The Rijksmuseum is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam. The museum is located at the Museum Square in the borough Amsterdam South, close to the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, the Concertgebouw; the Rijksmuseum was founded in The Hague on 19 November 1798 and moved to Amsterdam in 1808, where it was first located in the Royal Palace and in the Trippenhuis. The current main building was designed by Pierre Cuypers and first opened in 1885. On 13 April 2013, after a ten-year renovation which cost € 375 million, the main building was reopened by Queen Beatrix. In 2013 and 2014, it was the most visited museum in the Netherlands with record numbers of 2.2 million and 2.47 million visitors. It is the largest art museum in the country; the museum has on display 8,000 objects of art and history, from their total collection of 1 million objects from the years 1200–2000, among which are some masterpieces by Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer. The museum has a small Asian collection, on display in the Asian pavilion.
In 1795, the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. The Minister of Finance Isaac Gogel argued that a national museum, following the French example of The Louvre, would serve the national interest. On 19 November 1798, the government decided to found the museum. On 31 May 1800, the National Art Gallery, precursor of the Rijksmuseum, opened in Huis ten Bosch in The Hague; the museum exhibited around 200 paintings and historic objects from the collections of the Dutch stadtholders. In 1805, the National Art Gallery moved within The Hague to the Prince William V Gallery, on the Buitenhof. In 1806, the Kingdom of Holland was established by Napoleon Bonaparte. On the orders of king Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, the museum moved to Amsterdam in 1808; the paintings owned by that city, such as The Night Watch by Rembrandt, became part of the collection. In 1809, the museum opened in the Royal Palace in Amsterdam. In 1817, the museum moved to the Trippenhuis; the Trippenhuis turned out to be unsuitable as a museum.
In 1820, the historical objects were moved to the Mauritshuis in The Hague and in 1838, the 19th-century paintings "of living masters" were moved to King Louis Bonaparte's former summer palace Paviljoen Welgelegen in Haarlem. In 1863, there was a design contest for a new building for the Rijksmuseum, but none of the submissions was considered to be of sufficient quality. Pierre Cuypers participated in the contest and his submission reached the second place. In 1876, a new contest was held and this time Pierre Cuypers won; the design was a combination of renaissance elements. The construction began on 1 October 1876. On both the inside and the outside, the building was richly decorated with references to Dutch art history. Another contest was held for these decorations; the winners were B. van Hove and J. F. Vermeylen for the sculptures, G. Sturm for the tile tableaus and painting and W. F. Dixon for the stained glass; the museum was opened at its new location on 13 July 1885. In 1890, a new building was added a short distance to the south-west of the Rijksmuseum.
As the building was made out of fragments of demolished buildings, the building offers an overview of the history of Dutch architecture and has come to be known informally as the'fragment building'. It is known as the'south wing' and is branded the Philips Wing. In 1906, the hall for the Night Watch was rebuilt. In the interior more changes were made between the 1920s and 1950s - most multi-coloured wall decorations were painted over. In the 1960s exposition rooms and several floors were built into the two courtyards; the building had some minor renovations and restorations in 1984, 1995–1996 and 2000. A renovation of the south wing of the museum known as the'fragment building' or'Philips Wing', was completed in 1996, the same year that the museum held its first major photography exhibition featuring its extensive collection of 19th-century photos. In December 2003, the main building of the museum closed for a major renovation. During this renovation, about 400 objects from the collection were on display in the'fragment building', including Rembrandt's The Night Watch and other 17th-century masterpieces.
The restoration and renovation of the Rijksmuseum are based on a design by Spanish architects Antonio Cruz and Antonio Ortiz. Many of the old interior decorations were restored and the floors in the courtyards were removed; the renovation would have taken five years, but was delayed and took ten years to complete. The renovation cost € 375 million; the reconstruction of the building was completed on 16 July 2012. In March 2013, the museum's main pieces of art were moved back from the'fragment building' to the main building; the Night Watch returned at the end of the Hall of Fame. On 13 April 2013, the main building was reopened by Queen Beatrix. On 1 November 2014, the Philips Wing reopened with the exhibition Modern Times: Photography in the 20th Century. Cornelis Sebille Roos Cornelis Apostool Jan Willem Pieneman Johann Wilhelm Kaiser Frederik Daniël Otto Obreen Barthold Willem Floris van Riemsdijk Frederik Schmidt-Degener David Röell Arthur F. E. van Schendel Simon Levie Henk van Os Ronald de Leeuw Wim Pijbes Taco Dibbits The building of the Rijksmuseum was designed by Pierre Cuypers and opened in 1885.
