Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Drayton Valley is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located on Highway 22 133 kilometres southwest of Edmonton, it is surrounded by Brazeau County, known for its vast oil fields. The town is located between the Pembina River; the town was named after Drayton, the birthplace of the wife of one of the Alberta town's postmasters. Prior to the 1953 oil boom, the community of Drayton Valley was sparsely populated; the main economic activities were logging. Drayton Valley was incorporated as a village in 1956 and became a town in 1957. In 1955 a ferry was built to cross the North Saskatchewan River; the original bridge that replaced the ferry was replaced by a new bridge in 2014. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Drayton Valley recorded a population of 7,235 living in 2,782 of its 3,116 total private dwellings, a 1.6% change from its 2011 population of 7,118. With a land area of 30.72 km2, it had a population density of 235.5/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Drayton Valley had a population of 7,049 living in 2,740 of its 2,899 total dwellings, a 2.3% change from its 2006 population of 6,893.
With a land area of 12.27 km2, it had a population density of 574.5/km2 in 2011. Following its 2011 and 2012 annexations, Statistics Canada adjusted Drayton Valley's 2011 population by an additional 69 people to 7,118. Oil and gas is the primary driver of Drayton Valley's economy. Agriculture and forestry play roles in the local economy. A pulp mill is located in the town. Drayton Valley's Omniplex is a community sports centre that hosts ice hockey, curling, soccer and rodeo; the town has a public swimming pool, a ski hill, a bowling alley, the Drayton Valley Golf and Country Club. Drayton Valley is the home of the Drayton Valley Thunder of the Alberta Junior Hockey League. Drayton Valley is home to the annual DV100 bicycle race. Drayton Valley has six public schools, two Catholic schools, one outreach school; the public schools and outreach school are operated by the Wild Rose School Division while the Catholic schools are operated by the St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic School Division. Wild Rose School DivisionAurora Elementary School Drayton Christian School Eldorado Elementary School Evergreen Elementary School Frank Maddock High School Frank Maddock Outreach School H.
W. Pickup Junior High SchoolSt. Thomas Aquinas Catholic School DivisionSt. Anthony School Holy Trinity Academy Drayton Valley is served by two weekly newspapers, the Drayton Valley Western Review and the Community Voice and one radio station, CIBW-FM playing country music. A Christian radio station, CIDV-FM, was launched in 2009. List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
Ponoka is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located at the junction of Highway 2A and Highway 53, 59 kilometres north of Red Deer and 95 kilometres south of Edmonton; the name Ponoka is Blackfoot for "elk", the animal depicted in the town flag. Ponoka County's municipal office is located in Ponoka. Ponoka originated in 1891 as a waypoint for the railway from Edmonton to Calgary. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Ponoka recorded a population of 7,229 living in 3,010 of its 3,301 total private dwellings, a 6.7% change from its 2011 population of 6,778. With a land area of 17.33 km2, it had a population density of 417.1/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Ponoka had a population of 6,773 living in 2,785 of its 3,047 total dwellings, a 3% change from its 2006 population of 6,576. With a land area of 13.05 km2, it had a population density of 519.0/km2 in 2011. In 2012, Statistics Canada adjusted Ponoka's 2011 population by an additional 5 people to 6,778 to reflect its 2011 annexation.
Industries are gas production. Ponoka is home to the Ponoka Stampede, a seven-day rodeo held at the end of June or beginning of July coinciding with the Canada Day long weekend; this annual event attracts rodeo competitors and fans, features a midway and other activities. The Wolf Creek Trail starts at the southern end of Ponoka near the Ponoka Community Golf Course and travels northwards along the Battle River for several kilometres. Informational signs are posted along the trail featuring descriptions of various local wild animals and historical facts. Several baseball diamonds and picnic tables are located along the trail. Lions Centennial Park is a major park located along the west side of Highway 2A, it features a pond with a dock, several bathroom facilities, a stage, "The World's Largest Bucking Saddle Bronc and Rider", the Centennial Time Capsule, several gazebos with picnic tables and the Fort Ostell Museum, as well as a splash park. Jim Butterfield, computing author Marcel Comeau, ice hockey coach and National Hockey League team executive Harry York, former professional hockey player Health care facilities in Ponoka include the Ponoka Hospital and Care Centre, the Centennial Centre for Mental Health and Brain Injury, the Northcott Care Centre, the Rimoka Housing Facility.
The Ponoka Hospital and Care Centre is responsible for general health care, while the Centennial Centre serves as a care and treatment facility for mental health and is known for its brain injury program. The Northcott Care Centre and Rimoka Housing Facility both care for the elderly, with the Northcott Care Centre focusing on care for handicapped individuals. Fire service is provided by the Ponoka Volunteer Fire Department. Policing is the responsibility of the Ponoka Royal Canadian Mounted Police Detachment. General bylaw enforcement is undertaken by the town's special constable in collaboration with the RCMP. List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website
A grain elevator is an agrarian facility complex designed to stockpile or store grain. In grain trade, the term grain elevator describes a tower containing a bucket elevator or a pneumatic conveyor, which scoops up grain from a lower level and deposits it in a silo or other storage facility. In most cases, the term grain elevator describes the entire elevator complex, including receiving and testing offices and storage facilities, it may mean organizations that operate or control several individual elevators, in different locations. In Australia the term grain elevator describes only the lifting mechanism. Before the advent of the grain elevator, grain was handled in bags rather than in bulk. Dart's Elevator was a major innovation, it was invented by Joseph Dart, a merchant, Robert Dunbar, an engineer, in 1842 and 1843, in Buffalo, New York. Using the steam-powered flour mills of Oliver Evans as their model, they invented the marine leg, which scooped loose grain out of the hulls of ships and elevated it to the top of a marine tower.
