An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, lagoon, or marsh. In sea coasts, the term "inlet" refers to the actual connection between a bay and the ocean and is called an "entrance" or a recession in the shore of a sea, lake, or river. A certain kind of inlet created by glaciation is a fjord but not always in mountainous coastlines and in montane lakes. Complexes of large inlets or fjords may be called e.g. Puget Sound, Howe Sound, Karmsund; some fjord-type inlets are called canals, e.g. Portland Canal, Lynn Canal, Hood Canal, some are channels, e.g. Dean Channel and Douglas Channel. Tidal amplitude, wave intensity, wave direction are all factors that influence sediment flux in inlets. On low slope sandy coastlines, inlets separate barrier islands and can form as the result of storm events. Alongshore sediment transport can cause inlets to close if the action of tidal currents flowing through an inlet do not flush accumulated sediment out of the inlet.
Alaska Panhandle British Columbia Coast Calanque Inside Passage Ria Bruun, Per. J. Mehta. Stability of Tidal Inlets: Theory and Engineering. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co. p. 510. ISBN 978-0-444-41728-2. Be pub co Coastal Inlets Research Program Hood Canal on Google Maps
A crown is a traditional symbolic form of headwear, not hat, worn by a monarch or by a deity, for whom the crown traditionally represents power, victory, triumph and glory, as well as immortality and resurrection. In art, the crown may be shown being offered to those on Earth by angels. Apart from the traditional form, crowns may be in the form of a wreath and be made of flowers, oak leaves, or thorns and be worn by others, representing what the coronation part aims to symbolize with the specific crown. In religious art, a crown of stars is used to a halo. Crowns worn by rulers contain jewels. A crown is an emblem of the monarchy, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; the word itself is used in Commonwealth countries, as an abstract name for the monarchy itself, as distinct from the individual who inhabits it. A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium, where no coronation took place.
Costume headgear imitating a monarch's crown is called a crown. Such costume crowns may be worn by actors portraying a monarch, people at costume parties, or ritual "monarchs" such as the king of a Carnival krewe, or the person who found the trinket in a king cake; the nuptial crown, sometimes called a coronal, worn by a bride, sometimes the bridegroom, at her wedding is found in many European cultures since ancient times. In the present day, it is most common in Eastern Orthodox cultures; the Eastern Orthodox marriage service has a section called the crowning, wherein the bride and groom are crowned as "king" and "queen" of their future household. In Greek weddings, the crowns are diadems made of white flowers, synthetic or real adorned with silver or mother of pearl, they are held together by a ribbon of white silk. They are kept by the couple as a reminder of their special day. In Slavic weddings, the crowns are made of ornate metal, designed to resemble an imperial crown, are held above the newlyweds' heads by their best men.
A parish owns one set to use for all the couples that are married there since these are much more expensive than Greek-style crowns. This was common in Catholic countries in the past. Crowns are often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees. A Crown of thorns according to the New Testament, was placed on the head of Jesus before his crucifixion and has become a common symbol of martyrdom. According to Roman Catholic tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was crowned as Queen of Heaven after her assumption into heaven, she is depicted wearing a crown, statues of her in churches and shrines are ceremonially crowned during May. The Crown of Immortality is common in historical symbolism; the heraldic symbol of Three Crowns, referring to the three evangelical Magi, traditionally called kings, is believed thus to have become the symbol of the Swedish kingdom, but it fits the historical Kalmar Union between the three kingdoms of Denmark and Norway.
