Rim (firearms)

A rim is an external flange, machined, molded, stamped or pressed around the bottom of a firearms cartridge. Thus, rimmed cartridges are sometimes called "flanged" cartridges. All cartridges feature an extractor or headspacing rim, in spite of the fact that some cartridges are known as "rimless cartridges"; the rim may serve a number of purposes, including providing a lip for the extractor to engage, sometimes serving to headspace the cartridge. There are various types of firearms rims in use in modern ammunition; these types are rimmed, semi-rimmed, rebated rim, belted. These categories describe the size of the rim in relation to the base of the case; the rimmed cartridge, sometimes called flanged cartridge, is the oldest of the types and has a rim, larger in diameter than the base of the cartridge. Rimmed cartridges use the rim to hold the cartridge in the chamber of the firearm, with the rim serving to hold the cartridge at the proper depth in the chamber—this function is called "headspacing".

Because the rimmed cartridge headspaces on the rim, the case length is of less importance than with rimless cartridges. This allows some firearms chambered for similar rimmed cartridges to safely chamber and fire shorter cartridges, such as using.38 Special cartridges in a.357 Magnum revolver. Rimmed cartridges are well suited to certain types of actions, such as revolvers and break-action firearms, where the rim helps hold the cartridge in position. Rimmed cartridges do not work quite as well in firearms that feed from a box magazine, since the magazine must be loaded so that the rim from each successive case is loaded ahead of the round beneath it, so the round will not snag on the rim of the cartridge below it as the bolt strips it out of the magazine. However, box magazine firearms firing rimmed. Semi-automatic handguns have been chambered in rimmed cartridges as well, for example a LAR Grizzly or Desert Eagle in.357 or.44 Magnum. Some types of rimmed cartridges, such as rimfire cartridges use the rim to contain the priming compound used to ignite the cartridge instead of a centrally-mounted primer such as used in centerfire cartridges.

Under the metric cartridge designation system, a capitalized "R" added at the end of the designation denotes a rimmed cartridge. For example, "7.62 × 54mmR" is a rimmed cartridge. Under Imperial designations, there is no distinction between rimmed and unrimmed cartridges, unless one is referring to a rimmed version of a cartridge, rimless, such as the.45 Auto Rim, a special rimmed version of the.45 ACP, intended for use in M1917 service revolvers. Examples of rimmed handgun cartridges include.44 Magnum. Rimmed rifle cartridge examples include the.22 Hornet.303 British and 7.62×54mmR. On a "rimless" case, the rim has or the same diameter as the base of the case. Since there is no rim projecting past the edge of the case, the cartridge must headspace on the case mouth, for a straight walled case, or on the case's shoulder for a bottlenecked case; the lack of a projecting rim makes rimless cases feed smoothly from box magazines, they are used in firearms that feed from a box magazine, although they work well in belt and tube-fed weapons.

Rimless cases are not well suited to break-open and revolver actions, though they can be used with appropriate modifications, such as a spring-loaded extractor or, in a revolver, a moon clip. Since a straight-walled rimless cartridge is designed to headspace off of the case mouth, this prevents the ammunition loader or manufacturer from using a heavy crimp, a ring pinched or "crimped" into the cartridge case, designed to lock the bullet securely in place until fired. Crimping affects the overall length of the cartridge, thus cannot be used on cartridges which headspace on the case mouth; this can be a problem for magnum revolvers or rifles which hold more than one round of ammunition, as the recoil from the firing successive rounds can loosen the bullets in the remaining cartridges, cause their bullet seating depth to change, which can have a serious effect of accuracy. This is not an issue for break-action single shot firearms, for obvious reasons, although it could cause problems in double rifles or "drilling"-type big game rifles, provided they have more than one rifle barrel.

Examples of rimless handgun cartridges include the 9mm Parabellum.40 S&W, and.45 ACP. Rimless rifle examples include the.223 Remington.308 Winchester.30-06 Springfield and 7.92×57mm Mauser. On a semi-rimmed case the rim projects beyond the base of the case, though not as much as a rimmed cartridge; the tiny rim provides minimal interference feeding from a box magazine, while still providing enough surface to headspace on. Semi-rimmed cases are less common than the other types. The.38 Super, a higher pressure loading of the old.38 ACP case, is notorious for being less accurate than rimless cases, so most modern.38 Super handguns are chambered so that the cartridge headspac

Salif Diallo

Salif Diallo was a Burkinabé politician, President of the National Assembly of Burkina Faso from 2015 to 2017. He was a key associate of President Blaise Compaoré from the 1980s to the 2000s, serving in various posts during that period, including as Director of the Cabinet of the President from 1987 to 1989, Minister of Environment and Water from 1995 to 1999, Minister of Agriculture from 2000 to 2008, he was appointed as Burkina Faso's Ambassador to Austria in 2008. He served as Vice-President of the Congress for Democracy and Progress, the ruling party. Diallo resigned from the CDP in January 2014 and participated in the founding of an opposition party, the People's Movement for Progress, becoming its First Vice-President. After the MPP's victory in the November 2015 general election, he was elected as President of the National Assembly on 30 December 2015. Diallo, born in Ouahigouya, Yatenga Province, was expelled from the University of Ouagadougou for having organized strikes and protests.

