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Ring road

A ring road is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country. The most common purpose of a ring road is to assist in reducing traffic volumes in the urban centre, such as by offering an alternate route around the city for drivers who do not need to stop in the city core; the name "ring road" is used for the majority of metropolitan circumferential routes in the European Union, such as the Berliner Ring, the Brussels Ring, the Amsterdam Ring, the Boulevard Périphérique around Paris and the Leeds Inner and Outer ring roads. Australia and India use the term ring road, as in Melbourne's Western Ring Road, Lahore's Lahore Ring Road and Hyderabad's Outer Ring Road. In Canada the term is the most used, with "orbital" used, but to a much lesser extent. In Europe, some ring roads those of motorway standard which are longer in length, are known as "orbital motorways". Examples include the London Rome Orbital. In the United States, many ring roads are called beltlines, beltways, or loops, such as the Capital Beltway around Washington, D.

C. Some ring roads, such as Washington's Capital Beltway, use "Inner Loop" and "Outer Loop" terminology for directions of travel, since cardinal directions cannot be signed uniformly around the entire loop; the term'ring road' is – and inaccurately – used interchangeably with the term'bypass'. Bypasses around many large and small towns were built in many areas when many old roads were upgraded to four-lane status in the 1930s to 1950s, such as those along the Old National Road in the United States, leaving the old road in place to serve the town or city, but allowing through travelers to continue on a wider and safer route. Construction of circumferential ring roads has occurred more beginning in the 1960s in many areas, when the U. S. Interstate Highway System and similar-quality roads elsewhere were designed. Ring roads have now been built around numerous cities and metropolitan areas, including cities with multiple ring roads, irregularly shaped ring roads, ring roads made up of various other long-distance roads.

London has three ringroads. Other British cities have two. Columbus, Ohio, in the United States has two, while Houston, Texas will have three official ring roads; some cities have far more – Beijing, for example, has six ring roads numbered in increasing order from the city center, while Moscow has five, three innermost corresponding to the concentric lines of fortifications around the ancient city, the two outermost built in the twentieth century, confusingly, the Third Ring was build last. Geographical constraints can prohibit the construction of a complete ring road. For example, the Baltimore Beltway in Maryland crosses Baltimore Harbor on a high arch bridge, much of the completed Stockholm Ring Road in Sweden runs through tunnels or over long bridges. However, some towns or cities on seacoasts or near rugged mountains cannot have a full ring road, such as Dublin's ring road. Adjacency of international boundaries may prohibit ring road completion in other cases. Construction of a true ring road around Detroit is blocked by its location on the border with Canada.

Sometimes, the presence of significant natural or historical areas limits route options, as for the long-proposed Outer Beltway around Washington, D. C. where options for a new western Potomac River crossing are limited by a nearly continuous corridor of visited scenic and historical landscapes in the Potomac River Gorge and adjacent areas. When referring to a road encircling a capital city, the term "beltway" can have a political connotation, as in the American term "Inside the Beltway", derived metonymically from the Capital Beltway encircling Washington, D. C. Most orbital motorways are purpose-built major highways around a town or city without either signals or road or railroad crossings. In the United States, beltways are parts of the Interstate Highway System. Similar roads in the United Kingdom are called "orbital motorways". Although the terms "ring road" and "orbital motorway" are sometimes used interchangeably, "ring road" indicates a circumferential route formed from one or more existing roads within a city or town, with the standard of road being anything from an ordinary city street up to motorway level.

An excellent example of this is London's North Circular/South Circular ring road. In some cases, a circumferential route is formed by the combination of a major through highway and a similar-quality loop route that extends out from the parent road reconnecting with the same highway; such loops not only function as a bypass for through traffic, but to serve outlying suburbs. In the United States, an Interstate highway loop is designated by a three-digit number beginning with an digit before the two-digit number of its parent interstate. Interstat