It consists of two squares with an atrium in each centre. In the central axis is a tunnel with the entrances at ground level and the Gallery of Honour at the first floor; the bui
Teodoro Sánchez de Bustamante was an Argentine statesman and soldier. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina. Sánchez de Bustamante was born in Jujuy to Manuel Sánchez de Bustamante and María Tomasa González de Araujo y Ortiz de Zárate, was a descendant of the founder of Jujuy, Francisco Argañaraz y Murguía, he studied in Salta at the school of José León Cabezón in Buenos Aires at the Real Colegio de San Carlos. He qualified as a lawyer in 1804 at the University of Charcas and was named Relator of the Audiencia Real there, President of the Forensic Academy. Sánchez de Bustamante took part in the 1809 uprising in Chuquisaca that pre-dated the 1810 May Revolution in Buenos Aires; the leader of the revolutionaries, Coronel Arenales, leader of the revolutionaries, named him captain in the Compañía de Practicantes. The uprising was suppressed by Mariscal Nieto and the leaders captured and sent to Callao, but Sánchez de Bustamante managed to flee to Jujuy.
He met his friend Mariano Moreno. Moreno named him as attorney of the Audiencia, a position which he held until 1811, before returning to his hometown as general assistant of the city's Cabildo and courts. In 1813 General Manuel Belgrano named him as secretary of the Army of the North in the campaign in modern Peru and Bolivia. Belgrano's successor, General José de San Martín, promoted him to be his secretary, Rondeau made him secretary-general in 1814, he participated in the Battle of Sipe Sipe in November 1815. In 1815 Sánchez de Bustamante was elected by Jujuy to the Tucumán Congress and served in 1816 for the declaration. In 1819, he became president of the congress until it dissolved in 1820, he served as government secretary to Juan Antonio Álvarez de Arenales in 1824, served as acting governor of Salta when Alvarez travelled to Alto Perú. He was governor of Jujuy from 1826 to 1827. Having left politics, Sánchez de Bustamante moved to Sucre in 1831 to teach, he retired in 1837 due to ill health.
He died in Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1851.
St David's Church, Llangeview, is a redundant church sited in a round churchyard adjacent to the junction of the A449 and A472 roads 1 mile to the east of the town of Usk in Monmouthshire, Wales. It has been designated by Cadw as a Grade I listed building, is under the care of the Friends of Friendless Churches, it is Grade I listed because of its "exceptional interior" including a 15th-century rood-loft and "rare pre-Victorian box pews and fittings". The church stands in a churchyard, circular, is surrounded by a bank and the traces of a ditch; the first record of a church on the site is in 1254. However the present church dates from the 15th century and it was originally dedicated to Saint Cyfyw; the Monmouthshire author and artist, Fred Hando, records this dedication in his Journeys in Gwent, published in 1951. It was declared redundant in 1999; the charity the Friends of Friendless Churches holds a 999 year lease with effect from 19 November 1999. Since repairs have been carried out to the exterior.
St David's has stone tile roofs. Its plan consists with a west porch. On the east gable is a cross finial, on the west gable is a bellcote; the bellcote has two triangular openings. On the south side of the church are three windows in Perpendicular style; the east window has three lights. At the east end of the nave on each side is a buttress, there is a Tudor arched door on the south wall of the chancel; the church has a "remarkable unrestored interior with 18th-century fittings". Its floor slopes downwards from the west; the walls are whitewashed. The frame and the front of the loft of the original 15th-century rood screen are still present; the architectural historian John Newman records this as an "important medieval survival". There is a set of pre-Victorian box pews; these include a large squire's pew, above, a monument to William Jones who died in 1829. The pulpit is five-sided, the communion rail is supported by turned balusters. There are a small, damaged piscina in the south wall; the font is square on a square base.
On the floor of the nave and the chancel, on the north wall, are memorial slabs. Hando, Fred. Journeys in Gwent. Newport: R. H. Johns Ltd. OCLC 30202753. Newman, John. Gwent/Monmouthshire; the Buildings of Wales. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-071053-1