Early grain elevators and bins were built of framed or cribbed wood, were prone to fire. Grain-elevator bins and silos are now made of steel or reinforced concrete. Bucket elevators are used to lift grain to a distributor or consignor, from which it falls through spouts and/or conveyors and into one or more bins, silos, or tanks in a facility; when desired, silos and tanks are emptied by gravity flow, sweep augers, conveyors. As grain is emptied from bins and silos it is conveyed and weighted into trucks, railroad cars, or barges, shipped to grain wholesalers, and/or local end-users, such as flour mills and ethanol and alcohol distilleries. In Australian English, the term "grain elevator" is reserved for elevator towers, while a receival and storage building or complex is distinguished by the formal term receival point or as a "wheat bin" or "silo". Large-scale grain receival and logistics operations are known in Australia as bulk handling. In Canada, the term "grain elevator" is used to refer to a place where farmers sell grain into the global grain distribution system, and/or a place where the grain is moved into rail cars or ocean-going ships for transport.
There are several types of grain elevators under Canadian law, defined in the Canadian Grain Act, Section 2. Primary elevators receive grain directly from producers for forwarding, or both. Process elevators store grain for direct manufacture or processing into other products. Terminal elevators receive grain on or after official inspection and weighing and clean and treat grain before moving it forward. Transfer elevators transfer grain, inspected and weighed at another elevator. In the Eastern Division, transfer elevators receive and store eastern or foreign grain, it was both necessity and the prospect of making a lot of money that gave birth to the steam-powered grain elevator in Buffalo, New York, in 1843. Due to the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, Buffalo enjoyed a unique position in American geography, it stood at the intersection of two great all-water routes: one extending from New York Harbor, up the Hudson River, to Albany and, beyond it, the Port of Buffalo. All through the 1830s, Buffalo benefited tremendously from its position.
In particular, it was the recipient of most of the increasing quantities of grain, being grown on farms in Ohio and Indiana, shipped on Lake Erie for transshipment to the Erie Canal. If Buffalo hadn't been there, or when things got backed up there, that grain would have been loaded onto boats at Cincinnati and shipped down the Mississippi River to New Orleans. By 1842, it was clear, they still relied upon techniques, in use since the European Middle Ages: work teams of stevedores would use block and tackles and their own backs to unload or load each and every sack of grain, stored or was to be stored in the boat's hull. It would take several days, sometimes a week, to service a single grain-laden boat. Grain shipments were going down the Mississippi River, not over the Great Lakes/Erie Canal system. A merchant named Joseph Dart, Jr. is credited as being the one who adapted Oliver Evans' grain elevator for use in a commercial framework, but the actual design and construction of the world's first steam-powered "grain storage and transfer warehouse" was executed by an engineer named Robert Dunbar.
Thanks to the historic Dart's Elevator, which worked seven times faster than its non-mechanized predecessors, Buffalo was able to keep pace with—and thus further stimulate—the rapid growth of American agricultural production in the 1840s and 1850s, but after the Civil War, with the coming of the railroads. It wasn't by accident that the world's second and third grain elevators were built in Toledo and Brooklyn, New York, in 1847. Fledgling American cities, they were connected through an emerging international grain trade of unprecedented proportions. Grain shipments from farms in Ohio were loaded onto ships by elevators at Toledo.
Ponoka County is a municipal district in Alberta, Canada. It covers 721,396 acres and it claims to "embody the essence of rural Alberta". In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Ponoka County recorded a population of 9,806 living in 3,535 of its 4,199 total private dwellings, a 10.7% change from its 2011 population of 8,856. With a land area of 2,814.26 km2, it had a population density of 3.5/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, Ponoka County had a population of 8,856 living in 3,172 of its 3,669 total dwellings, a 2.5% change from its 2006 population of 8,640. With a land area of 2,807.94 km2, it had a population density of 3.2/km2 in 2011. Following Ponoka's 2011 annexation, Statistics Canada adjusted Ponoka County's 2011 population downward by 5 people to 8,851; the Chief Administrative Officer of the county is Charlie Cutforth. The five members of council, Nancy Hartford, Bryce Liddle, Mark Matejka, Paul McLauchlin, Doug Weir, where elected October 21, 2013. Councillor Paul McLauchlin, from electoral division 4, was selected the reeve in a 2013 organizational meeting.
Ponoka County was founded on January 1, 1952. The county's first public officials were Mr. Bruce Ramsey, who directed municipal affairs, Mr. Peter McDonald as secretary-treasurer, Mr. L. G. Saunders was head of the school system; the town gets its name from the Blackfoot word for Elk. List of communities in Alberta List of municipal districts in Alberta Official website