Hugh James Arbuthnott

Hugh James Arbuthnott, CMG is a retired British diplomat. Son of James Gordon Arbuthnott and Margaret Georgiana, née Hyde. Married to Vanessa Rose Dyer, has three sons, Dominic Hugh, Justin Edward James, Giles Sebastian. Educated at Ampleforth College and New College, Arbuthnott was a 2nd Lieutenant in Black Watch, he joined HM Foreign Service during the years of 1960–96. Arbuthnott served as the Head of European Integration Department, FCO, from 1974 to 1978; as well, Arbuthnott served in Paris as Counsellor, as Head of Chancery 1978–83. Between 1986 and 1989, he was HM Ambassador to Romania; as Ambassador, in 1989, he attempted to send a letter to the dissident Doina Cornea at her home in the Transylvanian city of Cluj-Napoca. Securitate officers prevented him to do this, "pushing and manhandling" him, a behaviour that Britain described as "outrageous"; the official response of the Romanian authorities was that Hugh Arbuthnott "infringed traffic regulations" and that Cornea's activities were an internal matter of Romania.

Between 1989 and 1993 he was the Ambassador between 1993 and 1996 to Denmark. He is a coauthor of Geoffrey Edwards. Common Man's Guide to the Common Market. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-40913-2. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Order of St Michael and St George, 1983 Family tree

Banstead

Banstead is a town bordering Greater London in the borough of Reigate and Banstead in Surrey, England. It is 2.5 miles south of Sutton, 5 miles south-west of Croydon, 7.5 miles south-east of Kingston-upon-Thames, 13.3 miles south of Central London. On the North Downs, it is on three of the four main compass points separated from other settlements by open area buffers with Metropolitan Green Belt status. Echoing its much larger historic area and spread between newer developments, Banstead Downs is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. One of its wards is "Banstead Village"; the civil parish was abolished. Both included many outlying parts as well as the main settlement. Contiguous Nork, which contains Banstead station shares in many amenities of Banstead and is included in county-level population analyses of Banstead but not the central governmental drawn Banstead Built-up Area, which takes in Burgh Heath, has a total population of 10,653 as at the 2011 census. At the 2011 Census the population of Banstead was 16,666.

The population of Banstead Village ward was 8,510 in 2001 and 9,110 in 2011. Banstead Parish now only exists for church purposes, there being no civil parish as it became Banstead Urban District, in turn abolished in 1965. Due to the aridity of the surface of the higher south, the old parish stretched far and wide to take in the width of the widest section of the North Downs and still today Banstead is drawn more than its narrow village or county or borough electoral wards and divisions under three measures: As a post town As Banstead Downs As accounting for the main northern settlement or'Banstead part' of the borough of Reigate and Banstead. Taking the last, broadest definition, in 2001, the upland settlements loosely associated with Banstead such as Tadworth had some 46,280 people across an area of 16 square miles; the ward of Nork includes areas which were not part of the hamlet of Nork. At the 2011 Census it had 7,556 residents; the area had many other hamlets, which gained their own village or town status.

Thus historic demography does not give a fair indicator of population change. Identifying this swathe of land in 21st century figures with the parish, historical population growth is as follows, with parts of Walton-on-the-Hill and Chipstead included in the 2001 and 2011 wards: The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average, apartments was 22.6%. The proportion of households who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings; the earliest recorded mention of Banstead was in an Anglo-Saxon charter of AD 967, in the reign of King Edgar. The settlement appears in the Domesday Book as Benestede; the first element is the Anglo Saxon word bene, meaning bean, the second element stede refers to an inhabited place without town status. Banstead's non-ecclesiastical land and 50 households were held by Richard as tenant-in-chief, under the Bishop of Bayeux.

Its assets were: 1 church, 1 mill worth £ 1, 17 ploughs, woodland worth 20 hogs. It rendered: £8 per year; the Manor had two ploughs, there were 28 villeins and 15 cottars with 15 ploughs. This was a farming area that became well known for its high quality wool; the manor was owned by wealthy gentry by the church, before it fell into the hands of the Crown in the 13th century. Henry VIII made Banstead part of Catherine of Aragon's dowry, but took it away again and gave it to a court favourite, Sir Nicholas Carew. Carew was beheaded for treason, but the manor, once covering most of the village but sold piecemeal, stayed in his family until the 18th century. Banstead Downs, which for many centuries meant all the open land stretching from Epsom to Croydon and Reigate, became well known for horse racing in the 17th century. On 20 November 1683, King Charles II and the Duke of York attended a race meeting near the core of the village; the town gained a reputation as a health resort during that era, becoming famous for its "wholesome air", London physicians recommended a visit to Banstead to their ailing patients.

