Chimney Rock National Monument
Chimney Rock National Monument is a 4,726-acre U. S. National Monument in San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado which includes an archaeological site; this area is located in Archuleta County, Colorado between Durango and Pagosa Springs and is managed for archaeological protection, public interpretation, education. The Chimney Rock Archaeological Site has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1970. U. S. President Barack Obama created Chimney Rock National Monument by proclamation on September 21, 2012 under authority of the Antiquities Act. Chimney Rock lies on 4,726 acres of San Juan National Forest land surrounded by the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. Chimney Rock itself occupies 1,000 acres of the site, is 315 feet tall. Next to Chimney Rock is Companion Rock, a popular nesting spot for the Peregrine Falcon; the primary settlements that have been excavated lie on the ridge that terminates at Chimney Rock. The ridge is bedrock made of sandstone; the Ancestral Puebloan site, designated on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, was a community inhabited between Durango and Pagosa Springs about 1,000 years ago with about 200 rooms.
Rooms in the buildings were used for work areas and ceremonial purposes. The site is located within the San Juan National Forest Archaeological Area on 4,726 acres of land. Between May 15 and September 30 the Visitor Center is open and guided walking tours are conducted daily. Housing 2,000 ancient Pueblo Indians between AD 925 and 1125, the settlement included a Great House Pueblo with round ceremonial rooms, known as kivas, 36 ground-floor rooms. A grizzly bear jaw found in one of the rooms when excavated suggested a reverence for the animal, modern Chaco oral history suggests that the Bear clan originated in the Chimney Rock area; the Chaco culture which inhabited the Chimney Rock area was hierarchical, with a priest class overseeing the area's inhabitants. The construction of the Great House Pueblo at the top of the ridge, close to Chimney Rock and its neighbor Companion Rock, had a large ceremonial role in the years of Chacoan presence; as the moon makes its lunar cycle across the sky over a period of 18.6 years, it appears in a lunar standstill between the two rocks for 16 months.
Evidence suggests that Great House Pueblo was first built in AD 1076 during a lunar standstill and expanded and finished in AD 1093 during another. It consists of two kivas. Archaeologists believe that Great House Pueblo was ceremonial in nature, with only one or two families living in its rooms. During certain key ceremonies, it functioned as a hotel for visiting notables, some of whom came from as far away as Chaco Canyon, in modern-day Northern New Mexico, 90 miles from Chimney Rock. Material to build the Great House Pueblo came from downhill and was hauled by hand up the ridge line from further below. Five pithouses, titled Room A through E housed the workers who built Great House Pueblo. Rooms A and B were excavated in 1921-1922 by early archaeologists, but their insufficient knowledge of how to stabilize walls, coupled with a decision to use the wood they found in the ruins for their campfires, has left little knowledge of these ruins, with little left today; the pottery was preserved and is now stored in boxes in the basement of the Anasazi Center in Durango.
Halfway between the worker's houses and the Great House Pueblo was a ruin that archaeologists named the "Guardhouse." It stretched from one side of the ridge to the other, housed one family. Rather than serving as a defensive post against invaders, it more performed crowd control, keeping undesirables out of the Great House Pueblo, letting the elites through. After excavation this ruin became unstable and was removed by the Forest Service for fear of visitors' safety; the base of the trail up to Great House Pueblo begins next to a pit-house complex made up of three pit houses and accompanying workrooms. An extended, multi generational family would have lived in this complex. Excavations of the workrooms showed separate areas with grinding stones for corn and a sort of "man cave" where men would make arrowheads and tools; the last two excavated sites are the Great Kiva. The Great Kiva shows similarities to others across the southwest, with a central fire pit, diverting stone and ventilation shaft.
It has unique features. Instead of a bench that runs the perimeter to store ritual items, several pits in the ground were built, they are believed to be storage areas; when excavated, archaeological students found a lack of wood and other roof materials. An alternative hypothesis is. One is; the other is that during construction, the builders believed it had bad spirits and didn't wish to finish. The inhabitants of Chimney Rock abandoned the site in 1125, their modern-day descendants consider the site sacred with the spirits of their ancestors, have asked the Forest Service to refrain from further excavation out of respect. Since the 1960s, Dr. Frank Eddy of the University of Colorado and others have studied the site, research continues. 8 villages or settlements have been discovered in the area so far, a majority of which have remained unexcavated since Dr. Eddy's work in the early 1970s. Utilizing the provisions of the Antiquities Act, U. S. president Barack Obama elevated the archeological site to the status of a national monument on September 21, 2012.