Dancers of certain traditional Thai dances wear crowns on their head. These are inspired in the crowns worn by kings. In India, crowns are known as mukuta, have been used in India since ancient times and are described adorning Hindu gods or kings. In pre-Hispanic Philippines, a crown-like diadems or Putong is wore by elite individuals and deities, include array of golden ornaments. Three distinct categories of crowns exist in those monarchies. Coronation: worn by monarchs when being crowned. State: worn by monarchs on other state occasions. Consort crowns: worn by queens consort, signifying rank granted as a constitutional courtesy protocol. Crowns or similar headgear, as worn by nobility and other high-ranking people below the ruler, is in English called a coronet. In some of these languages the term "rank crown" refers to the way these crowns may be ranked according to hierarchical status. In Classical antiquity, the crown, sometimes awarded to people other than rulers, such as triumphal military generals or athletes, was a wreath or chaplet, or ribbon-like diadem.
The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, worn by the Achaemenid Persian emperors. It was adopted by Constantine I and was worn by all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. Numerous crowns of various forms were used in antiquity, such as the Hedjet, Deshret and Khepresh of Pharaonic Egypt; the Pharaohs of Egypt wore the diadem, associated with solar cults, an association, not lost, as it was revived under the Roman Emperor Augustus. By the time of the Pharaoh Amenophis III wearing a diadem became a symbol of royalty; the corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, worn by the He
Brackish water is water having more salinity than freshwater, but not as much as seawater. It may result from mixing seawater with fresh water together, as in estuaries, or it may occur in brackish fossil aquifers; the word comes from the Middle Dutch root "brak". Certain human activities can produce brackish water, in particular civil engineering projects such as dikes and the flooding of coastal marshland to produce brackish water pools for freshwater prawn farming. Brackish water is the primary waste product of the salinity gradient power process; because brackish water is hostile to the growth of most terrestrial plant species, without appropriate management it is damaging to the environment. Technically, brackish water contains between 0.5 and 30 grams of salt per litre—more expressed as 0.5 to 30 parts per thousand, a specific gravity of between 1.005 and 1.010. Thus, brackish covers a range of salinity regimes and is not considered a defined condition, it is characteristic of many brackish surface waters that their salinity can vary over space or time.
Brackish water condition occurs when fresh water meets seawater. In fact, the most extensive brackish water habitats worldwide are estuaries, where a river meets the sea; the River Thames flowing through London is a classic river estuary. The town of Teddington a few miles west of London marks the boundary between the tidal and non-tidal parts of the Thames, although it is still considered a freshwater river about as far east as Battersea insofar as the average salinity is low and the fish fauna consists predominantly of freshwater species such as roach, carp and pike; the Thames Estuary becomes brackish between Battersea and Gravesend, the diversity of freshwater fish species present is smaller roach and dace. Further east, the salinity increases and the freshwater fish species are replaced by euryhaline marine ones, until the river reaches Gravesend, at which point conditions become marine and the fish fauna resembles that of the adjacent North Sea and includes both euryhaline and stenohaline marine species.
A similar pattern of replacement can be observed with the aquatic plants and invertebrates living in the river. This type of ecological succession from a freshwater to marine ecosystem is typical of river estuaries. River estuaries form important staging points during the migration of anadromous and catadromous fish species, such as salmon and eels, giving them time to form social groups and to adjust to the changes in salinity. Salmon are anadromous, meaning they ascend rivers to spawn. Besides the species that migrate through estuaries, there are many other fish that use them as "nursery grounds" for spawning or as places young fish can feed and grow before moving elsewhere. Herring and plaice are two commercially important species that use the Thames Estuary for this purpose. Estuaries are commonly used as fishing grounds, as places for fish farming or ranching. For example, Atlantic salmon farms are located in estuaries, although this has caused controversy, because in doing so, fish farmers expose migrating wild fish to large numbers of external parasites such as sea lice that escape from the pens the farmed fish are kept in.
