OMON is a system of special police units of Federal Police within the National Guard of Russia, Soviet and Russian Ministries of Internal Affairs. It was created as the special forces of the Soviet Militsiya in 1988, played major roles in several armed conflicts during and following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. OMON is much larger and better known than SOBR, another special police branch of the National Guard of Russia. In modern context, the OMON are used more like riot police, or as a gendarmerie-like paramilitary force. OMON units exist in Belarus, Kazakhstan and other post-Soviet states. However, some post-Soviet units have changed acronyms. OMON officers are known as the omonovtsy. On 5 April 2016, OMON became part of the newly established National Guard of Russia, ending its years as part of the Ministry of the Interior. OMON originated in 1979, when the first Soviet police tactical unit was founded in preparation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow to ensure that there were no terrorist incidents like the Munich massacre during the 1972 Summer Olympics.
Subsequently, the unit was to be utilized in emergencies such as high-risk arrests, hostage crises and acts of terror. The current OMON system is the successor of that group and was founded on 3 October 1988 in Moscow and was called the Militsiya Squad of Special Assignment. Special police detachments were manned by former soldiers of the Soviet Army and veterans of the Soviet–Afghan War. OMON units were used as riot police to control and stop demonstrations and hooliganism, as well as to respond to emergency situations involving violent crime; the units took on a wider range of police duties, including cordon and street patrol actions, paramilitary and military-style operations. Following Russia's 2011 police reform, Russian OMON units were to be renamed Distinctive Purpose Teams, while OMSN would become Special Purpose Teams, it was announced that Special Purpose Centers for Rapid Deployment forces would be created in Russian regions, to include regional OMON and OMSN units. In essence, all police spetsnaz units were brought together under the joint command of the Interior Ministry — the Center for Operational Spetsnaz and Aviation Forces of MVD.
In January 2012, Russia's OMON was renamed from Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya, to Otryad Mobilniy Osobogo Naznacheniya, keeping the acronym. On 20 January 1991, Soviet-loyalist Riga OMON attacked Latvia's Interior Ministry, killing six people during the January 1991 events, not confirmed by internal investigation, in a failed pro-Moscow coup attempt following the Latvian SSR's declaration of independence. Seven OMON officers were subsequently found guilty by the Riga District Court and were sentenced in absentia; the part of the Riga OMON troops remained loyal oath of allegiance. The unit got evacuated from Riga to Tyumen in Russia by air force together with all ammunition and firearms, incorporated with local Tyumen OMON. A series of attacks on border outposts of the newly independent Republic of Lithuania took place during the period of January to July 1991; these resulted in several summary execution-style deaths of unarmed customs officers and other people, which were attributed to Riga OMON.
Some sources say that Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev had lost control of the unit during that period. For years, Lithuania has continued to demand that the persons suspected in these incidents should be tried in Lithuania; the April–May 1991 Operation Ring by the Azerbaijan SSR OMON and the Soviet Army against the Armenian irregular units in the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, resulted in forty deaths of Armenian civilians, the forced displacement of nearly 10,000 ethnic Armenians. In attacks, several more Armenian civilians were killed. In continuing fighting in this area, fourteen Azerbaijani OMON members and one Armenian paramilitary fighter were reported killed in September 1991. Violent and armed clashes occurred between the Georgian SSR's OMON and opponents of the first Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia prior to the Georgian Civil War of 1991–1993. Eleven combatants on both sides, including Georgian OMON members and regular militsiya officers, were reported killed in skirmishes during September and October 1991.
