Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin
Fond du Lac County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,633, its county seat is Fond du Lac. The county was created in the Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and organized in 1844. Fond du Lac is French for "bottom of the lake", so given because of the county's location at the southern shore of Lake Winnebago. Fond du Lac County comprises Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Holyland region is in northeastern Fond du Lac County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 766 square miles, of which 720 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water. Fond du Lac County Airport serves surrounding communities. Winnebago County – north Calumet County – northeast Sheboygan County – east Washington County – southeast Dodge County – southwest Green Lake County – west Horicon National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 97,296 people, 36,931 households, 25,482 families residing in the county; the population density was 135 people per square mile.
There were 39,271 housing units at an average density of 54 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.16% White, 0.90% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 2.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 57.7% were of German, 6.1% Irish and 5.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.5% spoke English, 2.1% Spanish and 1.3% German as their first language. There were 36,931 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.00% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males. Fond du Lac Ripon Waupun St. Peter Taycheedah Van Dyne Ceresco New Cassel Reeds Corners National Register of Historic Places listings in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin Wisconsin Phalanx Glaze, A. T. Incidents and Anecdotes of Early Days and History of Business in the City and County of Fond du Lac From Early Times to the Present. Fond du Lac: P. B. Haber, 1905. McKenna, Maurice. Fond du Lac County Wisconsin and Present. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1912. Fond du Lac County website Fond du Lac County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Fox River (Green Bay tributary)
The Fox River is a river in eastern Wisconsin in the Great Lakes region of the United States. It is the principal tributary of the Bay of Green Bay, via the Bay, the largest tributary of Lake Michigan; the well-known city of Green Bay, one of the first European settlements in North America, is on the river at its mouth on lower Green Bay. Hydrographers divide the Fox into two distinct sections, the Upper Fox River, flowing from its headwaters in south central Wisconsin northeasterly into Lake Winnebago, the Lower Fox River, flowing from Lake Winnebago northeasterly to lower Green Bay. Together, the two sections give the Fox River a length of 182 miles. Counting the distance through Lake Winnebago gives a total of 200 miles; the river's name is the English translation of the French name for a local Native American tribe in the 17th century. The river was part of the famous 1673-74 expedition of Jolliet and Marquette, in which they went on to become the first Europeans to traverse the upper Mississippi River.
A particular set of cities on the lower Fox River identify themselves as the "Fox Cities". The Upper Fox River begins as a small stream northeast of Pardeeville, it flows west by southwest towards Portage and comes within 2 miles of the Wisconsin River before turning north. After flowing past Montello, the river goes northeast until reaching Lake Butte des Morts. Here it is joined by the tributary Wolf River before entering the west side of Lake Winnebago at Oshkosh; the Upper Fox flows for a total of 142 miles. The Lower Fox begins at the north end of Lake Winnebago, where it flows north past Neenah and Appleton as it begins its 40-mile course northeast towards Lake Michigan; the river drops around 164 feet over this short stretch. Prior to the construction of European-style dams after 1850, the river had many sizable rapids; the Lower Fox ends after flowing through the city of Green Bay and into Lake Michigan through Green Bay. Altogether, the Fox-Wolf watershed drains an area of about 6,429 square miles, giving the Fox an average discharge rate of 4132 ft3/s into the bay.
Tributaries of the Fox River include East River, Fond du Lac River, Wolf River, White River, Mecan River, Grand River, Montello River. The name is the translation of rivière aux Renards, given by explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette because it went through the territory of the Meskwaki people, called Renards in French. In the Menominee language, the river is known as Meskwahkīw-Sīpiah, which means "Red Earth River". In the Ho-Chunk language, Fox River is known as Nionigera. According to a member of the party of La Salle, it was called the Kakaling River. Along the banks is a chain of cities and villages, including Oshkosh, Menasha, Little Chute, Combined Locks, Kaukauna. Except for Oshkosh, located on the Upper Fox River near Lake Winnebago, these cities and villages identify as the Fox Cities. Farther north along the Lower Fox River, from its outlet from Lake Winnebago and before its mouth at Lake Michigan, are the cities of De Pere and Green Bay, the villages of Ashwaubenon and Allouez.