Banstead's population remained low until the late 19th century when the improved roads and the building of the railways led to gradual growth, which continued with low density social housing and post-Blitz rehousing projects in the mid 20th century. Banstead's housing stock is low density and set in overwhelmingly green surroundings; the 18th century wellhead cover. In 1930, the ecclesiastical parish of Nork was formed, taking in part of Epsom as far as Wallace Fields and Higher Green in the west of the parish, loosely termed Epsom Downs; the centre of Banstead has a High Street which stretches from the war memorial to the public library, with a churchyard on part of the south side. Scouts and Guides parade the street on May Day. On 12 December 2008, a large fire destroyed the Waitrose supermarket. While the store was being rebuilt, Waitrose operated a temporary store in the High Street, in the former W

Maude Jacques

Maude Jacques is a Canadian 2.5 point Paralympic wheelchair basketball player who won a gold medal at the 2014 Women's World Wheelchair Basketball Championship in Toronto. Maude Jacques was born in Sherbrooke, Quebec, on April 21, 1992, she was introduced to wheelchair basketball in 2001 by her physiotherapist. She first played for a mini-team in her home town, for club teams, she represented Quebec at the 2011 Canada Games. That year she was selected first to the U25 national team, to the senior women's team, she played with the U25 team at the 2011 U25 World Championships in St. Catharines, where Team Canada came fourth, the senior team at the 2011 Parapan American Games in Guadalajara, where Team Canada came second; the following year she made her Paralympic debut at the 2012 Summer Paralympic Games in London, where Team Canada came sixth. Afterwards she joined the women's wheelchair basketball team at the University of Alabama. In July 2014, she was part of the team that won a gold medal at the 2014 Women's World Wheelchair Basketball Championship in Toronto.

The University of Alabama wheelchair basketball team of which she was part won their fourth National Championship in the seven years in 2015 with a 58–52 win over the University of Illinois. In August 2015, she was part of the team that won silver at the 2015 Parapan American Games, but the following year she was omitted from the team for the 2016 Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. In wheelchair tennis, she won the Birmingham National Championships in 2015, becoming the Canadian national champion, she participated in the 2016 Alabama Open in August 2016, the Birmingham National Championships in October 2016. Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal interview vidéo de Maude Jacques on YouTube

Milton Keynes Development Corporation

Milton Keynes Development Corporation was a development corporation operating from 1967 to 1992 oversee the planning and early development of Milton Keynes, a new town midway between London and Birmingham. MKDC established on 23 January 1967 to provide the vision and execution of a "new city", that would be the modern interpretation of the garden city movement concepts first expressed by Ebenezer Howard 60 years earlier. Situated in the north of Buckinghamshire near the borders with Northamptonshire and Bedfordshire, it would be a "city in the trees" – the planning guideline was "no building higher than the highest tree" – at a time when multi-storey flats and office blocks were dominating the redevelopment of most inner city areas and many large towns, as well as new housing estates; the aims that MKDC set out in "The Plan for Milton Keynes" implied that the designers would learn from the mistakes made in the earlier new towns and build a city that people would be proud to call their home.

On that date, the area within the designated area was home to some 40,000 people in the existing towns and villages. It was placed where it would have a direct road and rail link with the capital city and the second city Birmingham. Following publication of the Draft Master Plan for Milton Keynes, the government appointed Lord Campbell of Eskan to chair the board of the new Development Corporation. For the critical local consultation period, Walter Ismay became the Corporation's first Chief Executive; the Board invited as consultants Richard Llewellyn Davies and partners, who produced the overall development plan, with its grid pattern of distributor roads at 1 kilometre intervals. When the planning enquiries were over, it was time for a different type of CEO and Fred Roche took over in 1970. Llewellyn Davies, with colleagues Walter Bor, John de Monchaux and Sue de Monchaux continued to contribute to the development of strategy. In 1980, Frank Henshaw took over from Fred Roche. Lord Campbell was succeeded by Sir Henry Chilver in 1983.