There were allegations of OMON firing at unarmed protesters. Prior to the creation of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the bulk of the fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh, on the Azeri side, was conducted by the post-Soviet OMON units and irregular forces; this included the defence of the village of Khojaly by a group of Azeri OMON troops and armed volunteers against the Armenian and Russian Army forces prior to, during, the Khojaly massacre on 25 February 1992. South Ossetian ad-hoc OMON, organized by a group of Tskhinvali internal affairs division militsiya officers, was the most combat-ready force on the separatist side at the outset of the South Ossetia War in April 1992. In Tajikistan, the civil war began after local OMON began defecting to anti-Nabiyev protesters in May 1992; the country's minority Pamiri people ba
The Bereitschaftspolizei are the support and rapid reaction units of Germany's police forces. They are composed of the State Police forces of Germany; the Federal Ministry of the Interior maintains an office of the Bereitschaftspolizei in Berlin which monitors and coordinates the deployment of all Bereitschaftspolizei units in Germany. The ministry provides standardized weapons and other equipment; the Bundespolizei maintains 10 rapid reaction battalions stationed around the country in Ratzeburg, Blumberg, Bad Düben, Sankt Augustin, Hünfeld, Bad Bergzabern and Deggendorf. These units can reinforce the federal police in any sphere of its missions and support the police forces of the Länder, they are trained to assist local authorities in case of disasters and uprisings. Under new interior ministry plans, the number of Bereitschaftspolizei companies will increase from 28 to 29 comprising approx. 25 percent of Germany’s police support units. The state Bereitschaftspolizei units are part of the Landespolizei and are available for crowd control, sport events and to assist the Schutzpolizei when needed.
Aside from their primary functions, in some states they train police recruits who serve about three years in combined training and service in these police support units. The units of one federal state can be deployed to assist the police of another state in case of riots, civil disturbances as well as catastrophes, their day-to-day duties vary by locality. In Hamburg they patrol the subway system, assist in raids, perform traffic control duty and support regular police officers on patrols; some states have a hybrid system, where units of the Schutzpolizei may act as units of the Bereitschaftspolizei - they form so-called Alarm-Hundertschaften with units from all Hamburg police stations to responde as fast as possible. The structure and training of Bepo units is standard so that units from different parts of Germany can operate together without any problems; the Bereitschaftspolizei is assigned to barracks and organized into sections, platoons and 120 to 150 person training or rapid reaction companies called Hundertschaften.
In most Länder, the Bereitschaftspolizei contingents are formed into 600 - 800 person battalions, but in the six largest Länder they are organized into regiments. Some police forces like Hamburg have additional alert platoons that are part of the state police and manned by regular police officers in case of urgent need when support from the state or the Federal Police is not available; the units are equipped with their own transport and rations allowing them to be deployed to other Länder without having to rely on outside support. They are equipped with a wide varirty of specialised vehicles such as armoured cars, water cannons, earth moving equipment and command and control vehicles. Arrest units give the Bepos special capabilities to secure evidence and arrest perpetrators at events where large crowds impede police operations. See article: Volkspolizei-Bereitschaft The East German Ministry of the Interior maintained the independent Department of the Alert Units of the Volkspolizei known as the Volkspolizei-Bereitschaften.
It consisted of between 15,000 men in 21 Volkspolizei Alert Units of battalion strength. There was one unit per district of East Germany but the key districts of Halle and Magdeburg, with their large working class populations, Potsdam all had two units; the Presidium of the People's Police in East Berlin had three units located in Basdorf. Each Alert unit was organized as follows: Headquarters section Four alert companies: One mechanized company in wheeled armored personnel carriers Three motorized companies in trucks Support company Anti-tank platoon with 3x45 mm/57 mm Artillery platoon with 3x76.2 mm ZiS-3 field/anti-tank guns Mortar platoon with 3x82 mm mortars Headquarters and staff company with: signals platoon engineer platoon chemical platoon reconnaissance platoon transport platoon supply platoon control section medical sectionThese units were equipped with light and medium infantry weapons, SK-1 wheeled armoured personnel carriers, SK-2 water cannon and buses. Their uniform was the standard Volkspolizei grey-green.