Since the recession of the glaciers that once covered much of Wisconsin, the Fox River has supported several Native American cultures, has been important for its fisheries, wild rice and water. Archaeologists have claimed that indigenous peoples lived in the Fox River area as early as 7000 BC. Prior to European settlement in the late 17th century, the shores of the Fox River and Green Bay were home to half the estimated 25,000 Native Americans who lived in what is today Wisconsin; the first Europeans to reach the Fox were French, beginning with explorer Jean Nicolet in 1634. In 1673 explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet canoed up the river as far as Portage. Here they made the short portage from the Fox to the Wisconsin River and canoed on toward the Mississippi River, they established an important water route between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River known as the Fox–Wisconsin Waterway. It was long used by Native Americans prior to European encounter, as they had extensive cross-country trading routes related to the Mississippi River.
During the French colonization of the Americas, this route was used by fur traders. French-Canadian men who established homes on the Fox River married First Nation women, producing mixed-race descendants who were raised within the matrilineal cultures of their mothers and identified with the tribes. In Canada, the Metis of the Red River of the North are classified as a distinct ethnicity because of their shared culture; the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway's importance continued into the 1850s, when the Fox and Wisconsin Improvement Company built locks and dams on the Fox and a canal to connect it to the Wisconsin River at Portage. The company was hoping to establish Green Bay as a port city to rival Chicago by making the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway into the principal shipping route between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River; this goal was never achieved, as the Upper Fox remained too shallow for significant shipping after damming and dredging. In addition, the lakes that the narrow, winding stream flows through were frozen solid for five months every year.
The Lower Fox was developed instead as a center of riverfront industry. During the mid-19th century, when Wisconsin was a leading producer of wheat, several flour mills were built along the river to harness its abundant water power. During the 1860s, as Wisconsin's wheat production declined, these flour mills were replaced by
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The Ripon Society is an American centrist Republican public policy organization based in Washington, D. C, it produces The Ripon Forum, the U. S.'s longest running Republican thought and opinion journal, as well as The Ripon Advance, a daily news publication. Founded in 1962 in Cambridge, the Society's name comes from the 1854 birthplace of the Republican Party—Ripon, Wisconsin, its main goals are to promote the following American ideas and principles: national security, low taxes, a federal government, smaller and more accountable to the people. The Ripon Society's objectives are focused on an understanding within the Republican Party of public policies and actions that: Strengthen the American family. Promote and achieve an innovative and effective educational system. Improve and protect health, safety and the natural environment. Advance participation in and development of a sound, growing economy. Ensure a strong, effective national defense. Encourage reasoned, effective government at local and federal levels that nurtures participation in our political system.
The Ripon Society was the first major Republican organization to support passage of the Civil Rights Act in the 1960s. In 1967, it advanced the concept of the "Negative Income Tax" as a means of ameliorating poverty in the U. S. with the simple expedient of the government's providing cash payments to families in need. The society's paper stated the program would help families rise up the income ladder, moving them from payment recipients to working taxpayers. In the early 1970s, it called for the normalization of relations with China, the abolition of the military draft. Emil Frankel was a Harvard law student in the early 1960s, he had studied in England on a Fulbright scholarship. While in England, he met; the Bow Group founders had been "dissatisfied with the Conservative Party's image as'the Stupid Party'." The Bow Group impressed Frankel regarding the level of detail that its members applied to study public policy problems and the proactive way its members became experts on policy topics. At the same time John S. Saloma III was a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Like Frankel, Saloma had studied in England on a Fulbright scholarship. Both Frankel and Saloma became editors at Advance magazine. In December 1962, Frankel and Saloma "circulated a confidential'Proposal for an American Bow Group'". Saloma and Frankel held a meeting on December 12, 1962, in Cambridge, Massachusetts at Harvard College; the meeting would become the first meeting of the group that became known as the Ripon Society. The name is a reference to Ripon, the informal birthplace of the Republican Party.. The society's meetings took place monthly at locations around Harvard; some sixty individuals attended at least one Ripon meeting during its first year, about half became active members. Most were graduate or professionals students and young professors from Harvard, M. I. T. and the Fletcher School of Diplomacy at Tufts. Although conservatives liked to pretend that progressive, East Coast Republicans were all top-hatted aristocrats, the members of the Ripon Society were middle-class, a preponderance of them were from the Midwest.
One of the main goals of the Ripon Society is to promote ideas and principles that have contributed to the GOP's past success. These ideas include keeping the nation secure, keeping taxes low and having a federal government, not just smaller, but smarter and more accountable to the people. On November 22, 1963, a group of Ripon Society members were having lunch in a dining hall at Harvard University. During lunch, they were planning a trip to campaign for Nelson Rockefeller for president, at that time the Republican governor of New York. Near the end of their lunch meeting, the members got word that President John F. Kennedy had been shot. Political historian and author Geoffrey Kabaservice writes, "Although they were Republicans, JFK had been their political inspiration; when the news confirmed that Kennedy had been killed, they were caught between grief for their fallen hero and fear of Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded to the presidency". Over the weeks following Kennedy's death, the Ripon members wrote a manifesto, "A Call to Excellence in Leadership: An Open Letter to the New Generation of Republicans."
