Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period for a given location on Earth expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day; the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites of health resorts; this takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is used to promote tourist destinations. If the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth.
However, there are physical and astronomical effects. Namely, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible when it physically sets below the horizon. For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, where the apparent Sun spends the most time around the horizon. Places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime, 4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575; because of elliptic nature of the Earth's orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical: the Antarctic Circle, with 4,530 hours of daylight, receives five days less of sunshine than its antipodes. The Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, there is a practical consideration at which point the amount of daylight is sufficient to be treated as a "sunshine hour". "Bright" sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just "visible" hours. "Visible" sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, but is not strong enough to excite the sensor.
Measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, which use a spherical glass lens to focus the sun rays on a specially designed tape; when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the burn trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder. Newer, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape. In order to harmonize the data measured worldwide, in 1962 the World Meteorological Organization defined a standardized design of the Campbell–Stokes recorder, called an Interim Reference Sunshine Recorder. In 2003, the sunshine duration was defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². Sunshine duration follows a general geographic pattern: subtropical latitudes have the highest sunshine values, because these are the locations of the eastern sides of the subtropical high pressure systems, associated with the large-scale descent of air from the upper-level tropopause.
Many of the world's driest climates are found adjacent to the eastern sides of the subtropical highs, which create stable atmospheric conditions, little convective overturning, little moisture and cloud cover. Desert regions, with nearly constant high pressure aloft and rare condensation—like North Africa, the Southwestern United States, Western Australia, the Middle East—are examples of hot, dry climates where sunshine duration values are high; the two major areas with the highest sunshine duration, measured as annual average, are the central and the eastern Sahara Desert—covering vast desert countries such as Egypt, Libya and Niger—and the Southwestern United States. The city claiming the official title of the sunniest in the world is Yuma, with over 4,000 hours of bright sunshine annually, but many climatological books suggest there may be sunnier areas in North Africa. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, Upper Egypt, annual sunshine duration is estimated at over 4,000 hours.
There is a smaller, isolated area of sunshine maximum in the heart of the western section of the Sahara Desert around the Eglab Massif and the Erg Chech, along the borders of Algeria and Mali where the 4,000-hour mark is exceeded, too. Some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3,600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually; the largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa. The sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with 23 hours of bright sun daily. Conversely, higher latitudes lying in stormy westerlies have much cloudier and more unstable and rainy weather, have the lowest values of sunshine duration annually. Temperate oceanic climates like those in northwestern Europe, the western coast of Canada, areas of New Zealand's South Island are examples of cool, wet, humid climates where cloudless sunshine duration values are low; the areas with the lowest sunshine duration annually lie over the polar oceans, as well as parts of northern Europe, southern Alaska, northern Russia, areas near the Sea of
Altagracia Ugalde Mota, better known as Ana Bárbara, is a Mexican recording artist, songwriter, actress, television personality and model. She has become a prominent figure within Latin entertainment since her professional debut in 1994 and is among one of the leading female figures in regional Mexican music, she is recognized for her musical talent as well as her sex appeal. With a distinct vocal range and producing talent, Bárbara has defined the modern Grupero performance and is one of the few regional Mexican acts to garner an international following that extends beyond México and the United States. In the past two decades, Bárbara has released eleven studio albums, eighteen compilation albums, over thirty music videos, four music video DVDs, she has sold over 6 million records in Mexico, Central America, South America, the United States. Bárbara showed immense musical potential from an early age, she was influenced and inspired by her older sister, Viviana Ugalde, a popular singer locally.
Today, Ugalde represents Bárbara as part of her management team. In 1988, Bárbara entered the local Miss Universe-sponsored Miss Mexico beauty pageant representing her native state of San Luis Potosí and won. By an unknown Altagracia Ugalde moved forward and began to seize any opportunity to sing at local talent shows, at times professionally at variety of music events and festivals. In 1990s she had the opportunity to represent Mexico's mariachi music. In 1993, Bárbara was proclaimed the Ambassador of Ranchera Music, she earned the El Rostro Bonito de El Heraldo de México award. As a result, she was invited to perform for Pope John Paul II during a Mass at The Vatican; when Mass neared its close. After mass Pope John Paul II approached her, blessed her, wished her luck in her career. In 1994, she was noticed by record executives from Fonovisa, one of the top labels in the regional Mexican market. After signing with Fonovisa, she created artistic stage name "Ana Bárbara" and launched her self-titled debut album Ana Bárbara.