The political reliability of the Alert Units was of particular importance to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany as they would be used against the population in the event of social disorders such as the strike of 17 June 1953 in the industrial areas of East Germany
Policja is the generic name for the police in Poland. The Polish police force was known as policja throughout the Second Polish Republic, in modern post-communist Republic of Poland since 1990, its current size is ca. 25,000 civilian employees. Among the branches in the force are: Criminal Service, Traffic Police Service, Prevention Service and Supporting Service. Most towns and some villages have their own city guards, which supervise public order and road safety. However, city guards have jurisdiction only over misdemeanors and in cases of crimes may serve only in a supportive role for the state police; the force's name, translates into the English language as Police. An individual officer is called a policjant. A police station is known as Komenda Policji or Komisariat Policji both of which translate more or less into English as Police Commissariat. Female officers may be referred to as policjantki, the singular of, policjantka. On the whole, officers' individual ranks are not used by the general public and thus when addressing an officer, it is common to hear the term Pan, Polish for mister/miss used to refer to police officers.
On occasion, this may not be followed by the term Oficer. In 1919, with the re-independence of the Polish nation, the state reorganised itself along non-federalist lines and established a centralised form of government. Under the auspices of the new government, a new national police force was formed. During the inter-war period, a number of key law enforcement duties were delegated to other formations, such as the Border Guard and Military Gendarmerie. With the end of World War II and the onset of the communist period, the new Soviet backed government decided to radically change the structure of policing in Poland; the reality turned out to be the opposite and the Milicja instead represented a rather state-controlled force, used to exert political repression on the citizens. The Milicja was, for the most part, detested by the general populace. After the fall of the communist government in Poland, the system was reformed once again, this time reviving the pre-war name of'Policja' and albeit with a few minor changes, the general system of law-enforcement of the Second Republic.
Today, most common types include various models from Kia Škoda, Alfa Romeo, Ford Mondeo, Opel and Toyota, as of 2011 the FSO Polonez is no longer in use. The Polish police force has, since joining the European Union, been undergoing a thorough restructuring and has in the process acquired a large number of new vehicles. In addition to standard sedan and hatchback model vehicles, the Policja has been investing significant amounts of money in developing their ability to respond to any incident no matter where it may be, this has in turn led to the purchase of a large number of all-terrain 4x4 vehicles and multi-purpose vans and trucks; this expansion in capabilities was a stated requirement of the police force's restructuring program. Beginning in 2009, the painting scheme is being modified to a silver body design with blue reflective strip, similar to modern German police cars. Traditionally, vehicles were painted a dark blue color with side doors painted in white, with white stripes and the word "POLICJA" on both sides.
Earlier versions had a thinner stripe with the word "POLICJA" written under it. This design was adopted from the paint scheme used by the communist milicja; some used vehicles had visible traces of the word "POLICJA" being corrected from "MILICJA", with the first two letters in a different shade of white, on a patch of a different shade of blue. All uniformed and most non-uniformed officers of the state police are armed. In addition to their firearm, Policja officers carry handcuffs and a number of other pieces of equipment which includes a personal radio system for communication with other officers and their police station. Pepper spray is commonly issued to officers in order to provide them with a non-lethal alternative weapon with which to incapacitate violent suspects. Riot police, when needs be, are provided with non-ballistic body armour and shields. In such cases they dispose LRAD units; the existence of a well-enforced ban on civilian-owned firearms in Poland has aided the police in keeping gun crime to a minimum, thus the incidence of police firearms use is low.
The below list is not intended to be a full list of all the vehicles used by the Polish Police, instead it lists the most used vehicles. The Policja has a total of 16 helicopters at its disposal, these are based in: Krakó
A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people. Riots involve theft and destruction of property, public or private; the property targeted varies depending on the inclinations of those involved. Targets can include shops, restaurants, state-owned institutions, religious buildings. Riots occur in reaction to a grievance or out of dissent. Riots have occurred due to poor people with no jobs or living conditions, governmental oppression, taxation or conscription, conflicts between ethnic groups, or religions, the outcome of a sporting event or frustration with legal channels through which to air grievances. While individuals may attempt to lead or control a riot, riots consist of disorganized groups that are "chaotic and exhibit herd behavior." However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that riots are not irrational, herd-like behavior, but follow inverted social norms. T. S. Ashton, in his study of food riots among colliers, noted that "the turbulence of the colliers is, of course, to be accounted for by something more elementary than politics: it was the instinctive reaction of virility to hunger."
