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Ringforts, ring forts or ring fortresses are circular fortified settlements that were built during the Bronze age up to about the year 1000. They are found in Northern Europe in Ireland. There are many in South Wales and in Cornwall, where they are called rounds. Ringforts may be made of stone or earth. Earthen ringforts would have been marked by a circular rampart with a stakewall. Both stone and earthen ringforts would have had at least one building inside. In Irish language sources they are known by a number of names: ráth, caiseal, cathair and dún; the ráth and lios was an earthen ringfort. The caiseal and cathair was a stone ringfort; the term dún was used for any stronghold of importance, which may or may not be ring-shaped. In Ireland, over 40,000 sites have been identified as ringforts and it is thought that at least 50,000 ringforts existed on the island, they are common throughout the country, with a mean density of just over one ringfort within any area of 2 km2. It is that many have been destroyed by farming and urbanisation.

However, many hitherto unknown ringforts have been found thanks to early Ordnance Survey maps, aerial photography, the archaeological work that has accompanied road-building. In Cornwall and south Wales, enclosed settlements share many characteristics with their Irish counterparts, including the circular shape and souterrains, their continuing occupation into the early medieval period. Few Cornish examples have been archaeologically excavated, with the exception of Trethurgy Rounds. Hillforts are known from Scandinavia, of which nineteen can be found on the Swedish island of Öland alone; these hillforts are not to be confused with Viking ring fortresses, of which seven are known from Denmark and southern Sweden, all from around 980 in the Viking Age. The Viking forts all share a strikingly similar design and are collectively referred to as Trelleborgs, after the first excavated fortress of that type in 1936. All the Viking ring fortresses are believed to have been built within a short timeframe, during the reign of Harold Bluetooth, but for yet unknown military purposes.

They might have served as boot camps for Sweyn Forkbeard's men before his invasion of England in 1013. The debate on chronology is a result of the huge number of ringforts and the failure of any other form of settlement site to survive to modern times in any great quantity from the period before the Early Christian period or from Gaelic Ireland after the Anglo-Norman arrival. Three general theories mark the debate on the chronology of Irish ringforts. According to the authoritative New History of Ireland, "archaeologists are agreed that the vast bulk of them are the farm enclosures of the well-to-do of early medieval Ireland"; the theories that the ringfort either pre- or post-dates the Early Middle Ages in Ireland, are both based on the same premise, as is highlighted here by Tadhg O'Keefe in relation to the latter argument. The a priori case for attributing some ringforts to the Later Middle Ages... is based on the absence of any other settlement form of appropriate date in those landscapes.

In other words, if the Gaelic-Irish did not live in ringforts, where did they live? The conjecture that ringforts can be seen to have evolved from and be part of an Iron Age tradition has been expanded by Darren Limbert; this hypothesis is based on a number of re-interpretations of the available evidence, as well as concern over the available evidence. As only a small portion of ringforts have undergone total excavation, the fact that these excavations have not taken place on anything like a national level, the evidence is insufficient to place all ringforts and the origins of them within the Early Christian period. Limbert argues instead, that the ringfort should be seen in the context of a variety of similar developments in Britain and the European Continent in Iberia and Gaul. While conceding that most ringforts were built in the Early Christian period, he suggests a link between the arrival of Eóganachta dynasty in Munster c. 400 AD, the introduction of ringforts. In support of this he notes that: "The other major Eoganachta ringforts of Ballycatten and Garryduff, despite limited stratigraphic discernment, have produced artefacts of ambiguously early origins.

Their defensive nature... supports an intrusion of a Celtic warrior caste..." The similarity with South Welsh'raths' and Cornish'rounds' suggests a degree of cultural interaction between Western British and Irish populations, however differences in dates of occupation mean this cannot be confirmed. On the island of Öland, nineteen ringforts have been identified, including Eketorp, a site, excavated and that one may visit. Excavations are ongoing at Sandby borg, the site of a massacre in the 5th century A. D, it is possible that the Hill

Soybean vein necrosis virus

Soybean vein necrosis virus is a plant pathogenic virus of soybeans. SVNV is a new virus, discovered in Tennessee in 2008 and has been found in many US states from the Southeast and East coast to some western states including CA; this pathogen causes intraveinal chlorosis in leaves. This chlorosis spreads throughout the leaf and these chlorotic areas can become necrotic, it is a member of the order Bunyavirales, family Tospoviridae and genus Orthotospovirus, the only genus within this virus family that infects plants. Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is enveloped and has a negative sense single-stranded RNA genome composed of three genomic segments, it encodes proteins on the S segments in an ambisense manner. The genome of SVNV is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus; the L segment is 9010 encodes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M segment is 4955 nt and to encode for GN/GC proteins; the S segment encodes the N and NSs proteins. This virus codes proteins from the M and S segments in an ambisense manner, meaning that proteins are translated from both positive and negative sense RNA.

