The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. In a large 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, volcanic belts and plate movements, it has 452 volcanoes. About 90% of the world's earthquakes and about 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. All but three of the world's 25 largest volcanic eruptions of the last 11,700 years occurred at volcanoes in the Ring of Fire; the Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics: the movement and collisions of lithospheric plates subduction in the northern portion. The western portion is more complex, with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific Plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville and New Zealand; the presence of a belt of volcanic activity surrounding the Pacific Ocean was first observed in the mid 19th century. "They are in the line of that immense circle of volcanic development which surrounds the shores of the Pacific from Tierra del Fuego around to the Moluccas."
About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismically active region is Alpide belt, which extends from Java to the northern Atlantic Ocean via the Himalayas and southern Europe. All but three of the world's 25 largest volcanic eruptions of the last 11,700 years occurred at volcanoes in the Ring of Fire; the famous and active San Andreas Fault zone of California is a transform fault, which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under the southwestern United States and Mexico. The active Queen Charlotte Fault on the west coast of the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, has generated three large earthquakes during the 20th century: a magnitude 7 event in 1929; the Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics: the movement and collisions of lithospheric plates. The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward-moving South American Plate; the Cocos Plate is being subducted in Central America.
A portion of the Pacific Plate and the small Juan de Fuca Plate are being subducted beneath the North American Plate. Along the northern portion, the northwestward-moving Pacific Plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islands arc. Farther west, the Pacific Plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula arcs to the south past Japan; the southern portion is more complex, with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific Plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville and New Zealand. Indonesia lies between the Ring of Fire along the northeastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide belt along the south and west from Sumatra, Bali and Timor. Bolivia hosts numerous extinct volcanoes across its territory; the active volcanoes are located in western Bolivia where they make up the Cordillera Occidental, the western limit of the Altiplano plateau. Many of the active volcanoes are international mountains shared with Chile. All Cenozoic volcanoes of Bolivia are part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Volcanic Belt that results due to processes involved in the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate.
The Central Volcanic Zone is a major upper Cenozoic volcanic province. Apart from Andean volcanoes, the geology of Bolivia hosts the remnants of ancient volcanoes around the Precambrian Guaporé Shield in the eastern part of the country; the volcanoes in Chile are monitored by the National Geology and Mining Service Earthquake activity in Chile is related to subduction of the Nazca Plate to the east. Chile notably holds the record for the largest earthquake recorded, the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above Villarrica Lake and the town of Villarrica, it is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene, more than 0.9 million years ago. A 2-kilometre-wide postglacial caldera is located at the base of the presently active dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic cone at the northwest margin of the Pleistocene caldera. About 25 scoria cones dot Villarica's flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows have been produced during the Holocene from this dominantly basaltic volcano, but historical eruptions have consisted of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion.
Lahars from the glacier-covered volcanoes have damaged towns on its flanks. The Llaima Volcano is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in Chile, it is situated 82 km northeast of Temuco and 663 km southeast of Santiago, within the borders of Conguillío National Park. Llaima's activity has been documented since the 17th century, consists of several separate episodes of moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows; the last major eruption occurred in 1994. Chile has experienced numerous volcan
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Our Lady Immaculate Church is a Roman Catholic Parish church in Chelmsford, England. It was opened in 1847 and designed by Joseph John Scoles, it is situated on New London Road, next to Our Lady Immaculate Primary School, close to the junction with Anchor Street, in the city centre. It is served by the Premonstratensians from their only community in St. Philip's Priory. In 1840, the site for the church was bought, it was purchased from the father of the first mission priest to the area. In 1845, the mission to Catholic population in Chelmsford was founded. In October 1847, the church was opened by the Vicar Apostolic of the London District, Nicholas Wiseman. In 1850, he became Archbishop of a cardinal; the church was dedicated to the Immaculate Conception. The architect was Joseph John Scoles; the main benefactors of the church were William Petre, 12th Baron Petre. It was Lord Petre; the church was built in the Gothic Revival style by Messrs Curtis of Stratford. The Lady altar in the church was in Thorndon Hall, home of Lord Petre.
The east window in the church was made in Newcastle upon Tyne by Thomas Dunn and inspired by a design of Augustus Pugin. In 1973, the church was extended. A new altar was consecrated by the Bishop of Patrick Casey. In 1982, the church's dedication was changed the Immaculate Conception to Our Lady Immaculate. In 1985, the present organ was installed, it was brought from a United Reformed Church in Felsted. In 1988, the crucifix hanging over the altar in front of the nave was installed, it was designed by William Gordon. Since 2008, the church has been served by the Premonstratensians from St. Philip's Priory, they serve another parish, Holy Name Church in Chelmsford. Holy Name Church was built in 1965 and is on the corner of Lucas Avenue and Gloucester Avenue in the Moulsham Lodge area of Chelmsford. Holy Name Church has two Sunday Masses: 6:00pm on Saturday and 10:30am on Sunday. Our Lady Immaculate Church has three Sunday Masses: 12:00 pm and 7:00 pm. Roman Catholic Diocese of Brentwood Chelmsford Catholic Parishes site