Newspapers around the U. S. published highlights of the manifesto. The New York Herald Tribune published it in full; the media attention given to the "Call to Excellence" thrust Ripon onto the national stage. The Washington Star was one newspaper that editorially hailed the Society as "a new voice in the land... a voice that ought to be heeded."Another voice was President Dwight Eisenhower, who wrote "my delight that an intelligent group of people has taken the trouble to voice its consensus on this important subject, to express my basic agreement in the mainstream of its thinking." The Ripon Society wrote its first public statement in the weeks that followed Kennedy's assassination and published the statement on January 6, 1964: While we yet sorrow, so must we seize this moment before our thoughts slip away to be lost in the noise of'life as usual.' It is in this context. We speak as a group of young Republicans to that generation which must bear the responsibility for guiding our party and our country over the coming decades.
We speak for a point of view in the Republican Party. We believe that the future of our party lies not in extremism, but i
John S. Horner
John Scott Horner known as Little Jack Horner was a U. S. politician and acting Governor of Michigan Territory, 1835–1836 and Secretary of Wisconsin Territory, 1836–1837. Horner was born in what is now Warrenton, the third of eight children of Gustavus Brown Horner and Frances Harrison Scott Horner, he attended a private boarding school near Middleburg, Virginia run by a Scottish Presbyterian clergyman. He attended Washington College in Washington County, graduating in 1819, he studied law, was admitted to the bar in Virginia and maintained a successful private practice in Fauquier and Rappahannock counties. In October, 1834, Horner married Harriet L. Watson, the daughter of James Watson, U. S. Senator from New York. On August 15, 1835, President Andrew Jackson appointed Horner to be Secretary of the Michigan Territory, replacing the popular Stevens T. Mason; the circumspect Horner knew. Michigan had satisfied all the requirements set out in the Northwest Ordinance to become a state, however the U.
S. Congress had rejected or ignored Michigan's petition for statehood; the rejection was related to two contentious issues: There was an acrimonious border dispute with the state of Ohio, which became known as the Toledo War. Southern slave states were reluctant to increase the number of northern free states. Jackson, facing reelection in 1836, did not want to alienate Ohio, with its many electoral votes. So he removed the popular Mason from office. Mason was agitating for statehood and was, at that time, unyielding in demands regarding the Toledo Strip. At Mason's urging, Michigan had drafted a constitution on its own without the sanction of an Enabling Act from Congress; the people adopted the constitution in October 1835 and at the same time elected Mason as governor along with a full slate of state officials. So Horner had to appease irate Ohioans as well as deal with an unauthorized, but popular local government that undermined his own authority as Territorial Governor. Horner was at least successful, in that he helped to avert violence and persuaded both parties to wait for the upcoming session of Congress to propose a resolution.
Despite heading alternate governments, there was little disagreement between Mason and Horner, with Horner staying out of the way in local politics. In August 1835, while Michigan prepared itself for statehood, Mason had separated all of the territory, not going to be part of the state into a separate jurisdiction in order to provide some continuity in governance. Horner had replaced Mason as Territorial Secretary in the interim and was to assume responsibility for the western territory, but he was delayed for various reasons and the western area had its own government for a time without any official representative of the federal government. Congress organized the Wisconsin Territory on July 3, 1836 and Horner assumed the office of Secretary, leaving the de facto, if unrecognized, government of the state of Michigan to Mason; as Secretary of the Wisconsin Territory, Horner's first acts were to administer the oaths of office to Governor Henry Dodge and the judges of the supreme court with Charles Dunn as chief justice, William C.