He belonged to the Voltaic Revolutionary Communist Party and went on to Dakar, Senegal, to continue his Master of Law studies there. At the University of Dakar, he and other students formed a Committee for the Defence of the Revolution. In 1985 he returned to Burkina Faso and joined the dissident and pro-Sankara splinter-faction of the PCRV, the Burkinabé Communist Group. Diallo became Assistant to the Cabinet of the Minister of State for Justice in 1986. Diallo was active in the Committees for the Defence of the Revolution. From 1987 to 1989 he was the Director of the Cabinet of the President, from 1989 to 1991 he was Secretary of State to the Presidency. In 1991 he served as Minister of Employment and Social Security. From 1992 to 1995 Diallo was Minister for the Missions of the Presidency. Subsequently he was Minister of Environment and Water from 1995 to 1999 Adviser to the Presidency from 1999 to 2000. On 12 November 2000, he was appointed as Minister of Agriculture, on 10 June 2002 his portfolio was expanded when he was appointed as Minister of Agriculture and Fishing Resources.

He was elected as Vice-President of the CDP at the party's Second Ordinary Congress on 1–3 August 2003. Diallo was dismissed from the national government on 23 March 2008. A few months after being dismissed from the government, Diallo was appointed as Ambassador to Austria, he presented his credentials to Austrian President Heinz Fischer on 8 January 2009. In addition to serving as Ambassador to Austria, Diallo was given additional accreditation for Croatia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia, as well as various international organizations: the International Energy Agency, the United Nations Office at Vienna, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. Diallo, along with a number of other prominent figures in the CDP, announced his resignation from the party on 6 January 2014; those who resigned said that the party was being run in an undemocratic and damaging manner, they expressed opposition to plans to amend the constitution to eliminate term limits, which would allow President Blaise Compaoré to stand for re-election in 2015.

A new opposition party led by the prominent CDP members who resigned, the People's Movement for Progress, was founded on 25 January 2014. Roch Marc Christian Kaboré was designated as President of the MPP and Salif Diallo was designated as its First Vice-President. Kaboré, standing as the MPP candidate, was elected as President of Burkina Faso in the November 2015 general election, while Diallo was elected to the National Assembly as a candidate on the MPP's national list. Kaboré was sworn in as President of Burkina Faso on 29 December 2015, the National Assembly elected Diallo as its President on 30 December, he received the votes of 78 deputies, while 43 voted for Adama Sossou, a deputy from the Union for Progress and Reform. Diallo received medical treatment in Tunis and went to Paris, where he died on the night of 18–19 August 2017 at the age of 60

John A. Todhunter

John A. Todhunter was an official in the Environmental Protection Agency, he was nominated by Ronald Reagan for the position of Assistant Administrator for Pesticides and Toxic Substances and occupied the post beginning November 13, 1981. He resigned March 25, 1983, one of a group of 20 officials forced out with EPA Administrator Anne Gorsuch over the agency's management of toxic waste cleanup under Superfund. Prior to his appointment, Todhunter was an assistant professor of biology at The Catholic University of America, where he chaired the biochemistry program, he had worked for Hoffmann-La Roche after earning a Ph. D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1976. Todhunter's tenure and its aftermath were marked by criticism for delays in recognizing chemicals as carcinogens, he concluded that despite evidence of formaldehyde causing cancer in mice, there was no evidence of significant risk to humans, so the agency declined to regulate its use at the time. After his departure, Todhunter was called to testify in congressional hearings over a delay in banning ethylene dibromide in use by the citrus industry as a pesticide to combat fruit flies.

He was criticized for dismissing studies showing the chemical caused an increased risk of cancer to agricultural workers. In several meetings, in the context of an August 1981 fruit fly outbreak in California, while being lobbied by Florida's congressional delegation on behalf of the industry, Todhunter resisted a ban, not approved until he left office, he works for SRS International as a biopesticide consultant to the EPA. EPA biography EPA press release announcing nomination Reagan public papers announcement of nomination