Charles Wilson noted, "Spasmodic rises in food prices provoked keelmen on the Tyne to riot in 1709, tin miners to plunder granaries at Falmouth in 1727."Today, some rioters have an improved understanding of the tactics used by police in riot situations. Manuals for successful rioting are available on the internet, with tips such as encouraging rioters to get the press involved, as there is more safety and attention with the cameras rolling. Civilians with video cameras may have an effect on both rioters and police. Dealing with riots is a difficult task for police forces, they may use tear gas or CS gas to control rioters. Riot police may use less-than-lethal methods of control, such as shotguns that fire flexible baton rounds to injure or otherwise incapacitate rioters for easier arrest. A police riot is a term for the disproportionate and unlawful use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians; this term is used to describe a police attack on civilians, or provoking civilians into violence.
A prison riot is a large-scale, temporary act of concerted defiance or disorder by a group of prisoners against prison administrators, prison officers, or other groups of prisoners. It is done to express a grievance, force change or attempt escape. In a race riot, race or ethnicity is the key factor; the term had entered the English language in the United States by the 1890s. Early use of the term referred to riots that were a mob action by members of a majority racial group against people of other perceived races. In a religious riot, the key factor is religion; the rioting mob targets people and properties of a specific religion, or those believed to belong to that religion. Student riots are riots precipitated by students in higher education, such as a college or university. Student riots in the US and Western Europe in the 1960s and the 1970s were political in nature. Student riots may occur as a result of oppression of peaceful demonstration or after sporting events. Students may constitute an active political force in a given country.
Such riots may occur in the context of wider social grievances. Urban riots are riots in the context of urban decay, provoked by conditions such as discrimination, high unemployment, poor schools, poor healthcare, housing inadequacy and police brutality and bias. Urban riots are associated with race riots and police riots. Sports riots such as the Nika riots can be sparked by the losing or winning of a specific team or athlete. Fans of the two teams may fight. Sports riots may happen as a result of teams contending for a championship, a long series of matches, or scores that are close. Sports are the most common cause of riots in the United States, accompanying more than half of all championship games or series. All sports riots occur in the winning team's city. Food and bread riots are caused by harvest failures, incompetent food storage, poisoning of food, or attacks by pests like locusts; when the public becomes desperate from such conditions, groups may attack shops, homes, or government buildings to obtain bread or other staple foods like grain or salt, as in the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots.
The economic and political effects of riots can be as complex as their origins. Property destruction and harm to individuals are immediately measurable. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, 2,383 people were injured, 8,000 were arrested, 63 were killed and over 700 businesses burned. Property damage was estimated at over $1 billion. At least ten of those killed were shot by police or National Guard forces; the 2005 civil unrest in France lasted over three weeks and spread to nearly 300 towns. By the end of the incident, over 10,000 vehicles were over 300 buildings burned. Over 2,800 suspected rioters were arrested and 126 police and firefighters were injured. Estimated damages were over €200 Million. Many governments and political systems have fallen after riots, including: Russian Empire Ancien Régime British Raj in India, when bread and salt riots hastened the withdrawal in 1947 Governments across the Middle East and North Africa during the Arab Spring Riots are dealt with by the police, although methods differ from country to country.
