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Ringsaker is a municipality in Innlandet county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Hedmarken; the administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Brumunddal. The municipality of Ringsaker was established on 1 January 1838; the municipalities of Furnes and Nes were merged with Ringsaker on 1 January 1964. The municipality is named after the old Ringsaker farm; the first element is the genitive case of unknown meaning. One proposal is that Ringir or Hringir may have been an epithet or alias for the Norse god Ullr, based on a ceremony mentioned in the poem Atlakviða where an oath is sworn by hringi Ullar; the last element is meaning "acre" or any "field" generally. The coat-of-arms is from modern times, they were granted on 1 February 1985. The arms show a silver elk on a red background; the elk in the arms is taken from pre-historic cave paintings found at the Stein farm in Ringsaker, indicating the early inhabitation of the area. They were designed by Arne Løvstad. Ringsaker is located on the east side of the lake Mjøsa, the largest lake in Norway, It borders Lillehammer to the northwest.

Ringsaker is situated in an lumbering region. Ringsaker lies in the traditional district of Hedmarken which consists of a rolling agricultural terrain, hilly green mountains, pine forests; the principal urban centers in Ringsaker include Moelv. Ringsaker's main industries are agriculture and diversified manufacturing; the area of Sjusjøen has a large cottage colony, attractive for out door sports including cross-country skiing vacations. Ringsaker is first mentioned in King Harald Hårfagre's Saga, in the Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson; the saga reports. After Halfdan the Black's death, many chiefs coveted the dominions he had left. Among these King Gandalf was the first. Hake, the son of Gandalf, led an expedition of 300 men against Vestfold. King Harald's army, led by Guthorm and fought a great battle, King Harald was victorious, killing king Hake. King Harald turned back, but King Gandalf had come to Vestfold so they defeated him also. Now when the sons of King Eystein in Hedemark heard the news, they proposed to meet at Ringsaker in Hedemark with the remaining kings, Hogne Karuson and Herse Gudbrand.

King Harald and Guthorm found out where the Oppland kings were meeting, coming undetected at night, fired the houses in which Hogne Karuson and Herse Gudbrand slept. King Eystein's two sons and their men fought. After the fall of these kings, King Harald had subdued Hedemark, Gudbrandsdal, Thoten and the whole northern part of Vingulmark. In addition, King Gandalf was slain, King Harald took the whole of his kingdom as far south as the river Raum. Ringsaker is again mentioned in a saga about 1018 when Olaf sent people to advise the Opplands that he was coming, as it was custom for the king to live as guest there every third year. In the autumn, he went first to Vingulmark, he inquired about their Christianity, punishing others. He went through that district, on to Romerike. Christianity was weaker there and he punished all who had not obeyed his word; the king of Romerike proceeded to Ringsaker. They sent messages to King Gudrod of Gudbrandsdal, to the King of Hadaland, inviting them to meet at Hedemark.

The kings agreed to resist Olaf. They summoned the leaders from their kingdoms. Most approved of the measure, but the kings were betrayed to Olav by Ketil Kavl of Ringanes, who proceeded down lake Mjøsa to Eid, where Olaf was located. King Olaf accompanied by 400 men arrived at Ringsaker. Ketil knew where the kings slept, Olaf had all these houses surrounded; the kings were taken prisoners. King Hrorek's eyes were put out. King Gudrod's tongue was cut out. King Ring and two others were banished from Norway. King Olaf took possession of the land these kings had possessed, after this Olaf alone bore the title of king in Norway. Sigurd of Røyr, Haakon II's champion, lived at Røyr in Ringsaker, he died at Re in 1163. Ringsaker church is a Medieval era stone basilica built in the 1150s, it was first mentioned in historical documents in 1170. The choir enlarged in gothic 1200s, In the late 13th century the church transept was enlarged; the edifice has 400 seats. The tower spire was added in 1694. Two large candlesticks on the altar are from 1540.