The album was produced and written by Aníbal Pastor. Songs like Sacúdeme and Nada helped Bárbara establish herself as a Grupero star. Bárbara released her second album titled La Trampa in July 1995 produced by Aníbal Pastor. La Trampa catapulted her popularity and became a commercial and radio hit. Bárbara received industry accolades as well as invitations to tour and open for some of the biggest regional Mexican artists, such as Vicente Fernandez and Los Tigres del Norte, she has appeared on important Latin American television shows such as Sabado Gigante and Siempre en Domingo. Consecutive hits and popular music videos, such as Me Asusta Pero Me Gusta and La Trampa, topped Billboard Hot Latin Tracks and established her as La Reina Grupera. By the summer of 1996, Bárbara broke through to mainstream international success with third album Ay, Amor; the album solidified her as a successful Latin recording artist and became her best album debut on the Latin Billboard charts. Ay, Amor offered a wider appeal to her music by offering some alternate takes on Grupero, some ranchero flavored ballads like No Ha Sido Facil, Entre Ella y Yo.
Her attractive appearance and sensual dancing style captivated Latin America audiences during promotional tours with hit singles and music videos of No Lloraré and Ya No Te Creo Nada. In 1997 she released her only calendar. Coors Light beer selected Bárbara as their Hispanic promotional figure for marketing and advertising; that year she returned to Miami, Florida for the annual Calle 8 Music Festival where she was crowned "Queen" of the 1997 parade. In 1998, she released her fourth studio album produced by Mexican singer-songwriter Marco Antonio Solís; the album, titled Los Besos No Se Dan En La Camisa, was a ballads album with only one Grupero-style song. It included a duet and background vocals by Solís, as well as a 1982 Los Bukis cover of "Como Me Haces Falta", which became a popular hit; the song dominated airwaves across Latin America, México, the United States. Ana Bárbara kept up the momentum of her previous release. In 1999, she released fifth studio album Tu Decisión, produced by Aníbal Pastor.
One of his two songwriting credits, "Engañada", became the album's lead most popular hit. Tu Decisión was notable in songwriting terms because it marked Ana Bárbara's debut as a songwriter. In the same year she debuted as an actress, starring in the made-for-TV film Todo Contigo, via Hispanic networks Televisa and Univision; the film's song. Music videos like "Quise Olvidar" grew in popularity on television shows like Onda Max and other music video television networks; the following year Bárbara became the first solo grupero act recognized by The Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences for album Tu Decisión, which received a Latin Grammy nomination for Best Grupero Album. In 2000, Bárbara took a short maternity leave when her first child, was born, she returned in 2001 with Te Regalo La Lluvia. The Mariachi-ballad effort was a challenge to her custom Grupero style.
Rayón, San Luis Potosí
Rayón is a town and municipality in San Luis Potosí in central Mexico. Spanish settlement in the area that became the municipality began in 1617 with the founding of a Franciscan mission by Fr. Juan Bautista Mollinedo and Fr. Juan de Cárdenas, The mission was called "San Felipe de los Gamotes"; the mission was abandoned as the local Indians fled to the mountains. On 8 October 1827 the town of Nuevo Gamotes was formally established
Sierra Madre Oriental
The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico. The Sierra Madre Oriental is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. Spanning 1,000 kilometres the Sierra Madre Oriental runs from the Rio Grande on the border between Coahuila and Texas south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Hidalgo to northern Puebla, where it joins with the east-west running Eje Volcánico Transversal of central Mexico; the northernmost are the Sierra del Burro and the Sierra del Carmen which reach the border with the United States at the Rio Grande. North of the Rio Grande, the range continues northwestward into Texas and beyond as the Davis and Guadalupe Ranges. Mexico's Gulf Coastal Plain lies to the east of the range, between the mountains and the Gulf of Mexico coast; the Mexican Plateau, which averages 1,100 metres in elevation, lies between the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental further west.