There is preliminary evidence to suggest low diversity within SVNV. These proteins occur in all members of the Tospovirus genus, serve similar functions within SVNV as they do for the type member of the Tospovirus genus; the RdRp aids in replication and transcription of the RNA. The NSm protein is a non-structural protein and is critical to cell-to-cell movement within plant cells; the NSs protein is a non-structural protein and contributes to suppression of RNA silencing during plant infection. Glycoproteins are necessary for successful thrips transmission; the N protein contributes to viral replication, coats the genomic RNA within the virion. Presently the soybean thrips is the only known vector of SVNV. Research needs to be done to verify if this is the only thrips species capable of transmitting this new and widespread virus; this virus is believed to have a transmission cycle similar to other members of the Tospovirus genus. In the type member of the Tospovirus genus, acquisition of the virus by the thrips vector can only occur during the larval stage of development by the thrips.

From the larval stage the virus is passed transstadially to the adult stage. Adult thrips are able via feeding to transmit the virus to the plant host, it is important to keep in mind with this pathogen, as with all vectored pathogens, that behavior of the vector can contribute to the potential spread of the disease. Agricultural importance remains to be assessed. Thrips feeding alone on soybean plants does not cause economic damage, however it may if the plant is under some other form of stress; the impact of SVNV in terms of yield loss has not yet been determined. Presently no other agronomic crops are known hosts for SVNV. Symptoms associated with SVNV infection begin with vein clearing and yellowing in areas near veins. Chlorotic areas can turn into red-brown lesions. If the disease is severe enough leaves can fall off. If a farmer believes they have SVNV in their field, they should send samples to their local extension office. To verify SVNV presence laboratories will use an ELISA or PCR method.

SVNV was first identified in Tennessee in 2008. Presently it has been detected in: AL, DE, IA, IL, KS, KY, MD, MS, MO, NY, PA, TN and WI. Cultivars of soybeans have been shown to differ in expression of symptoms. Mildly impacted cultivars may only show thread-like vein clearing, whereas other cultivars may have necrosis that covers most of a given leaf and in cases of severe necrosis these leaves can fall off. Tentative testing indicates that Ipomoea hederacea may be another host of this virus, which may prove significant as this can be found as a weed in soybean fields; this pathogen is an arbovirus, therefore must be transmitted by a vector. A known vector of the virus is Sericothrips variablilis. Soybean thrips are found in many regions of the US including the Southeast, East Coast, AZ, CA, TX, UT. Portions of the virus that are believed to be critical for the spread of this virus, based on what is known for other members of the genus Tospovirus are the movement protein and the glycoproteins.

The Nsm protein is critical for cell-to-cell movement within plants. The glycoproteins have been found to be necessary for thrips transmission. Presently, there are no management recommendations; this is a new disease and as such whether or not there is a significant yield impact remains to be determined. Thirps themselves do not cause economic damage on soybeans. Insecticide application targeting thrips for control of the pathogen is not presently recommended. Land Grant universities’ extension websites should be monitored for new developments in management as this pathogen undergoes continued study. Soybean Research and Information NetworkViralzone: Tospovirus

Mount Tehama

Brokeoff Volcano is an eroded andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascade Range in Northern California. Part of the Lassen volcanic area, its highest remaining remnant, Brokeoff Mountain, is itself the second highest peak in Lassen Volcanic National Park and connects to the park's highest point, Lassen Peak. Located on the border of Tehama County and Shasta County, Brokeoff's peak is the highest point in the former; the hikers that summit this mountain each year are treated to "exceptional" views of Lassen Peak, the Central Valley of California, many of the park's other features. On clear days, Mount Shasta can be seen in the distance. Brokeoff Volcano was active from 590,000 to 387,000 years ago, during which period it erupted numerous flows with compositions ranging from basaltic andesite to dacite. At its peak, Brokeoff Volcano reached an estimated height of 3,350 meters and had a basal circumference of 12 kilometers. At 313,000 years ago volcanism began shifting to the northeast of Brokeoff Volcano, with volcanism focused around the modern Lassen Peak.