Tactics and weapons used can include attack dogs, water cannons, plastic bullets, rubber bullets, pepper spray, flexible baton rounds, snatch squads. Many police forces have dedicated divisions to deal wit
Mobile Brigade Corps
The Mobile Brigade Corps abbreviated Brimob is the special operations and paramilitary unit within the Indonesian National Police. It is known as for being one of the oldest existing units within Polri; some of its main duties are counter-terrorism, riot control, high-risk law enforcement where the use of firearms are present and rescue, hostage rescue, bomb disposal operations. The Mobile Brigade Corps is a large component of the Indonesian National Police trained for counter-separatist and counter-insurgency duties in conjunction with military operations; the Mobile Brigade is known as the special "anti-riot" branch of the Indonesian National Police which deals with special operations. A paramilitary organization, its training and equipment is identical to the Indonesian Army's, it conventionally operates under joint military command in areas such as Papua and, until 2005, Aceh. Formed in late 1945 as a special police corps named Pasukan Polisi Istimewa with the task of disarming remnants of the Japanese Imperial Army and protecting the chief of state and the capital city.
Under the Japanese, it was called Special Police Unit. It fought in the revolution and was the first military unit to engage in the Battle of Surabaya under the command of Police Inspector Moehammad Jasin. On 14 November 1946, Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir reorganised the Polisi Istimewa into the Mobile Brigade; this day is celebrated as the anniversary of this Blue Beret Corps. This Corps was reconstituted to suppress military and police conflicts and coups d'etat. On 1 December 1947 Mobrig was militarized and deployed in various conflicts and confrontations like the PKI Rebellion in Madiun, DI Rebellion, APRA Rebellion and RMS Proclamation, PRRI People Rebellion, Permesta; as of 14 November 1961, the Mobrig changed its name to Korps Brigade Mobil, its troops took part in the military confrontation with Malaysia in the early 1960s and in the conflict in East Timor in the mid-1970s. After that, Brimob was placed under the command of the Indonesian National Police; the Mobile Brigade, which began forming in late 1946 and was used during the anti-Dutch Revolution, started sending students for US Army SF training on Okinawa in January 1959.
In April 1960 a second contingent arrived for two months of Ranger training. By the mid-1960s the three-battalion Mobile Brigade known as Brimob, had been converted into an elite shock force. A Brimob airborne training centre was established in Bandung. Following the 1965 coup attempt, one Brimob battalion was used during anti-Communist operations in West Kalimantan. In December 1975 a Brimob battalion was used during the East Timor operation. During the late 1970s, Brimob assumed VIP security and urban anti-terrorist duties. In 1989, Brimob still contained airborne-qualified elements. Pelopor and airborne training takes place at a training camp outside Jakarta. Brimob wore the Indonesian spot camouflage pattern during the early 1960s as their uniform. In 1981, the Mobile Brigade spawned a new unit called the "Jihandak", an explosive ordnance disposal unit; the Implementation and mobilization of the Brimob Corps is to cope with high-level interruption of society mainly: mass riots, organized crime armed with fire and rescue, chemicals and radioactive threats along with other police operational implementing elements in order to realize legal order and peace of society throughout juridical of Indonesia and other tasks assigned to the corps.
The Pelopor qualifications which are the basic capabilities of every Brimob member are required to have the following basic skills: Ability in navigation of Map and Compass Intelligence Anti Terror Riot Control Guerrilla War, Close / Urban War Tactics Bomb Disposal Handle High Intensity Crime where the use of firearms is present Search and Rescue Surveillance and Prosecution. Other individual and unit Capabilities; the function of the Police's Mobile Brigade Corps as the Polri's Principal Operating Unit which has specific capabilities in the framework of High-level domestic security and community-supported search and rescue personnel who are well trained and have solid leadership and supplies with modern technology. The role of Brimob is together with other police functions is to act against high-level criminals mass riots, organized crime of firearms, chemicals and radio active threats in order to realize the legal order and peace of society in all juridical areas of Indonesia. Roles undertaken include: Role to help other police functions, Role to complement in territorial police operations carried out in conjunction with other police functions, Role to protect members of other police units as well civilians who are under threat, Role to strengthen other police functions in the implementation of regional operational tasks, Serve to replace and handle territorial police duties if the situation or task objective has led to a high-grade crime.