Another important brackish water habitat is the mangrove mangal. Many, though not all, mangrove swamps fringe estuaries and lagoons where the salinity changes with each tide. Among the most specialised residents of mangrove forests are mudskippers, fish that forage for food on land, archer fish, perch-like fish that "spit" at insects and other small animals living in the trees, knocking them into the water where they can be eaten. Like estuaries, mangrove swamps are important breeding grounds for many fish, with species such as snappers and tarpon spawning or maturing among them. Besides fish, numerous other animals use mangroves, including such species as the saltwater crocodile, American crocodile, proboscis monkey, diamondback terrapin, the crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora. Mangroves represent important nesting site for numerous birds groups such as herons, spoonbills, kingfishers and seabirds. Although plagued with mosquitoes and other insects that make them unpleasant for humans, mangrove swamps are important buffer zones between land and sea, are a natural defense against hurricane and tsunami damage in particular.
The Sundarbans and Bhitarkanika Mangroves are two of the large mangrove forests in the world, both on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Some seas and lakes are brackish; the Baltic Sea is a brackish sea adjoining the North Sea. The confluence of two major river systems prior to the Pleistocene, since it has been flooded by the North Sea but still receives so much freshwater from the adjacent lands that the water is brackish; because the salt water coming in from the sea is denser than freshwater, the water in the Baltic is stratified, with salt water at the bottom and freshwater at the top. Limited mixing occurs because of the lack of tides and storms, with the result that the fish fauna at the surface is freshwater in composition while that lower down is more marine. Cod are an example of a species only found in deep water in the Baltic, while pike are confined to the less saline surface waters; the Caspian Sea is the world's largest lake and contains brackish water with a salinity about one-third that of normal seawater.
The Caspian is famous for its peculiar animal fauna, including one of
Rein Abbey, Norway
For the abbey in Austria, see Rein Abbey, AustriaRein Abbey was a Roman Catholic religious house for women located in Rissa on the Fosen peninsula to the northwest of Trondheim in Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. Rein Abbey was founded in or shortly after 1226, it was built on a prominent elevation in an otherwise flat landscape on the ancestral estate of Duke Skule Bårdsson. It was dedicated to Saint Andrew in fulfilment of a vow after recovering from an illness; the first abbess was Sigrid Bårdsdatter. His daughter, Queen Margret of Norway, wife of King Håkon Håkonsson, spent her last years there. Many other women of the aristocracy entered it. In the trilogy Kristin Lavransdatter written by Nobel laureate Sigrid Undset, the eponymous heroine spends her final years in Rein Abbey. While there is no definite information on what order, it may well have followed the Rule of St. Augustine, it seems to have been house of secular canonesses, for noblewomen. The buildings were struck by lightning and burnt down in 1317, but repaired.
During the Reformation, the abbey was dissolved and its assets taken over by the Crown. In 1531 the powerful and wealthy Ingerd Ottesdatter Rømer, otherwise Ingrid til Austrått, a leader of the Norwegian aristocracy, had herself elected administrator of the abbey, she was thus able to protect the canoness. The abbey's estates became hers, continued in the possession of her descendants. Since 1704, the estate has been associated with the family of Henrik Hornemann; some remains of the abbey structures are still to be seen among buildings. The site was only once investigated archaeologically in 1861; the former abbey is protected by the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage. Norges klostre i middelalderen: Rein kloster Reinskloster website
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Lensvik is a village in Agdenes municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. The village is located on the western shore of the Trondheimsfjorden, just north of the village of Selbekken, the administrative centre of Agdenes municipality. Lensvik is the site of Lensvik Church, it lies about 7.5 kilometres north of the village of Ingdalen. The lake Øyangsvatnet is located about 6.5 kilometres to the west of Lensvik. Lensvik is called the strawberry capital of Norway; the strawberries are sought after as far as the United States and France. The strawberry season runs from July to August; the first week of July holds the annual strawberry festival. Bi-annually, Lensvik holds "Street-Meets" bolstering the largest engines driven by the largest egos. It's not uncommon to see a large plume of smoke hovering over one of the main parking lots in the village's center. Families come out and bring the young to see the festivities which include smoking tires from street rods to ATVs. There are a couple of Arctic Ramblers pushing several hundred horsepower that can turn the tires to the tune of a loud squeal