Following the end of volcanism at Brokeoff Volcano, cooling magma beneath the surface continued to drive hot reactive hydrothermal fluids circulating near the central vent of the volcano. These hydrothermal fluids chemically weathered the volcanic rocks near the central vent, making them susceptible to physical erosion. Glaciers and streams were able to erode the hydrothermally altered rocks near the central vent, creating the deep Mill Canyon and exposing deep into the core of the ancient volcano. Many of the lava flows along the flanks of Brokeoff Volcano were not as extensively chemically weathered, resulting in the flanks of much of the volcano being preserved. Remnants of the flanks of Brokeoff Volcano include Brokeoff Mountain, Mount Conard, Pilot Pinnacle, Mount Diller, Diamond Peak; the area near Lassen Peak became a haven for new settlers throughout the 1800s. Wagon trains followed winding trails on the Nobles Emigrant Trail which cut through the Lassen Peak vicinity near Sacramento Valley.

One of the main landmarks along this trail was a volcano. Called Lassen Peak after Peter Lassen, a prominent blacksmith and guide who escorted California settlers, the volcano and the area around it were given merit for their gripping volcanic phenomena, which included lava beds and extinct volcanic cones. In May 1907, Lassen Peak was declared a National Monument by President Theodore Roosevelt to protect the area for "future generations to study and enjoy". Roosevelt had been told that the area was extinct in terms of eruptive activity. Despite assurance from Native Americans in the area that the mountain was indeed active, settlers continued to think that Lassen Peak was extinct and "dead" and so continued to settle nearby; the natives continued to declare that "one day the mountain would blow itself to pieces". In May 1914 exactly seven years the volcano began a large explosive eruption sequence. More than a hundred eruptions of varying size took place over the next seven years, attracting national interest and the designation of national park in 1916.

The state of California is located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area of active tectonic activity that includes seismicity and volcanism. Brokeoff and the other volcanoes near Lassen Peak were produced by subduction of the oceanic Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate. Brokeoff Volcano represents the Pleistocene component of the Lassen volcanic complex, an area of active volcanism for more than three million years, it formed during a period of eruptive activity 600,000 years ago on a series of faults. During the Pleistocene renewed lava of andesite flowed from the central vent of the volcano; the eruption of overlapping andesitic lava flows accumulated to build the volcano. By the time it reached its peak size, the volcano was immense, measuring at its base between 11 miles and 15 miles wide and more than 11,000 feet tall. Activity at Brokeoff lasted for 200,000 years. Eruptions varied from ejection of pyroclastic material to andesitic lava flows built of of feldspar and olivine.

Soon after the formation of Brokeoff, smaller volcanoes began to form. Shield volcanoes like Raker Peak, Red Mountain, Prospect Peak, Mount Harkness appeared. At this point, the Pleistocene was coming to an end. One additional and final vent formed on the northeastern flank of the volcano, erupting glassy dacitic flows. Over time, the volcano became dilapidated from extensive erosion and hydrothermal alteration, was eroded by creeks and glaciers. Activity built more than thirty other cones known as the Lassen Domes. Today the most active volcano in the area is Lassen Peak. Other smaller craters younger than 50,000 years are active. Brokeoff's remains are exposed to the southwest Mount Lassen in California. Sulphur Works, an area known for its sharp, putrid scent, is thought to be the center of the ancient volcano; the central vent of Brokeoff Volcano was located near modern Diamond Peak. After volcanism at Brokeoff ended, magmatism became more silicic and began migrating toward Lassen Peak's northern flank.

The last 400,000 years have seen at least three known flows, parts of which are still on Raker Peak and Mount Conard. A subsequent explosive eruption ejected 12 cubic miles of material and created a large crater, soon covered by lava. Twelve lava domes were built throughout the area and the next period of eruptive activity began. Spanning 50,000 years it e

National Congress of American Indians

The National Congress of American Indians is an American Indian and Alaska Native rights organization. It was founded in 1944 to represent the tribes and resist federal government pressure for termination of tribal rights and assimilation of their people; these were in status as sovereign entities. The organization continues to be an association of federally recognized and state-recognized Indian tribes; the Indian peoples of the North American continent joined forces across tribal lines, which were divisions related to distinct language and cultural groups. One reason was that most tribes were decentralized, with their people united around issues. In the 20th century, a generation of Native Americans came of age who were educated in multi-tribal boarding schools, they began to think with a broad pan-Native American vision, they learned to form alliances across tribes. They felt the need to work together politically in order to exert their power in dealing with the United States federal government.