In 1992 the Mobile Brigade was a paramilitary organisation trained and organised along military lines. It had a strength of about 12,000; the brigade was used as an elite unit for emergencies and supporting police operations as a rapid response unit. The unit was deployed for domestic security and defense operations, but now has gained and achieved many specialties in the scope of policing duties such as implementing SWAT operations and Rescue operations, Riot control an
Public Order and Riot Squad
The Public Order and Riot Squad is the full-time'riot squad' of the New South Wales Police Force. PORS reports via the Counter Terrorism and Special Tactics Command to the Deputy Commissioner Investigations and Counter Terrorism; the Public Order and Riot Squad is a full-time riot squad created in October 2005 becoming operational in February 2006 within the Major Events and Incidents Group Command. PORS was created as a result of Parliamentary reports into the response and handling of riots in Redfern and Macquarie Fields where command and control and resources were criticized and found to be lacking/uncoordinated. PORS is the re-creation of the defunct Tactical Response Group of the 1980s except for some differences in charter and organisation, they are supplemented by statewide-based part-time Operations Support Group units. In 2009 the squad was featured in an episode of 60 Minutes titled "Brute Force" showing officers in action across Sydney. In 2017 47 officers underwent specialist rifle training to become accredited to carry the M4 semi-automatic rifle.
PORS are issued with a wide variety of specialised crowd control and riot equipment including Taser weapons and equipped black vans and black 4WDs to allow rapid deployment across the State at a moments notice. The vans allow a team in full tactical/riot gear to deploy on the move and access equipment as needed without need to return to a station to access gear as the part-time Public Order and Operations Support Group officers do. PORS have a $600,000 water cannon truck, fitted with an airtight cabin to protect police from smoke and other irritants, it has shatterproof "anti-bandit glass" reinforced with wire mesh, a heavy push bar allowing it to clear barricades and other obstacles. The high pressure 12,000 litre water cannon is able to shoot a stream of water more than 50 metres; each officer is equipped with more than $8500 in gear including flame retardant overalls, ballistic vests, ballistic goggles and leg guards, capsicum spray, an Asp baton, long baton, utility knife and cable tie flex-cuffs and rubber bullets which are stored in station and their cars.
In June 2017, it was announced. As of 2017 officers are equipped with M4 semi-automatic rifles; the Public Order and Riot Squad commanded by Chief Superintendent Donna Adney, specialise in: riot control/response. PORS role includes attending major public protests and demonstrations, assisting with searches for evidence, people and drugs and canvassing witnesses during large-scale investigations; the unit clears cells, transfers inmates and performs other security duties during industrial disputes at the State's prisons. PORS provide core officers for Operation Vikings. Operation Vikings was designed to provide a visible police presence across New South Wales. Large numbers of Police are deployed to these operations, targeting antisocial behaviour, alcohol-related crime, street level drug possession and traffic offences in known trouble spots; the PORS deploy large numbers of vehicles and officers to A-League football matches held in New South Wales. New South Wales Police Force Operations Support Group State Protection Group Public Order Response Team Riot control Riot police Riot shield NSW Police website
Riot control refers to the measures used by police, military, or other security forces to control and arrest people who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest. If a riot is spontaneous and irrational, actions which cause people to stop and think for a moment can be enough to stop it. However, these methods fail when there is severe anger with a legitimate cause, or the riot was planned or organized. Law enforcement officers or military personnel have long used less lethal weapons such as batons and whips to disperse crowds and detain rioters. Since the 1980s, riot control officers have used tear gas, pepper spray, rubber bullets, electric tasers. In some cases, riot squads may use Long Range Acoustic Devices, water cannons, armoured fighting vehicles, aerial surveillance, police dogs or mounted police on horses. Officers performing riot control wear protective equipment such as riot helmets, face visors, body armor, gas masks and riot shields. However, there are cases where lethal weapons are used to violently suppress a protest or riot, as in the Boston Massacre, Haymarket Massacre, Banana Massacre, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Kent State Massacre, Soweto Uprising, Mendiola Massacre, Bloody Sunday, Ponce massacre, Bloody Sunday, Venezuelan Protest, Tuticorin Massacre Maintaining order during demonstrations and quenching riots has always been a challenge for governments and administrations.
