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Riot Act

The Riot Act 1714 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain which authorized local authorities to declare any group of 12 or more people to be unlawfully assembled and to disperse or face punitive action. The act's long title was "An Act for preventing tumults and riotous assemblies, for the more speedy and effectual punishing the rioters", it came into force on 1 August 1715, it was repealed in England and Wales by section 10 and Part III of Schedule 3 of the Criminal Law Act 1967. Acts similar to the Riot Act passed into the laws of British colonies in Australia and America, some of which remain today; the phrase "read the Riot Act" has passed into common usage for a stern reprimand or warning of consequences. The Riot Act 1714 was introduced during a time of civil disturbance in Great Britain, such as the Sacheverell riots of 1710, the Coronation riots of 1714 and the 1715 riots in England; the preamble makes reference to "many rebellious riots and tumults have been in diverse parts of this kingdom", adding that those involved "presum so to do, for that the punishments provided by the laws now in being are not adequate to such heinous offences".

The act created a mechanism for certain local officials to make a proclamation ordering the dispersal of any group of more than twelve people who were "unlawfully and tumultuously assembled together". If the group failed to disperse within one hour anyone remaining gathered was guilty of a felony without benefit of clergy, punishable by death; the proclamation could be made in an incorporated town or city by the mayor, bailiff or "other head officer", or a justice of the peace. Elsewhere it could be made by a justice of the peace or the sheriff, undersheriff or parish constable, it had to be read out to the gathering concerned, had to follow precise wording detailed in the act. The wording that had to be read out to the assembled gathering was as follows: Our sovereign lord the King chargeth and commandeth all persons, being assembled to disperse themselves, peaceably to depart to their habitations, or to their lawful business, upon the pains contained in the act made in the first year of King George, for preventing tumults and riotous assemblies.

God save the King. In a number of jurisdictions, such as Britain and New Zealand, wording such as this was enshrined and codified in the law itself. While the expression "reading the Riot Act" is cemented in common idiom with its figurative usage, it originated and squarely in statute itself. In New Zealand's Crimes Act 1961, section 88, repealed since 1987, was given the heading of "Reading the Riot Act". If a group of people failed to disperse within one hour of the proclamation, the act provided that the authorities could use force to disperse them. Anyone assisting with the dispersal was indemnified against any legal consequences in the event of any of the crowd being injured or killed; because of the broad authority that the act granted, it was used both for the maintenance of civil order and for political means. A notorious use of the act was the Peterloo Massacre of 1819 in Manchester; the act made it a felony punishable by death without benefit of clergy for "any persons unlawfully and tumultuously assembled together" to cause serious damage to places of religious worship, houses and stables.

In the event of buildings being damaged in areas that were not incorporated into a town or city, the residents of the hundred were made liable to pay damages to the property owners concerned. Unlike the rest of the act, this required a civil action. In the case of incorporated areas, the action could be brought against two or more named individuals; this provision encouraged residents to attempt to quell riots. Prosecutions under the act were restricted to within one year of the event. At times, it was unclear to both rioters and authorities as to whether the reading of the Riot Act had occurred. One example of this is evident in the St. George's Fields Massacre of 1768. At the trials following the incident, there was confusion among witnesses as to when the Riot Act had been read. In the St. George's Fields Massacre of 1768, large numbers of subjects gathered outside King's Bench Prison to protest the incarceration of John Wilkes. Officials feared that the crowd would forcibly release Wilkes, troops arrived to guard the prison.

After some time, as well as provocation by the rioters, the troops opened fire on the crowd. There were several fatalities, including non-participants of the riot who were struck by stray bullets; some scholars believe that this massacre set the legal precedent for the justified use of force in future riots. The provision pertaining to the use of force can be found in section 3 of the Riot Act:...and that if the persons so unlawfully and tumultuously assembled, or any of them, shall happen to be killed, maimed or hurt, in the dispersing, seizing or apprehending, or endeavouring to disperse, seize or apprehend them, that every such justice of the peace, under-sheriff, bailiff, head-officer, high or petty constable, or other peace-officer, all and singular persons, being aiding and assisting to them, or any of them, shall be free and indemnified, as well against the King's majesty, his heirs and successors, as against all and every other person or persons so unlawfully and tumultuously assembled, that shall happen to be so killed, maimed or hurt, as aforesaid.

There was confusion regarding the use of troops as it pertained to the one-hour m

Akrokerri College of Education

IntroductionAkrokerri College of Education is a teacher education college in Akrokerri. The college is located in Ashanti / Brong Ahafo zone, it is one of the about 46 public colleges of education in Ghana. The college participated in the DFID-funded T-TEL programme, it was accredited to tertiary institution in 2007 and was affiliated to Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in 2019. The Akrokerri College of Education was established in 1962 to cater for some of the surplus number of candidates who could not find places in the existing two-year teacher training colleges; the Teachers’ Certificate ‘A’ four-year programme began in the same year. The College was established with seventy students, half of whom were to be admitted into a training college, to be established at Kpando Municipal District; the first batch of female students to be admitted was a group of thirty Post ‘B’ in September, 1963. The College now has thirty-one students; the College started as Teachers’ Certificate ‘A’ four-year institution, however, in 1964 a two-year English specialist course was started at the College.