Guided and self-guided tours begin at the small visitor center at the base
San Juan National Forest
The San Juan National Forest is a U. S. National Forest covering over 1,878,846 acres in western Colorado; the forest occupies land in Archuleta, Dolores, Hinsdale, La Plata, Montezuma, Rio Grande, San Miguel and San Juan Counties. It borders the Uncompahgre National Forest to the north and the Rio Grande National Forest to the east; the forest covers most of the southern portion of the San Juan Mountains west of the Continental Divide. The forest contains two alpine wilderness areas; the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad passes through the National Forest. Theodore Roosevelt created the forest by proclamation on June 3, 1905. Forest headquarters are located in Colorado. There are local ranger district offices in Bayfield and Pagosa Springs. President Barack Obama designated part of the forest as Chimney Rock National Monument by proclamation on September 21, 2012. There are three designated wilderness areas lying within San Juan National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.
All of them extend into neighboring National Forests. Lizard Head Wilderness South San Juan Wilderness Weminuche Wilderness Hermosa Wilderness 416 Fire List of largest United States National Forests List of U. S. National Forests San Juan National Forest
Alamosa is a city under Home Rule Municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Alamosa County, United States. The city population was 8,780 at the 2010 United States Census; the city is the commercial center of the San Luis Valley in south-central Colorado, is the home of Adams State University. Alamosa was established in May 1878 by the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad and became an important rail center; the railroad had an extensive construction and shipping facility in Alamosa for many years and headquartered its remaining narrow gauge service here with trackage reaching many points throughout southwest Colorado and northern New Mexico. Alamosa is now a notable tourist town with many nearby attractions, including the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and Colorado Gators Reptile Park; the town hosts "Summer Fest on the Rio" which occurs the first weekend in June, the Early Iron car show over the Labor Day weekend, "Weekends on the Rio" on various Sundays throughout the summer The city takes its name from the Spanish adjective Alamosa, meaning "of cottonwood", for the cottonwood forests which grow along the Rio Grande and throughout town.
Alamosa is located at 37°28′N 105°52′W, at the junction of U. S. Routes 160 and 285. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, of which 5.4 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 2.26%, is water. Alamosa is located along the Rio Grande in the San Luis Valley, in the highest general agricultural land in the United States. Elevation is about 7,500 feet in Alamosa with peaks over 14,000 feet within 23 miles of town in the Sangre de Cristo Range. Alamosa features a cold desert climate with long, cold winters and warm summers, dry weather year-round. Normals range from a low of −4 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July. Annual precipitation is only 7.25 inches, with summer being the wettest. The aridity depresses mean snowfall to around 32 inches, the median to only 22.3 inches. The altitude and dryness of the air cause day-night temperature differences to be severe year-round. Alamosa's geography and nighttime temperatures account for it being listed as the coldest city in the contiguous United States, with a record average of 227 nights per year with a minimum temperature of 32 °F or less, 48.7 nights with minima below 0 °F.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,960 people, 2,974 households, 1,769 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,995.0 people per square mile. There were 3,215 housing units at an average density of 805.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.53% White, 1.41% Black or African American, 2.20% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 22.36% from other races, 4.28% from two or more races. 46.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,974 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.5% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 21.8% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,453, the median income for a family was $33,017. Males had a median income of $27,100 versus $22,671 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,405. About 18.1% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.4% of those under age 18 and 17.0% of those age 65 or over. The city of Alamosa is a Home Rule Municipality like many other Colorado towns; the City Council has four elected from wards and two at large. The Council has authority to make and repeal laws and ordinances; the city elects a mayor-at-large on a non-partisan ballot. The current mayor of Alamosa is Ty Coleman. Alamosa Public Schools are part of the Alamosa School District RE-11J, include Alamosa Elementary School, Ortega Middle School, Alamosa High School. Robert Alejo is the Superintendent of Schools.
Adams State University, founded in 1921 as a teacher's college, offers both undergraduate and graduate programs. Graduate level programs emphasize teaching and education, art and business. Many courses are available online. In 2015, the college reached an all-time high enrollment of 3,701 students; the University's location in Alamosa, with an elevation of about 7,800 ft above sea level, attracts many athletes to the school's athletic program. In 2014, ASU added a cycling program. Alamosa is on the Rio Grande River, crossed by two auto bridges, one pedestrian bridge and one rail bridge in town. Auto traffic is served by U. S. Highway 160 running east and west and U. S. Highway 285 and State Highway 17 running north and south. Alamosa is served by the San Rio Grande Railroad; the local airport is San Luis Valley Regional Airport. Alamosa is the shopping center for the San Luis Valley and has a Walmart Supercenter, a Walgreens and two supermarkets and City Market. There are a number of fast food restaurants, two medical clinics, a regional hospital, San Luis Valley Regional Medical Center.