The crucifix above the chancel arch is carved in 1683. The pulpit and baptismal font are carved and date to 1704. A number of murals were uncovered in various places in the church during the restoration of the church from 1960 to 1964. A SOS Children's Village has been planned for Ringsaker—Norway's second. Tryggve Andersen, writer Adolph M. Christianson, justice of the North Dakota Supreme Court Hovel Helseth, industrial entrepreneur and pioneer within the Norwegian textile industry. Alf Prøysen and musician Ole Rynn

2019 AFL season

The 2019 Australian Football League season was the 123rd season of the elite Australian rules football competition and the 30th under the name'Australian Football League', having switched from'Victorian Football League' after 1989. There are 18 teams competing in the same as the previous seven seasons; the first game was played on Thursday, 21 March, the season concluded with the 2019 AFL Grand Final on Saturday, 28 September. Richmond defeated Greater Western Sydney by 89 points in the grand final, marking their twelfth premiership; the AFL Commission approved several alterations to the rules of the game, to come into effect for the 2019 season: Traditional playing positions mandated at centre bounces Teams must have six players inside both 50m arcs, with one player inside the goalsquare. Four midfield players must start inside the centre square with the two wingmen stationed along the wing. At kick-ins, a player will no longer need to kick to himself to play on from the goalsquare. Following a behind, the man on the mark will be brought out to 10m from the top of the goalsquare, rather than the existing five metres, due to the play on rule from kick-ins.

When defenders mark or receive a free kick within nine metres of their own goal, the man on the mark will be brought in line with the top of the goalsquare. Team runners may only enter the playing surface after a goal has been kicked and must exit before play restarts. Water carriers are not permitted to enter the playing surface during live play. Players will be prohibited from setting up behind the umpire at centre bounces. With respect to 50 metre penalties, the player with the ball: Must be allowed to advance the mark by 50m without the infringing player delaying the game and. With respect to kicks after the siren, a player in this situation: Will be able to kick across their body using a snap or check-side however. The'hands in the back' rule interpretation has been repealed so a player can now: Place his hands on the back of his opponent to protect his position in a marking contest, provided he does not push his opponent in the back. A ruckman who takes direct possession of the ball from a bounce, throw-up or boundary throw-in will no longer be regarded as having had prior opportunity.

Where there is uncertainty over, the designated ruckman, the ruckman for each team will still be required to nominate to the field umpire. The AFL confirmed in December 2018 that the modified version of the sport, known as AFLX, would return in the 2019 pre-season. Unlike the 2018 competition, no AFL clubs took part in the event, with four all-star teams being picked by four high-profile players respectively; the tournament was won by the Rampage. The pre-season series of games returned as the 2019 JLT Community Series, with teams playing two games each; the games were stand-alone, with no overall winner of the series. Each team played two games, many at suburban or regional venues, while all games were televised on Fox Footy. Notable features of the draw include: St Kilda will replace Gold Coast in hosting Port Adelaide in Shanghai. Tony Ireland Stadium in Townsville hosted an AFL premiership match for the first time, when Gold Coast played St Kilda in round 13; the fixture replaced the game held in Cairns between 2011 and 2018.

Collingwood will host Melbourne for the Queen's Birthday match for the first time. Bold – Home gameX – ByeOpponent for round listed above margin Numbers highlighted in green indicates the team finished the round inside the top 8. Numbers highlighted in blue indicates. Numbers highlighted in red indicates. Underlined numbers indicates. Subscript numbers indicate ladder position at round's end. Numbers highlighted in blue indicates. Numbers underlined indicates the player did not play in that round

Foro (bird)

Foro panarium is an extinct bird of disputed taxonomic status that lived during the early to mid-Eocene around the Ypresian-Lutetian boundary, some 48 million years ago. F. panarium is known from fossils found in the Green River Formation of Wyoming. The taxonomical relations of F. panarium remain unclear. It is sometimes placed in a distinct family Foratidae, it may or may not be related to the Cuculiformes and is sometimes seen as a "missing link" between the cuckoos and/or turacos and the puzzling hoatzin of the Amazon. The latter might be related to any number of different modern birds however. In addition, the Eocene genus Hoatzi from Argentina has been allied to both the hoatzin and Foro and been considered congeneric with the latter. What is certain is that the Cuculiformes the turacos, are among the likelier candidates for the hoatzin's closest living relatives. There is an ancestral hoatzin, from the Early or Middle Miocene of Colombia, which would at least not contradict the assumption that Foro panarium was an ancient member of the hoatzin lineage or its predecessor.