In addition, with the efforts after 1934 to reorganize tribal governments, activists believed that Indians had to work together to strengthen their political position. Activists formed the National Congress of American Indians to find ways to organize the tribes to deal in a more unified way with the US government, they wanted to challenge the government on its failure to implement treaties, to work against the tribal termination policy, to improve public opinion of and appreciation for Indian cultures. The initial organization of the NCAI was done by Native American men who worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, represented many tribes. Among this group was D'Arcy McNickle of the BIA. At the second national convention, Indian women attended as representatives in numbers equal to the men; the convention decided that BIA employees should be excluded from serving as general officers or members of the executive committee. The first president of the NCAI was Napoleon B. Johnson, a judge in Oklahoma.

Dan Madrano was the first secretary-treasurer. From 1945 to 1952, the executive secretary of the NCAI was Ruth Muskrat Bronson, who established the organization's legislative news service. Bronson's work was voluntary, as the organization could not afford to pay her to act as its executive secretary. In 1950 John Rainer became the first paid executive director of NCAI, he was replaced by Bronson in 1951, who resigned in 1952. Frank George, a Nez Perce from the Colville Indian Reservation held the post before Helen Peterson took over the post as the executive director of the organization in 1953; that same year, W. W. Short replaced Johnson as president of NCAI. In 1954, Short was replaced by a veteran of both World War II and the Korean War. Garry enlarged the organizational direction away from its focus on issues of Native Americans in the Great Plains and the Southwest, making it more inclusive of tribes in the Midwest and Northwest. In 1966, the NCAI mustered nearly 80 tribal leaders from 62 tribes to protest their exclusion from a US-Congress sponsored conference on reorganizing the BIA.

The Congressional event was organized by Morris Udall, chairman of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, to discuss the reorganization of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Udall allowed the NCAI representatives to attend, he confirmed that a group composed of tribe members, called the Tribal Advisory Commission, would be created to advise him. During the late 20th century, NCAI contributed to gaining legislation to protect and preserve Indian culture, including NAGPRA, they worked with the tribes to assert their sovereignty in dealing with the federal government. In the early 21st century, key goals of the NCAI are: Enforce for Indians all rights under the Constitution and laws in the United States. In 2017, the NCAI took over the assets of the Indian Country Media Network, which were donated by the Oneida Nation of New York, it had operated the network for some time. The NCAI continues to operate the news service online, it reports on Native American news and has covered politics in depth.

The NCAI Constitution says that its members seek to provide themselves and their descendants with the traditional laws and benefits. It lists the by-laws and rules of order regarding membership and dues. There are four classes of membership: tribal, Indian individual, individual associate, organization associate. Voting right is reserved for tribal and Indian individual members. According to section B of Article III regarding membership, any tribe, band or group of American Indians and Alaska Natives shall be eligible for tribal membership provided it fulfills the following requirements A substantial number of its members reside upon the same reservation or in the same general locality, it maintain a Tribal organization, with regular officers and the means of transacting business and arriving at a reasonably accurate count of its membership. An Indian or Alaska Native

Olivia Wyndham

Olivia Madeline Grace Mary Wyndham was a British society photographer and a member of the 1920s socialite group known as the bright young things. The daughter of Colonel Guy Percy Wyndham, C. B. M. V. O. and his wife Edwina Virginia Joanna, daughter of Rev. Frederick Fitzpatrick, Olivia Wyndham was the great-great granddaughter of the 3rd Earl of Egremont and great-granddaughter of the 1st Baron Leconfield, sister of millionaire Richard "Dick" Wyndham, a distant relative of Oscar Wilde. Having founded a studio with him Wyndham held an exhibition with the American Curtis Moffat in June 1927. Regular subjects for Moffat and Wyndham were Tallulah Bankhead and Cecil Beaton. Wyndham was stated to have been an inspiration to photographer Barbara Ker-Seymer, who took over Wyndham's studio when the latter went to America. Having married the American Howland Spencer in 1930, she lived in a ménage à trois with Edna Lewis Thomas, a successful African-American actress, her husband, Lloyd Thomas. In the 1930s, Wyndham was painted by the artist Joseph Delaney.