Until early in the 20th century, no dedicated force existed in most countries and the traditionnal response when the regular police force proved inadequate was to call upon the army with disastrous results: either fraternization or use of excessive violence. In France, for example, several revolts were fueled by poor handling by the military; the National Gendarmerie created specialized "mobile" gendarmerie forces several times during the 19th century in times of trouble but these units were disbanded soon after the end of the troubles they had been tasked to handle and there was no permanent organization in place until it was decided in 1921 to create "Mobile Gendarmerie platoons" within the Departmental Gendarmerie. These platoons, either horse mounted or on foot were composed of 40 gendarmes each. In 1926, the platoons formed the "Garde Républicaine mobile", which became a distinct branch of the Gendarmerie in 1927, the platoons becoming part of companies and legions. By 1940, the GRM was a force 21.000 strong, composed of 14 Légions, 54 company groups and 167 companies..
Long the only large force specialized in maintaining or restoring law and order in France during demonstrations or riots, the GRM progressively developed the doctrine and skills needed in that role: exercise restraint, avoid confrontation as long as possible, always leave an "exit door" for the crowd etc.. In 1940, after the fall of France, the german authorities had the GRM disbanded but it was reinstated in 1944 and renamed Mobile Gendarmerie in 1954.. The first squad trained in modern techniques of riot control in Asia was formed in 1925 in colonial Shanghai as a response to the mismanaged riot of the May Thirtieth Movement. New policing methods, including combat pistol shooting, hand to hand combat skills, knife fight training, were pioneered by British Assistant Commissioner William E. Fairbairn and officer Eric Anthony Sykes of the Shanghai Municipal Police as a response to a staggering rise in armed crime in the 1920s - Shanghai had become one of the world's most dangerous cities due to a breakdown in law and order in the country and the growth of organised crime and the opium trade.
Under Fairbairn, the SMP developed a myriad of riot control measures. These riot control techniques led to the introduction of Shanghai's "Reserve Unit" - the first modern SWAT team; as a reserve unit, it was used to forcibly disband riots as well as to respond to high-level criminality like kidnappings and armed robberies. The skills developed in Shanghai have been adopted and adapted by both international police forces and clandestine warfare units. William Fairbairn was again the central figure, not only leading the Reserve Unit, but teaching his methods around the world, including in the United States, the colonial regimes of Cyprus and Singapore. For protection, officers performing riot control will wear protective helmets and carry riot shields; these are designed to protect the wearer from those dangers that come from direct melee and hurled objects such as bottles and bricks. The gear worn by riot control officers protects the entire body with no vulnerable spots to exploit. For example, the helmets worn by riot control officers have an additional outward-extending part that protects the back of the neck from assault.
To provide greater protection, the protective equipment provides ballistic protection. If tear gas or other riot control agents are to be used, gas masks may be worn. One of many additional concerns is to prevent people in the crowd from snatching officers' side arms, which may be stolen or used against the police. In a heavy crowd, the officer may not be able to see, responsible for snatching a weapon, may not notice that it has happened. For this reason, riot police may have holsters with positive locking mechanisms or other extra means of retention, if their agencies can afford such tools. However, this can be a trade-off that increases the amount of time needed to draw the sidearm in an emergency. Alternately, riot police may not carry sidearms at all; the initial choice of tactics determines the type of offensive equipment used. The base choice is between lethal