Adams State University is located in Alam
The historic town of Saguache is a Statutory Town, the county seat of Saguache County, United States. The population was 493 at the U. S. Census 2010. Saguache is a small historical village in an agricultural area in southern Colorado at the northern gateway to the San Luis Valley, a valley between the Sangre de Cristo Range on the east and the San Juan Mountains to the west. Saguache Creek flows through the town from its beginnings high in the San Juan mountains; the site has been known for centuries to Native Americans who moved down from their summer homes in the mountains to the valley during the winter months. The Spanish began to move into the area in the 1600s and Spanish sheepherders passed through each year as they drove their flocks into the hills for summer grazing; the early white settlers and miners passed through this area, many seeking passage west along the Old Spanish Trail. In the mid-1860s, the first permanent white settlements were established in Saguache and the nearby town of Villa Grove.
Saguache County was founded in 1866. The formation of the town was influenced by the needs of the era. Beginning as a trading post, in the late 1800s mining became a significant influence as the Colorado mining boom brought hundreds of mining operations to the surrounding mountains and the miners needed a steady supply of food and other goods; the town was founded by Otto Mears, who came to Saguache in 1867. Mears constructed a wheat thresher and a grist mill for thrashing and grinding wheat to make flour to supply Saquache and the surrounding mines, he built toll roads over the nearby mountain passes to use for hauling supplies to mining camps to the north, to further open the area to settlement. The Saguache Town Company was formed in 1874 turning Saquache into a booming supply town. Mears established a newspaper, the Saguache Chronicle, to attract pioneers to Saguache, he is most famous for his work, the building of the famous Million Dollar Highway. From its early days as a boom town, the population of Saguache has shrunk to around 500 residents.
In its heyday, Saquache could boast of having "the Colorado Hall, the Saguache Meat Market, a boarding house, a grocery, law firms, a hardware store, a hotel, a sawmill, The Saguache Chronicle newspaper." After several name changes, The Saguache Chronicle became The Saguache Crescent. The paper is still printed every week on a flatbed press built in 1915 with metal type cast on a Linotype composing machine; the Linotype may be the only one still in use in the United States. It is still the county's "paper of record," and is operated by a third generation descendant of the family who purchased it in 1917; the early sheep ranching gave way to cattle and alfalfa hay production. Present day Saguache has "one school, a library, a museum, four churches, two gas stations, one liquor store, two grocery stores, two restaurants, a sawmill, an organic farm." According to a 2013 Denver Post article entitled, "What's in a Colorado name pronunciation?", the name Saguache comes from a Ute language word meaning "sand dune".
A Native American, explains the history of the name: "The Utes don't have an alphabet. The way the immigrants heard it, the way, is how they spelled it; the word is'sə wŭp. But the immigrants couldn't pronounce it, so they called it'sə wäch.' "But according to a 1995 letter to the editor of the Colorado Central Magazine, the name Saguache means "Blue earth — water at the blue earth." The writer had written to correct an article in which the word was said to mean "green place", but according to the writer, the word comes from a shortened form of the Ute language word "Saguaguachipa." The Ute tribe encampments were common in the area around the present-day community and the name "referred to springs in which blue earth was said to be found to the north". The Editors replied: "The Ute Dictionary, published in 1977 by the Southern Ute Indian Tribe of Ignacio, Colo. defines "sagwa-ci" as "'Saguache', lit.'green place'. Colorado..." One source states that the "blue earth" mentioned refers to a deposit of blue clay found near the creek.
The Colorado State Historical Society has a different take on the meaning: The note on a community monument: Saguache, "the name derived from the Indian word `Blue Water'."The Spanish language version of this name is spelled "Saguache", while the English language version is spelled "Sawatch". Saguache is at 38°5′14″N 106°8′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 578 people, 262 households, 160 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,510.7 people per square mile. There were 328 housing units at an average density of 857.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 79.93% White, 2.60% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 13.15% from other races, 4.15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.43% of the population. There were 262 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.9% were non-families.
33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.73. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, 17.5% who were
Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is a national monument protecting an archaeologically-significant landscape located in the southwestern region of the U. S. state of Colorado. The monument's 176,056 acres are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, as directed in the Presidential proclamation which created the site on June 9, 2000. Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is part of the National Landscape Conservation System, better known as the National Conservation Lands; this system comprises 32 million acres managed by the Bureau of Land Management to conserve and restore these nationally significant landscapes recognized for their outstanding cultural and scientific values. Canyons of the Ancients encompasses and surrounds three of the four separate sections of Hovenweep National Monument, administered by the National Park Service; the monument was proclaimed in order to preserve the largest concentration of archaeological sites in the United States Ancestral Puebloan ruins.