In 1966, the course was transferred to Winneba. In 1969, the two-year post secondary teacher training programme was added to the Certificate ‘A’ four-year course. In 1973, Mathematics and Science specialist programme was introduced, it lasted for only three years. In 1975, the two-year post secondary programme was changed to three-year post secondary programme; the College run the Modular programme for untrained teachers in the eighties. It was one of the few colleges that run Access Course for entry into training colleges in recent times. In 2004, it started a programme in Diploma in Basic Education, it was accredited to tertiary institution in September, 2007. The D. B. E. Programme is offered by untrained teachers and Certificate ‘A’ teachers on sandwich basis for four and two years respectively. Akrokerri Training College, popularly called'Adansi' University’ has contributed to the development of human resource in the country with a large campus and serene environment for effective academic work.

Akrokerri College of Education is a force to reckon with in sports. The Akrokerri College of Education is located in the Adansi West District, Ghana and it located in the Ahsanti/Brong Ahafo Zone of the colleges of education in Ghana. There are three programmes offered at the Akrokerri college of Education. Programmes A. General Programmes B. Early Childhood Education Studies C. Mathematics/Science Education

Oil and gas industry in Myanmar

Myanmar, is a developing country and an important natural gas and petroleum producer in Asia. It is home to one of the world's oldest petroleum industries, with its first crude oil exports dating back to 1853. Today, the country is one of the major natural gas producers in the Asian continent. Decades of isolation, sanctions, a lack of technical capacity, opaque government policies and insufficient investment has impeded the country's efforts to develop an upstream hydrocarbon sector. Recent but slow political reform has led the international community to ease sanctions on Burma, giving rise to hopes of greater investment and economic growth. In 2015-2016, the petroleum industry attracted the highest-ever amount of foreign direct investment in the history of Myanmar. Early British explorers in Burma discovered a flourishing oil extraction industry in the town of Yenangyaung in 1795; the area had hundreds of hand-dug oil wells under the hereditary control of 24 Burmese families. British Burma exported its first barrel of crude oil in 1853.

The London-based Burmah Oil Company was established in 1871 and began production in the Yenangyaung field in 1887 and the Chauk field in 1902. BOC enjoyed a monopoly in the sector until 1901, when the American Standard Oil Company launched operations in Burma. Oil supplies met the demand of British India. Prior to World War II and the Japanese invasion of Burma, oil production stood at 6.5 million barrels annually. After independence in 1948, Burma continued to be one of the more prosperous nations in Asia due to its petroleum industry and agricultural exports. In 1963, the socialist military government led by Ne Win nationalized the sector, causing decades of economic stagnation. After 1989, the military junta began opening up the country to more foreign investment. Shell discovered the Apyauk gas field 50 kilometres northwest of Yangon in 1991. Myanmar is today a natural gas producer; as of 2015, Myanmar exports gas to China. Myanmar had proven gas reserves of 10 trillion cubic feet in 2012, with an annual production capacity of 416 BcF.

Oil reserves in 2013 numbered with a production capacity of 21,000 bbl/d. The Yenangyaung oil field continues to be in operation; the country has classified 51 onshore blocks and 53 offshore blocks, including 26 deep water blocks, for oil and gas exploration. The National Energy Management Committee regulates the sector under the Ministry of Energy; the industry consists of three key state players: Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise, created in 1963. Myanma Petrochemicals Enterprise, operates small refineries and fertilizer plants Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise, responsible for retail and wholesale distribution of petroleum productsMajor international oil companies engaged in Myanmar include Total S. A. the Essar Group, CNOOC, Petronas and Sinopec. After some of the sanctions were lifted in 2012, many international investors such as for instance British Gas, ConocoPhillips, ENI, Oil India, PetroVietnam, Shell and Woodside entered Myanmar's petroleum market. Local companies such as Parami Energy Group and MPRL are some.

According to Kwong Weng Yap, Chief Operating Officer of Parami, he said in a speech to the ASEAN community that the Myanmar oil and gas industry requires a clean government and local inclusion for it to be sustainable in the near term. The downstream distribution network in Myanmar remains under-developed with limited access to foreign. Economy of Burma Solar power in Burma

Bennelong Bridge

The Bennelong Bridge is a 330-metre-long vehicular bridge across Homebush Bay between the Sydney suburbs of Rhodes and Wentworth Point. It opened on 22 May 2016. Construction of the Bennelong Bridge was approved by the Government of New South Wales in March 2013 with construction commencing in September 2014. Linking Rhodes and Wentworth Point, the bridge was the vision of Billbergia's John Kinsella and Wentworth Point Marina's urban designers and architects, designed to transform these two precincts into a vibrant community; as a designated a T-Way, the bridge is the first in the Sydney region to exclude private vehicles carrying State Transit Authority bus routes 526, 533, cyclists and emergency vehicles. It has the capacity to carry a future extension of the Parramatta Light Rail. Bennelong Bridge is the first bridge to be funded by property developers in return for additional development density at Wentworth Point under a Voluntary Planning Agreement between the developers and the Roads & Maritime Services.