The climate of the Sierra Madre Oriental is drier than the rainforest areas further south. The highest point is Cerro San Rafael, at 3,700 metres above sea level, is the highest point of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the state of Coahuila and the second in Mexico in isolation; this long range of tall mountains is noted for its abundant biodiversity and large number of endemic species of plants and wildlife, from the dry north to the wetter south. The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests are found at high elevations in the range. To the east, the Tamaulipan matorral occupies the range's lower slopes in Nuevo León and northern Tamaulipas, while the Veracruz moist forests cover the lower slopes of the central range, the eastern slopes at the southern end of the range are home to the Veracruz montane forests. West of the range, the Mexican Plateau is home to deserts and xeric shrublands, including the Chihuahuan Desert to the north, the Meseta Central matorral on the central part of the plateau, the Central Mexican matorral on the southern plateau.
Much of the wildlife can be found in the Sierra Madre Occidental, which runs parallel to these mountains along western Mexico. Pine-oak forests are dominated by several species of pine, such as Pinus nelsonii, P. cembroides, P. pseudostrobus, P. arizonica, oak, such as Quercus castanea and Q. affinis. Matorral is characterized by woody shrubs, small trees and succulents. Montane chaparral is found above 1,700 m and is home to species in the genera Quercus, Yucca and Bauhinia. Piedmont scrub occurs below 2,000 m and is composed of plants 3 to 5 m in height such as Helietta parvifolia, Neopringlea integrifolia and Acacia spp; the canopy of moist forests is dominated by trees up to 30 m in height, including Brosimum alicastrum, Manilkara zapota, Celtis monoica, Bursera simaruba, Dendropanax arboreus, Sideroxylon capiri. Birds of the forest include the Mexican chickadee, Montezuma quail, Strickland's woodpecker, zone-tailed hawk and several species of jay. Pine-oak forests in Coahuila are part of the migration route of monarch butterflies.
Original habitats have been reduced by clearance for livestock grazing and logging over hundreds of years. Protected areas include the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park in Mexico and the Big Bend National Park in Texas; the El Cielo Biosphere in Tamaulipas preserves the northernmost tropical Veracruz moist forests in Mexico and extensive temperate cloud forests. Mountain peaks of Mexico "Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
National Institute of Statistics and Geography
The National Institute of Statistics and Geography is an autonomous agency of the Mexican Government dedicated to coordinate the National System of Statistical and Geographical Information of the country. It was created on January 1983 by presidential decree of Miguel de la Madrid, it is the institution responsible for performing the population census every ten years. The job of gathering statistical information of the Institute includes the monthly gross domestic product, consumer trust surveys and proportion of commercial samples; the Institute headquarters are in Aguascalientes, Mexico. With the enactment of the National System of Statistical and Geographical Information Law, on April 16, 2008, INEGI changed its legal personality, acquiring technical and management autonomy, its new denomination is National Institute of Statistic and Geography, but it preserves the acronym of its former name. INEGI’s main objective is to achieve that the National System of Statistical and Geographical Information, bring to the society and to the government, quality information, pertinent and relevant, to contribute to the national development, under accessibility, transparency and independence principles.
To this goal, its attributions are: Regulate. Regulate the statistical and geographical activities. Produce statistical and geographical information. Provide the Public Service of Information. Promote the knowledge and use of the information. Maintain information up to date; the INEGI is governed by a government board. It’s integrated by the Institute President, four vice presidents, who are designated by the President of Mexico with Chamber of Senators approval. INEGI collaborates with American and Canadian government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadística Survey of Occupation and Employment Eduardo Sojo Garza-Aldape National Institute of Statistic and Geography official website Cuéntame – INEGI’s educational section National System of Statistical and Geographical Information Digital Map of Mexico Interactive National Atlas of Mexico Orthophotos display Geoespatial information to damage assessment and reconstruction support: Stan and Wilma hurricanes