As of 2005, over 6,000 individual archeological sites had been identified within the monument. Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is located 9 miles west of Pleasant View, Colorado in southwestern Colorado; the monument's northern and eastern boundaries are canyons. Its western boundary is the Colorado-Utah state border. Lands south are bordered by the Ute Mountain McElmo Creek. Ancient Pueblo people lived in the Canyons of the Ancients in the 10th century. For a fuller understanding of the architecture and life style during this period, pueblo buildings in the Mesa Verde region were built with stone, windows facing south, in U, E and L shapes; the buildings were located more together and reflected deepening religious celebration. Towers were built near kivas and used for look-outs. Pottery became more versatile, including pitchers, bowls and tableware for food and drink. White pottery with black designs emerged. Water management and conservation techniques, including the use of reservoirs and silt-retaining dams emerged during this period.
As refinements in construction techniques increased, the Puebloans built larger pueblos, or villages, on top of the pit-houses starting about AD 1090. Lowry Pueblo had just a few rooms and 2 kivas in 1090 and the village was expanded two times about 1103 and 1120 until it had 40 rooms, 8 kivas and one great kiva. Like their ancient neighbors at Hovenweep National Monument and Mesa Verde National Park, the Lowry Pueblo dwellers were farmers and hunters, they grew beans and squash and raised turkeys. They made and decorated pottery. At least 6,000 distinct structures have been identified in the monument, the density of archeological remains is the highest of any region in the United States; the vast majority of stone structures in the national monument are from the Ancient Puebloans era. More than 20,000 sites have been identified. After building basic pit style structures at first, the Puebloans built villages with cliff dwellings. Archaeological ruins include Sweat lodges, kivas and petroglyphs.
Reservoirs with stone and earthen dams, including spillways and numerous check dams, built in case of flash floods. Stone towers which may have been lookout or sentry posts, are found scattered throughout the monument. Unlike other Ancient Pueblo site abandonment, it appears that the people of the Canyons of the Ancients left the sites much earlier than their neighbors, some time in the mid-12th century; some of the artifacts found from the site show a connection to the Chacoan culture, while others are similar to those of the Mesa Verde dwellers. Other Ancient Pueblo people from the area migrated south to Arizona and New Mexico, ancestors to modern pueblo people such as the Hopi and Zuni. Modern Pueblo people are located on reservations in New Mexico, but some in Arizona; the 60,000 people's pueblos and reservations reside in three geographic areas: along the Rio Grande canyon in New Mexico, such as the Taos Pueblo southern New Mexican Zuni, Acuna and Isleta pueblos and reservations Arizona Hopi.
After 1300, hunter-gathers, ancestors of the Ute and Navajo, moved into the southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah and came to inhabit the region. The ancestors to the Navajo were one of the tribes of the southern division of the Athabaskan language family that migrated south from Alaska and northwestern Canada, most traveling through the Great Basin; the Navajo ancestors were in the area after AD 1300, but at least by the early 16th century. The people from who the Ute descended arrived in the area from the west in this period from 1300 to the 18th century; the Ute's ancestors are hunter-gatherers who, in the 12th century, began migrating east from the present southern California area into a large hunter-gathering territory as far east as the Great Plains and in the canyons and mountains of eastern Utah and Colorado. During this period, the Spanish colonial reach extended to northern New Mexico, where they settled in the 16th century, they introduced items for trade, such as guns and horses and deadly diseases, cultural influence in the forms of religion and forms of government.
In the 18th century, Spanish missionaries visited the area looking for a route to Spanish missions in California. One of the expeditions was that of Spanish friars Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and Francisco Atanasio Domínguez who traveled from New Mexico, through western Colorado to Utah; the first Anglo American people arrived starting with trappers. With the discovery of
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Mineral County, Colorado
Mineral County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 712, making it the second-least populous county in Colorado; the county seat and only incorporated municipality in the county is Creede. The county was named for the many valuable minerals found in the streams of the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 878 square miles, of which 876 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. Saguache County - northeast Rio Grande County - east Archuleta County - south Hinsdale County - west Rio Grande National Forest San Juan National Forest La Garita Wilderness Weminuche Wilderness Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Lake Fork National Recreation Trail Silver Thread Scenic Byway As of the census of 2000, there were 831 people, 377 households, 251 families residing in the county; the population density was 1 people per square mile. There were 1,119 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.87% White, 0.84% Native American, 0.12% from other races, 2.17% from two or more races. 2.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 377 households out of which 22.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 5.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.70. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.50% under the age of 18, 4.70% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 32.70% from 45 to 64, 17.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 104.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,844, the median income for a family was $40,833.
Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $19,375 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,475. About 9.30% of families and 10.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.70% of those under age 18 and 10.60% of those age 65 or over. Mineral County has an high proportion of land under federal ownership, with 96% of the county under the management of the federal government; as of 2015 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Mineral County, Colorado are: Creede Spar City Wagon Wheel Gap Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Mineral County, Colorado Foley, N. K. et al.. Mineralogy, mineral chemistry, paragenesis of gold and base-metal ores of the North Amethyst vein system, San Juan Mountains, Mineral County, Colorado. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Official Website of Mineral County, Colorado Creede and Mineral County information Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society