On the other hand, it has been proposed that the hoatzin belongs to a distinct clade of Cretaceous origin, the Metaves. As nothing certain about the evolutionary history of the hoatzin lineage throughout the Paleogene is known at all, F. panarium cannot support or contradict this hypothesis either. What can be said is that Foro, with its stocky body and rather weak flight apparatus was in all likelihood a bird that did not fly vast distances, it is not likely that it is congeneric with Hoatzi, as North and South America were still separate by some 1,600 km of shallow seas and the Central American island arc when these birds lived, seem to have shared only strong-flying and migratory genera such as seabirds. Being able to fly at all would still enable a rather sedentary bird lineage to spread across all of the Americas by of course; the phylogenetic analysis conducted by Field & Hsiang indicated that Foro panarium was a stem-turaco

Ghislain Bagnon

Ghislain Bagnon is a French former professional footballer. Born in Kokouezo, Bagnon began playing club football in France with AS Cannes, he made his professional debut in Ligue 2 during 1998. He made 60 Ligue 2 appearances with Cannes before the club was relegated, he played in the Championnat National for one further season. After he left Cannes, Bagnon had brief spells playing amateur football in England and in the Belgian Third Division with R. F. C. Tournai, before returning to play for ES Viry-Châtillon in 2003, he would finish his career playing amateur football in France with Marmande, CS Louhans-Cuiseaux and AS Cozes. Bagnon won the 1997 UEFA European Under-18 Championship with France. Ghislain Bagnon – French league stats at LFP Ghislain Bagnon at L'Équipe Football

Cocceius Auctus

Lucius Cocceius Auctus was a Roman architect employed by Octavian's strategist Agrippa to excavate the subterranean passageways known as the crypta neapolitana connecting modern-day Naples and Pozzuoli and the Grotta di Cocceio, connecting Lake Avernus and Cumae. Cocceius was responsible for the conversion of the Capitolium in Pozzuoli into a Temple of Augustus with the backing of the merchant Lucius Calpurnius. Cocceius Auctus built the original Pantheon in Rome. Adam, Jean-Pierre. La construction romaine, Paris, ISBN 2-7084-0104-1, 1984. Lamprecht, Heinz-Otto. Opus Caementitium, Beton-Verlag, Düsseldorf, ISBN 3-7640-0310-3, 1993. Cocceia

Universal testing machine

A universal testing machine known as a universal tester, materials testing machine or materials test frame, is used to test the tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. An earlier name for a tensile testing machine is a tensometer; the "universal" part of the name reflects that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials and structures. Several variations are in use. Common components include: Load frame - Usually consisting of two strong supports for the machine; some small machines have a single support. Load cell - A force transducer or other means of measuring the load is required. Periodic calibration is required by governing regulations or quality system. Cross head - A movable cross head is controlled to move up or down; this is at a constant speed: sometimes called a constant rate of extension machine. Some machines can program the crosshead speed or conduct cyclical testing, testing at constant force, testing at constant deformation, etc. Electromechanical, servo-hydraulic, linear drive, resonance drive are used.

Means of measuring extension or deformation - Many tests require a measure of the response of the test specimen to the movement of the cross head. Extensometers are sometimes used. Output device - A means of providing the test result is needed; some older machines have dial or digital displays and chart recorders. Many newer machines have a computer interface for printing. Conditioning - Many tests require controlled conditioning; the machine can be in a controlled room or a special environmental chamber can be placed around the test specimen for the test. Test fixtures, specimen holding jaws, related sample making equipment are called for in many test methods; the set-up and usage are detailed in a test method published by a standards organization. This specifies the sample preparation, gauge length, etc; the specimen is placed in the machine between the grips and an extensometer if required can automatically record the change in gauge length during the test. If an extensometer is not fitted, the machine itself can record the displacement between its cross heads on which the specimen is held.

However, this method not only records the change in length of the specimen but all other extending / elastic components of the testing machine and its drive systems including any slipping of the specimen in the grips. Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on specimen. Throughout the tests the control system and its associated software record the load and extension or compression of the specimen. Machines range from small table top systems to ones with over 53 MN capacity. Modulus of elasticity Stress-strain curve Young's modulus Necking Fatigue testing ASTM E74 - Practice for Calibration of Force Measuring Instruments for Verifying the Force Indication of Testing Machines ASTM E83 - Practice for Verification and Classification on Extensometer Systems ASTM E1012 - Practice for Verification of Test Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application ASTM E1856 - Standard Guide for Evaluating Computerized Data Acquisition Systems Used to Acquire Data from Universal Testing Machines JIS K7171 - Standard for determine the flextural strength for plastic material & products Beach, Chandler B. ed..

"Testing-Machine". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co. Video of a universal testing machine performing a tensile test What is a Universal Test Machine