Her niece was the writer Joan Wyndham, her half-brother was the journalist and writer Francis Wyndham, literary executor to Jean Rhys

Kristin Rossum

Kristin Margrethe Rossum is an American toxicologist convicted of the November 6, 2000 murder of her husband Greg de Villers, who died from a lethal dose of fentanyl. Rossum is serving a life sentence in the Central California Women's Facility in Chowchilla. Kristin Rossum grew up in Claremont, the oldest child of Ralph and Constance Rossum, her father is a professor at Claremont McKenna College and her mother worked at Azusa Pacific University. She has two brothers. In 1991, after Rossum's father accepted the position of President of Hampden–Sydney College, the family moved to Virginia and Kristin enrolled at the all-girls St. Catherine's School in Richmond. There, Rossum began drinking smoking cigarettes, she tried marijuana, but said it had little effect.. Starting in 1992, she began using methamphetamine. In 1994, Rossum moved back to California and enrolled part-time at the University of Redlands and moved into a dormitory on campus, but left following a relapse. After overcoming her addiction and beginning her relationship with Greg de Villers, Rossum enrolled at San Diego State University and graduated with honors in 1998.

After graduating, she worked as a toxicologist at the San Diego County medical examiner's office. Rossum and de Villers married in 1999; the following year, she began an extramarital affair with Dr. Michael Robertson. In late 2000, de Villers had learned about both the affair and her resumption of her meth habit, threatening to expose both to the medical examiner if she did not quit her job. Robertson, who knew Rossum had relapsed, learned of this threat before de Villers was killed. On November 6, 2000, just after 9:15 p.m. Rossum dialled 9-1-1 and reported that de Villers had committed suicide. Paramedics found him laying unresponsive on the couple's bed, sprinkled with red rose petals, his wife told authorities. Despite her claims, de Villers' family – his brother Jerome – were adamant that he was not suicidal. However, San Diego police were reluctant to open an investigation. A month after de Villers' death and Robertson were both fired from the medical examiner's office – Rossum for hiding her meth habit, Robertson for hiding his knowledge of her habit and their affair.

Due to potential conflicts of interest, the San Diego medical examiner outsourced de Villers' autopsy to an outside lab in Los Angeles. The tests showed. Under questioning, Rossum told detectives that her husband had been depressed before he died, while her father stated that he seemed to be distressed and that he drank on the night he died; as the investigation continued, police learned about Rossum's relapse, about a phone call she made to de Villers' employers telling them he would not be coming in to work the day of his murder. On June 25, 2001, seven months after de Villers' death, Rossum was charged with murder. On January 4, 2002, her parents posted her $1.25 million bail. At trial, the prosecution contended that Rossum murdered her husband to keep him from telling her bosses about both her affair and her use of meth stolen from the drug lab. Defense attorneys poisoned himself. Rossum’s brother-in-law, Jerome de Villers, testified that it was difficult to believe his brother had committed suicide because he hated drugs.

The 9-1-1 tape played in court appeared to indicate. According to her Vons card history, she had purchased the rose used to stage de Villers' body, which prosecutors claimed was copied from a scene in the 1999 film American Beauty. On November 12, 2002, Rossum was found guilty of first degree murder. On December 12, she was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility for parole, a $10,000 fine, she was transferred to the Central California Women's Facility in Chowchilla, the largest women's correctional facility in the U. S. In 2006, both Rossum and San Diego County were named as defendants in a wrongful death lawsuit filed by de Villers' family. A jury ordered Rossum to pay more than $100 million in punitive damages, while San Diego County was ordered to pay $1.5 million. The family had asked for $50 million in punitive damages, but jurors awarded double that amount after estimating Rossum could have made $60 million from selling the rights to her story. John Gomez, the lawyer for the de Villers family, acknowledged that the family may never see the money, but wanted to make sure Rossum does not profit from her crime.

A judge reduced the punitive damages award to $10 million, but allowed the $4.5 million compensatory award to stand. In September 2010, a three-judge panel of the 9th U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Rossum's lawyers should have challenged the prosecution's assertion, by doing its own tests, that she poisoned her husband with fentanyl; the panel ordered a San Diego federal court to hold a hearing into whether the defense's error could have affected the trial's outcome. On September 13, 2011, the U. S. Court of Appeals withdrew its opinion and replaced it with a one-paragraph statement that under a new Supreme Court precedent, Rossum's petition was denied. Following his termination by the San Diego medical examiner's office, Robertson returned to his home in Brisbane, ostensibly to care for his ailing mother. In September 2013, the San Diego Reader reported that, in 2006, prosecutors secretly filed a criminal complaint charging Robertson –, named as an unindicted co-conspirator at Rossum's trial – with one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice.

If Robertson returns to the US for trial, he could face up to three years in prison