Ringo Starr

Sir Richard Starkey, known professionally as Ringo Starr, is an English musician, singer and actor who gained worldwide fame as the drummer for the Beatles. He sang lead vocals with the group for one song on each album, including "Yellow Submarine", "With a Little Help from My Friends" and their cover of "Act Naturally", he wrote and sang the Beatles' songs "Don't Pass Me By" and "Octopus's Garden", is credited as a co-writer of others. Starr was afflicted by life-threatening illnesses during childhood, with periods of prolonged hospitalisations, he held a position with British Rail before securing an apprenticeship as a machinist at a Liverpool equipment manufacturer. Soon afterwards, he became interested in the UK skiffle craze and developed a fervent admiration for the genre. In 1957, he co-founded his first band, the Eddie Clayton Skiffle Group, which earned several prestigious local bookings before the fad succumbed to American rock and roll by early 1958; when the Beatles formed in 1960, Starr was a member of another Liverpool group, Rory Storm and the Hurricanes.

After achieving moderate success in the UK and Hamburg, he quit the Hurricanes and joined the Beatles in August 1962, replacing Pete Best. In addition to the Beatles' films, Starr has acted in numerous others. After the band's break-up in 1970, he released several successful singles including the US top-ten hit "It Don't Come Easy", number ones "Photograph" and "You're Sixteen", his most successful UK single was "Back Off Boogaloo", which peaked at number two. He achieved commercial and critical success with his 1973 album Ringo, a top-ten release in both the UK and the US, he has featured in numerous documentaries, hosted television shows, narrated the first two series of the children's television programme Thomas & Friends and portrayed "Mr. Conductor" during the first season of the PBS children's television series Shining Time Station. Since 1989, he has toured with thirteen variations of His All-Starr Band. Starr's playing style, which emphasised feel over technical virtuosity, influenced many drummers to reconsider their playing from a compositional perspective.

He influenced various modern drumming techniques, such as the matched grip, tuning the drums lower, using muffling devices on tonal rings. In his opinion, his finest recorded performance was on the Beatles' "Rain". In 1999, he was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame. In 2011, Rolling Stone readers named him the fifth-greatest drummer of all time, he was inducted twice into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, as a Beatle in 1988 and as a solo artist in 2015, appointed a Knight Bachelor in the 2018 New Year Honours for services to music. In 2018, he was cited as the wealthiest drummer in the world with a net worth of $350 million. Richard Starkey was born on 7 July 1940 at 9 Madryn Street in Dingle, an inner city area of Liverpool, he is the only child of confectioners Richard Elsie Gleave. Elsie enjoyed singing and dancing, a hobby that she shared with her husband, an avid fan of swing. Prior to the birth of their son, whom they nicknamed "Ritchie", the couple had spent much of their free time on the local ballroom circuit, but their regular outings ended soon after his birth.

Elsie adopted an overprotective approach to raising her son. Subsequently, "Big Ritchie", as Starkey's father became known, lost interest in his family, choosing instead to spend long hours drinking and dancing in pubs, sometimes for several consecutive days. In an effort to reduce their housing costs, his family moved in 1944 to another neighbourhood in the Dingle, Admiral Grove. Starkey stated that he has "no real memories" of his father, who made little effort to bond with him, visiting as few as three times thereafter. Elsie found it difficult to survive on her ex-husband's support payments of thirty shillings a week, so she took on several menial jobs cleaning houses before securing a position as a barmaid, an occupation that she held for twelve years. At the age of six, Starkey developed appendicitis. Following a routine appendectomy he contracted peritonitis, causing him to fall into a coma that lasted days, his recovery spanned twelve months, which he spent away from his family at Liverpool's Myrtle Street children's hospital.

Upon his discharge in May 1948, his mother allowed causing him to miss school. At age eight, he remained illiterate, with a poor grasp of mathematics, his lack of education contributed to a feeling of alienation at school, which resulted in his playing truant at Sefton Park. After several years of twice-weekly tutoring from his surrogate sister and neighbour, Marie Maguire Crawford, Starkey had nearly caught up to his peers academically, but in 1953, he contracted tuberculosis and was admitted to a sanatorium, where he remained for two years. During his stay the medical staff made an effort to stimulate motor activity and relieve boredom by encouraging their patients to join the hospital band, leading to his first exposure to a percussion instrument: a makeshift mallet made from a cotton bobbin that he used to strike the cabinets next to his bed. Soon afterwards, he grew interested in drumming, receiving a copy of the Alyn Ainsworth song "Bedtime for Drums" as a convalescence gift from Crawford.

Starkey commented: "I was in the hospital band... That's where I started playing. I never wanted anything else from there on... My grandparents gave me a mandolin and a banjo. My grandfather gave me a harmonica... we had a piano – nothing. Only the drums."Starkey attended St Silas, a Church of England primary school near his house where h


Fandry is a 2013 Marathi-language film and directed by Nagraj Manjule in a directorial debut. It stars Rajeshwari Kharat; the story focuses on a young boy's infatuation amidst caste-based discrimination. The film—set in Akolner, a village near Ahmednagar—is about a teenager from a Dalit family, who lives at the village fringe, falls in love with an upper caste girl; the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Mumbai International Film Festival. The film was released theatrically on Valentine's Day 14 February 2014. At the 61st National Film Awards, it won the Indira Gandhi Award for Best Debut Film of a Director. Fandry is a story set in the background of caste discrimination depicting the love of a 13-year-old boy. Jambhuvant Kachru Mane, a pre-teen lives in a makeshift house on the outskirts of a caste segregated village with his parents and 2 sisters; the family earns its living by doing menial jobs. Owing to the caste-ridden power structure of the village society, the boy's father has a fearful and submissive personality, exploited by the upper-caste villagers.