MKDC promoted the "Homeworld" exhibition in 1981, thirty-five houses showcasing "the latest developments in housing from international designers and builders", Energy World, a demonstration project of 51 low-energy houses completed in 1986. The Government wound up MKDC in 1992 after 25 years, transferring control to the Commission for New Towns, latterly part of English Partnerships, which subsequently merged with the Housing Corporation to become the Homes and Communities Agency. Control over design passed to Milton Keynes Partnership which remained a major landowner in the City. Design criteria became more similar to those being applied by the HCA on sites it owned across the country. Public parks were transferred to a registered charity. History of Milton Keynes "New Towns" Academy Editions London ISBN 1-85490-245-8 reprinted from Architectural Design Magazine. "BIG PLANS" by John de Monchaux OpenCourseware transcript of 2003 MIT lecture about Milton Keynes planning

Liz Renay

Pearl Elizabeth Dobbins, known as Liz Renay, was an American author and actress who appeared in John Waters' film Desperate Living. She was born Pearl Elizabeth Dobbins on April 14, 1926 in Chandler, Arizona to William Andrew Dobbins and his wife Ada May, who were described as being "evangelical parents." The United States Federal Census from 1940 listed the Dobbins family living in Arizona. Renay was recorded as Pearl, age 13, her father, was a 41-year-old lettuce trimmer for a produce shipper. Renay had the following siblings: Emily, four years older. In 1949, Renay was named Miss Stardust of Arizona and in the contest won "$500 cash, a trip to New York, a modeling contract in the 1949 contest."Her childhood was filled of dreams of becoming a star. The production crew for The Sound of Fury wanted townspeople. A 24-year-old Renay known as Pearl McLain, was a twice-divorced, unemployed waitress raising two young children, she was one of 500 extras and during her two days of filming, "she kept maneuvering herself into positions where someone important would notice and offer her a movie career."

She was known more as a performer with ties to celebrities actors, rather than as an actor herself. She did play the lead role in John Waters' film Desperate Living and appeared on an episode of Adam-12 as a burlesque dancer who calls the police about a peeping tom outside her home. On stage and her daughter, toured with a striptease act; the act ended when her daughter Brenda committed suicide on her 39th birthday in 1982. Renay was mobster Mickey Cohen's girlfriend. Renay served 27 months at Terminal Island. In a tell-all book about her many relationships with men both famous and not so famous titled My First 2,000 Men, she claimed flings with Joe DiMaggio, Regis Philbin, Glenn Ford and Cary Grant. Renay's other books include My Face for the World to Staying Young. My Face for the World to See was reissued in 2002, headlined "A Cult Classic," with a foreword by John Waters. Waters integrated the title into the dialogue of his film Female Trouble before working on his film Desperate Living with Renay.

Renay died at age 80 on January 22, 2007 in her adopted hometown of Las Vegas, Nevada from cardiac arrest and gastric bleeding. Liz was married a total of seven times: Ricky Romano, whom she married when she was about 15 years old. From this marriage, a daughter Brenda Whylene, an actress who went by the stage name Brenda Renay, was born. Ricky and Renay were divorced in 1943. Paul McLain, from this marriage, one son, Johnny Allen McLain Sr. was born. They divorced. George L. "Lou" O'Leyar, whom she married on September 1950, in Los Angeles County, California. William Forrest, an actor, in 1956; the marriage, proved to be bigamous as Forrest had not divorced his former wife until 1959. Forrest died August 10, 1960, "while making a movie in Tokyo." Read Morgan, an actor, whom she married on November 25, 1963, in Nevada. They appeared together in the film Deadwood'76. Thomas W. Freeman, whom she married on May 23, 1966. In a 1972 Los Angeles Times article, Freeman was described as "a millionaire entrepreneur who provides her with everything she wants — including a separate $175-a-month apartment for her two dogs.

He gives her her freedom." It adds: "Freeman is on the road constantly. He and Liz see each other only on weekends — if — and Miss Renay says it is an ideal relationship,'more like a romance than a marriage.' They have been married six years now — longer than her first five marriages combined — and Miss Renay admits this marriage, would have been over long ago were it not for their unusual arrangement." They were divorced in April 1973. Gerald E. Heidebrink, whom she married on November 3, 1976, in Nevada; the marriage ended in divorce on April 12, 1983 in Nevada. Liz Renay on IMDb Liz Renay Memorial Page Washington Post.com Obituary