Frazer and David Irvin as associate justices. In June 1837, Jackson transferred Horner to the become Register of the Green Bay Land Office. Horner resisted requests by friends and relatives to move back east to Virginia, in 1847, Horner moved to a farm on the south shore of Green Lake in present-day Green Lake County. In 1849, he was elected probate judge for Marquette County, he held this office until the court was abolished in 1854. Horner was one of the original settlers of the present day city of Wisconsin. In 1851, Horner helped establish Ripon College, his former home, now known as the John Scott Horner House, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Horner died in Ripon in Wisconsin, at the age of eighty, he is interred at Hillside Cemetery, Wisconsin. He married Harriet L. Watson in October 1834. John Scott Horner: A Biographical Sketch The Rump Council John Scott Horner at Find a Grave
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Ripon is a cathedral city in the Borough of Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is located at the confluence of two tributaries of the River Ure, the Laver and Skell; the city is noted for its main feature, Ripon Cathedral, architecturally significant, as well as the Ripon Racecourse and other features such as its market. The city itself is just over 1,300 years old; the city was known as Inhrypum and was founded by Saint Wilfrid during the time of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria, a period during which it enjoyed prominence in terms of religious importance in Great Britain. It was for a period under Viking control, suffered under the Normans. After a brief period of building projects under the Plantagenets, the city emerged with a prominent wool and cloth industry. Ripon became well known for its production of spurs during the 16th and 17th centuries, but would remain unaffected by the Industrial Revolution. Ripon is the third smallest city in England by population.
According to the 2011 United Kingdom Census it had a population of 16,702, an increase on the 2001 United Kingdom Census figure of 15,922. It is located 11 miles south-west of Thirsk, 16 miles south of Northallerton and 12 miles north of Harrogate; as well as its racecourse and cathedral, Ripon is a tourist destination because of its close proximity to the UNESCO World Heritage Site which consists of the Studley Royal Park and Fountains Abbey. During its pre-history the area which became Ripon was under the control of the Brigantes, a Brythonic tribe. Three miles north at Hutton Moor there is a large circular earthwork created by them; the Romans did not settle Ripon, but they had a military outpost around five miles away at North Stainley. Solid evidence for the origins of Ripon can be traced back to the 7th century, the time of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria; the first structure built in the area, known at the time as Inhrypum, was a Christian church dedicated to St. Peter, with the settlement originating in the year 658.
This was founded by a Northumbrian nobleman known as Wilfrid, who became Archbishop of York. The earliest settlers were stonemasons and plasterers that Wilfrid brought over to help construct the Ripon monastery, from Lyon in Francia and Rome, under Byzantine rule; the years following the death of Wilfrid are obscure in Ripon's history. After the invasion of the Great Heathen Army of Norse Vikings in Northumbria, the Danelaw was established and the Kingdom of Jórvík was founded in the Yorkshire area. In 937 Athelstan King of England, granted the privilege of sanctuary to Ripon, for a mile around the church. One of his successors was less well-disposed: after the Northumbrians rebelled against English rule in 948, King Edred had the buildings at Ripon burned. Prosperity was restored by the end of the 10th century, as the body of Saint Cuthbert was moved to Ripon for a while, due to the threat of Danish raids. After the Norman conquest, much of the north rebelled in 1069 trying to bring back Danish rule.
Ripon is thought to have shrunk to a small community around the church following the suppression. The lands of the church were transferred to St. Peter's Church at York as the Liberty of Ripon and it was during this time that a grand Collegiate Church was built on top of the ruins of Wilfrid's building. Developed in the Gothic style, the project owed much to the work of Roger de Pont L'Evêque and Walter de Gray, two Archbishops of York during the Plantagenet era. During the 12th century Ripon built up a booming wool trade, attracting Italian trade merchants Florentines, who bought and exported large quantities. Ripon's proximity to Fountains Abbey, where the Cistercians had a long tradition of sheep farming and owned much grazing land, was a considerable advantage. After English people were forbidden from wearing foreign cloth in 1326, Ripon developed a cloth industry, third in size in Yorkshire after York and Halifax. Due to conflict with Scotland, political emphasis was on the North during the time of Edward I and Edward II, as Scottish invaders attacked numerous northern English towns.
Ripon had a wakeman to make sure the residents were safely home by curfew and law and order was maintained, yet it was forced to pay 1,000 marks to the Scots to prevent them from burning down the town on one occasion. Ripon, which relied on its religious institutions, was badly affected by the English Reformation under the Tudor king Henry VIII; the Abbot of Fountains, William Thirske, was replaced. The people of Northern England were quite traditional in their beliefs and were unhappy about Henry's intention to break with Rome; the revolt failed and Henry followed through with the break from Rome and the Dissolution of the Monasteries, which included Fountains Abbey. After Mary, Queen of Scots, fled Scotland to Northern England she stayed at Ripon on her journey; the Catholic North supported her, there was another popular rising known as the Rising of the North. The rebels stayed at Ripon on 18 November 1569, but the rising failed resulting in 600 people being executed, 300 of whom were hanged at Gallows Hill in Ripon during January 1570.
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