Jabya is disillusioned by the predicament of his family and shows interest in school where he has fallen in one-sided love with a forward caste girl named Shalini who he has never talked to but tries to get her to notice him. The plot opens with Jabya and his school friend Pirya armed with a slingshot trying to catch a bird in the wilderness. However, the bird call that punctuates the film is that of the Red Wattled Lapwing, supposed to bring bad luck; the black sparrow, with its distinctive forked tail, the call of the red wattled lapwing occur throughout the film. The duo keep trying to catch the bird in the entire film for an unknown reason, explained in the film. According to a local legend, it is believed that when the ash obtained by burning the black sparrow is sprinkled on someone, it hypnotizes them to fall in love with the person sprinkling it. Jabya befriends a bicycle mechanic named Chankya who sees his young self in the boy. Chankya had once gotten married to a girl but she was soon forcefully taken away by her brother and left him beaten badly.

Since he has renounced family life and taken up refuge in spirituality and liquor. Jabya seeks support from Chankya in his quest to obtain his love, which Chankya extends; the idea of sprinkling the ash of black sparrow on Shalu is suggested to Jabya by Chankya himself. The idea, however, is executed only in Jabya's dream. Back in the village, Jabya's family members comply as they are exploited and dehumanized by the villagers over and over again. In the film's climax, Jabya understands the nature of the kingdom and realizes that he himself is the odd one out, he understands that he himself has allowed the others to exploit his family because he refused to secure his boundaries. He reaches his tipping point and explodes in a rage against the others, he establishes a clear revolt. The stone is seen fast approaching towards the audience and the film ends; the closing scene deliberately aims the stone at the audience, not only a victim but a carrier of the exploitative caste-based social system. Somnath Awghade as Jambuwant Kachru Mane Suraj Pawar as a Piraji Chhaya Kadam as Nani Kishor Kadam as a Kachru Mane Rajeshwari Kharat as Shalu Bhushan Manjule as Dada Patil Nagraj Manjule as a Chankya Sohail Shaikh as Sangram Sanjay Chaudhri as Teacher Vikas Pandurang Patil as a Navhi Prashant Kamble Jyoti Subhash Suhas Sirsat Moinuddin Inamdar as a principal Pooja Dolas as a Vedant's Mother Shruti Awate as a Rani Sakshi Vyavhare as a Dhurpa Pravin Tarde as a Sarpanch Suresh Vishwakarma Story, dialogues & direction – Nagraj Manjule Producers – Nilesh Navlakha & Vivek Kajaria Executive producer – Vivek Wagh Costume designers – Gargee Kulkarni and Priyanka Dubey Art director – Santosh Sankhad Sound design – Nimish Chheda Chief assistant director – Gargee Kulkarni and Kutub Inamdar Assistant editor – Kutub Inamdar On location sound – Christopher Robleto Harvey The film was praised at the Mumbai International Film Festival and was subsequently picked up by Zee Entertainment for distribution rights in Maharashtra in 125 to 150 screens.

Vivek Kajaria, who produced the film along with Nilesh Navalakha, said "Fandry is one of the most awaited films of recent times and we have decided to go strong on our marketing. Our partnership with Zee Entertainment has helped us a lot. We are trying our best to give it a wide release and hoping that the word-of-mouth will help us grow. It’s up to the audiences really." The film released all over Maharashtra on 14 February 2014 and it was released in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Goa along with 12 states on 28 February 2014. The soundtrack album of Fandry received positive reviews among the fans. Official Selections: Fandry on IMDb Fandry Review


ACeS was a regional satellite telecommunications company based in Jakarta, Indonesia. It offered GSM-like satellite telephony services to Asian market; the coverage area included Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and India. The company operated the Garuda 1 satellite, launched on February 12, 2000. A second satellite was never materialized. ACeS was formed by a joint venture of PT. Pasifik Satelit Nusantara, Lockheed Martin Global Telecommunication, Jasmine International Overseas Ltd of Thailand and Philippine Long Distance Telephone Co.. ACeS services were marketed by National Service Providers in six countries. Pasifik Satelit Nusantara in Indonesia, ACeS Regional Services in Thailand, Smart ACeS in the Philippines, TMTouch/Celcom in Malaysia, AVCO in Nepal and Mobitel in Sri Lanka; the satellite and most network operations were controlled by ACeS Network Control Center in Batam Island, Indonesia. The NSPs operated ground stations. ACeS has been assigned the virtual country code +88220, an international networks code rather than a GMSS code as the system does not operate globally.

The company supplies only one handset type, the Ericsson R190, which derived many components from GH688 model. R190 is a dual-mode Satellite/GSM phone which automatically switches to satellite mode when terrestrial GSM network is not available, it accepts standard GSM SIM cards, since ACeS has international roaming agreements with many GSM networks worldwide, the phone can be used in any country. The handset supports most standard services such as call forward and call waiting but does not support short message service in satellite mode; the demise of Ericsson mobile phone business in 2001 has left ACeS with no other handset available to offer to its customers. As Ericsson left the mobile phone business, production of the R190 was continued by ACeS and rebranded to be the ACeS R190. Additionally ACeS has developed a land phone version, the ACeS FR-190, that allowed many villages and rural areas throughout Asia access to basic telephony services. At its conception, ACeS network was designed to serve up to 2 million subscribers.

It aimed for markets unserved by regular terrestrial cellular networks, such as rural areas, forestry and marine industries. However, sales grew and after five years of operation ACeS had fewer than 20,000 subscribers; the company failed to attract more customers, it was considered by many as a commercial failure. In 2014 ACeS ceased operation altogether. Mobile-satellite service Satellite phone GEO-Mobile Radio Interface O3b List of Communications Satellites