Known as the Homebush Bay Bridge, it was named Bennelong Bridge after the historic indigenous river resident Bennelong. It was inaugurated on 22 May 2016 and opened to traffic on 23 May 2016. Local state MPs John Sidoti and Luke Foley opened the bridge. Despite the bridge being restricted to foot traffic and public bus routes, there have been reports of private vehicles illegally using the bridge as a shortcut. To combat this, a bus lane camera was installed in November 2016 whereby motorists illegally using the bridge are fined and gain a demerit point. List of bridges in Sydney

Tara Erraught

Tara Erraught is an Irish mezzo-soprano, a graduate of the Royal Irish Academy of Music. Erraught is known for her work with Bavarian State Opera, for which she has been given a Pro meritis scientiae et litterarum award, her international stature has continued to grow since she stepped in on five-days' notice, learning the role of Romeo in Bellini's I Capuleti e i Montecchi at the Bayerische Staatsoper in 2011. Her performance won worldwide acclaim. In the seasons since, Erraught has sung a world premiere, made her US opera debut, numerous role debuts, toured North America twice. Erraught has performed a wide variety of operatic roles including an acclaimed American opera debut with the Washington National Opera as Angelina in La Cenerentola, she created the role of Kitty in the world premiere of Iain Bell's A Harlot's Progress at the Theater an der Wien. In September 2017, she made her Metropolitan Opera debut singing the role of Nicklausse in Les contes d'Hoffmann and sang the role of Hänsel there that season.

She was the subject of controversial reviews when she sang the role of Octavian in a production by Richard Jones of Der Rosenkavalier at Glyndebourne in 2014. Critics including Andrew Clark, Rupert Christiansen, Richard Morrison felt her physique and costume made her an implausible young male lover in this breeches role, it was noted. Morrison apologised by saying, "Several musicians I count as close friends tell me that what I wrote would have upset the promising young singer who took the role of Octavian. I regret that." Several other critics and members of the public supported Erraught. Tara Erraught has received several awards. In 2013 the Bavarian government bestowed upon her the prestigious Pro meritis scientiae et litterarum in recognition for outstanding contribution to the arts. Erraught is only the fifth musician, the youngest recipient, to be honoured with the annual award since its inception in 2000. In March 2010, Erraught was the recipient of Dublin's National Concert Hall's Rising Star Award.

Other honours include first prize in the Jakub Pustina International Singing Competition in the Czech Republic, along with the Zdar nad Sazavou Audience Prize in 2008. In that same year she was awarded both the Houston Grand Opera Prize and the Washington National Opera Prize at the International Hans Gabor Belvedere Singing Competition in Vienna. In 2007, Erraught won the Dermott Troy Award for the Best Irish Singer. Official website Picture of Erraught as Rosenkavalier and Teodora Gheorghiu as Sophie Tara Erraught, mezzo-soprano, concert details 24 April 2013, Vancouver Recital Society

Highway M03 (Ukraine)

Highway M03 is a Ukrainian international highway connecting Kiev with Dovzhansky on the border with Russia, where it continues into Russia as the A270. It is part of European route E40 from Kiev to Debaltseve at which it is part of European route E50 to the border with Russia. At 844 km, the M03 is the longest international state highway in Ukraine. In Soviet times the M03 was part of the M19. Today, the highway stretches through five oblasts and ends at the border checkpoint at Dovzhansky, part of Sverdlovsk Raion; the route connects Kharkiv with the industrial region of Donbass. Part of the M03 between Kiev and Boryspil was reconstructed into an automagistral to handle higher traffic between Kiev and the Boryspil International Airport. From Boryspil to Lubny, the road is a dual carriageway, thereon it continues as a single carriageway with some 2x2 sections. Significant armed conflict has occurred on or near the eastern portions of the highway during the War in Donbass. Kiev – Boryspil auto-magistrale is the better kept motorway in Ukraine.

It provides direct access from Kiev to the Boryspil International Airport. Its traffic passing ability amasses to 40,000 vehicle per day, it has length of 18 km with maximum allowable speed at 130 km/h. The motorway is part of the M03 that stretches from Kiev to the Russo–Ukrainian border at the Dovzhansky border checkpoint. Roads in Ukraine Ukraine Highways International E-road network Pan-European corridors Kiev - Boryspil International Roads in Ukraine in Russian European Roads in Russian