevisión UHF Canal 19 Albanoticias -mirrored- Canal 21 Enlace Canal 23 Albanoticias Canal 25 Guatevision Canal 27 El canal de la Esperanza Canal 31 TV Azteca Guatemala Canal 33 TV USAC Canal 35 TV Azteca Guatemala Canal 37 Telecentro -mirrored- Canal 41 Telecentro Canal 61 Enlace Juvenil Canal 63 Televisión Arquidiocesana Canal 65 Family TVSatellite 18-50 TV Canal Antigua Vea Canal GuatevisionGuatemala don't have a digital terrestrial standard yet, but it seems that ISDB-T it will be the norm.

Albavision used to broadcast for 4 years in the ATSC norm on channel 19 HDTV, but is back to analog on that same frequency. Globo Tv Honduras Canal 3 Quimistan Televicentro Canal 6 Teleceiba 7 Sulavision TEN Villavision Canal 11 Yojoa Tv Telemas Canal 13 Televisa TV Azteca Canal Once Mexico Telehit Gala TV Foro TV Cadenatres El Trece LaTele Paravisión Red Guaraní SNT Cerro Corá Telefuturo Unicanal TV Pública Paraguay Frequency numbers for Lima in analog TV. Channel 2 Frecuencia Latina Channel 4 América TV Channel 5 Panamericana TV Channel 7 TV Perú Channel 9 ATV Channel 11 RBC Channel 13 Global TV National channels from Telefónica's Cable Mágico, the country's most popular operator. Plus TV Canal N CMD Puerto Rico follows USA TV Code system Telemundo de PR Sistema TV WAPA TV. Puerto Rico TV government TeleIsla Univisión PR Canal de Vídeos TeleOro religious-catholic church New conscience network (WUJA La cadena del milagro WCCV RELIGIOUS MUNDO FOX PR Mega tv pr WSJU Telesur pr WECN Bayamon Christian network WDWL RELIGIOUS AMÉRICA TE VE PR Canal iglesia de dios Pentecostal WIDP RELIGIOUS VMAX Accu weather WMEI WAPA 2 Punto dos Canal 3 Colonia Saeta TV Channel 10 Latin American television awards

Caroline de Toni

Caroline Rodrigues de Toni is a Brazilian politician and lawyer. She has spent her political career representing Santa Catarina, having served in the state legislature since 2019. De Toni graduated with a degree in law from the Community University of the Chapecó Region and earned a master's degree in public law from Estácio de Sá University. De Toni is part of spiritualist community of Brazil. Together with Rafael Motta and Eduardo Girão she helped pass the resolution declaring "National Day of Spiritism" as a federal holiday, on April 18, the date of publication of "The Book of Spirits" by Allan Kardec. In 2016 De Toni was elected to the council of her hometown of Chapecó with 1,589 votes or 1.47% of the total ballot. She served from 2016 to 2018 representing the Progressive Party. In 2018 she joined the Social Liberal Party, becoming the vice-leader for the party chapter in Santa Catarina. In the 2018 Brazilian general elections she was elected to the lower house of the legislative assembly with 109, 363 being the most voted female candidate in the state

William T. Nichols

William Thomas Nichols was a 19th-century politician and businessman. He served in both houses of the Vermont legislature and commanded the 14th Vermont Infantry during the American Civil War. After the war, he became a founder of the Illinois village of Maywood, now a suburb of Chicago. William T. Nichols was born in Clarendon, the son of James Tilson Nichols and Minerva D. Nichols. Trained as a lawyer, he served as an assistant clerk in Vermont’s House of Representatives and as the state's attorney in 1858–59. In 1855, he traveled to Kansas Territory and became involved in the dispute over whether the territory would enter the United States as a slave-owning or free state. At one point, he volunteered for the risky task of delivering dispatches from the journalist William A. Phillips to Charles L. Robinson, a Free-Stater, acting as territorial governor and who would become the first governor of the state of Kansas. For this service, Nichols was appointed to Robinson's staff with the rank of colonel.

He returned to Vermont the following year. Nichols served in two volunteer Vermont regiments during the Civil War. In 1861, he enlisted as a private in the short-lived 1st Vermont Infantry, remaining until the unit was mustered out of service three months later. In 1862, he was commissioned colonel to command the 14th Vermont Infantry, he led his regiment in repulsing Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg. Shortly after Gettysburg, the 14th Vermont Infantry was mustered out of service. Nichols's service in the state legislature overlapped the war years. In September 1861, just after the 1st Vermont Infantry was disbanded, he was elected to the Vermont House of Representatives. In 1863, after the disbanding of the 14th Vermont Infantry, he was elected to the Vermont Senate, becoming the youngest man to serve as a Vermont state senator. After the war, having lost money in various investments, Nichols determined to go south to invest in real estate. In October 1865, Nichols took passage on the SS Republic steamship, bound for New Orleans.

It sank. Nichols—who afterwards wrote a detailed account of the sinking to his wife in a letter that has survived—managed to get into lifeboat number 2, which two days was rescued by the sailing ship Horace Beals. Once arrived in the south, Nichols invested in a tannery. Nichols did not stay in the south and ended up in the area of Chicago, Illinois. On April 6, 1869, with six other men, he founded the Maywood Company, a consortium that led to the incorporation of the village of Maywood, Illinois, in 1881. Maywood, now a suburb of Chicago, was named in honor of Nichols's daughter May. Nichols served as the president of the company until his death. Nichols was the president and treasurer of a subsidiary venture that manufactured farm tools, the Chicago Scraper and Ditcher Company. In 1878, he patented a new version of the screw harrow for soil cultivation. Nichols died of pneumonia in Maywood in 1882 and is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Rutland, Vermont. Nichols married Thyrza Stevens Crampton, they had two daughters and Lucy.

Thyrza and May both died of typhoid fever in 1865. May died before Nichols left on his ill-fated voyage on the SS Republic, Thyrza died shortly after she learned that Nichols had survived the shipwreck. Nichols remarried, with his second wife being Thyrza's sister Helen. Nichols's great-great-granddaughter is the writer Thyrza Nichols Goodeve, she accompanied a 2004 expedition to the site of the SS Republic wreck, located the year before. Maywood Company Records – finding aid William T. Nichols at Find a Grave