Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is faster and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock, its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger and subversive humor. Hardcore punk disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s in Washington, D. C. New York, New Jersey, Boston—as well as in Australia and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements and youth crew.
Hardcore was involved in the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. It has influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock and thrash metal. While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's Damaged, Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years. In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Japan and the Middle East. Steven Blush states that the Vancouver-based band D. O.
A.'s 1981 album, Hardcore'81 "...was where the genre got its name." This album helped to make people aware of the term "hardcore". Konstantin Butz states that while the origin of the expression "hardcore" "...cannot be ascribed to a specific place or time", the term is "...usually associated with the further evolution of California's L. A. Punk Rock scene". A September 1981 article by Tim Sommer shows the author applying the term to the "15 or so" punk bands gigging around the city at that time, which he considered a belated development relative to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington D. C. Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term "hardcore" is a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music. Blush states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk."Kelefa Sanneh states that the term "hardcore" referred to an attitude of "turning inwards" towards the scene and "ignoring broader society", all with the goal of achieving a sense of "shared purpose" and being part of a community.
Sanneh cites Agnostic Front's band member selection approach as an example of hardcore's emphasis on "scene citizenship". An article in Drowned in Sound argues that 1980s-era "hardcore is the true spirit of punk", because "after all the poseurs and fashionistas fucked off to the next trend of skinny pink ties with New Romantic haircuts, singing wimpy lyrics", the punk scene consisted only of people "completely dedicated to the DIY ethics". One definition of the genre is "a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock." Like the Oi! subgenre of the UK, hardcore punk can be considered an internal music reaction. Hardcore has been called a "...faster, meaner genre" of punk, a "stern refutation" of punk rock. Steven Blush states that though punk rock had an "unruly edge", "Reagan-era kids demanded something more primal and immediate, with speed and aggression as the starting point."According to one writer, "distressed by the'art'ificiality of much post-punk and the emasculated sellouts of new wave, hardcore sought to strengthen its core punk principles."
Lacking the art-school grace of post-punk, hardcore punk "favor low key visual aesthetic over extravagance and breaking with original punk rock song patterns." Hardcore "...disavows...synthetic technological effects... the recording industry." Around 1980, as punk became "moribund" and radio-friendly, angry "shorn-headed suburban teenagers" discarded new wave's artistic statements and pop music influences and created a new genre, for which there were no places to play, which forced the performers to create independent and DIY venues. Music writer Barney Hoskyns compared punk rock with hardcore and stated that hardcore was "younger and angrier, full of the pent up rage of dysfunctional Orange County adolescents" who were sick of their life in a "bland Republican" area. While the hardcore scene was young white males, both onstage and in the audience, there are notable exceptions, such as the all-African-American band Bad Brains and notable women such as Crass singer Joy de Vivre and Black Flag's second bassist, Kira Roessler.
Steven Blush states that Minor Threat's Ian MacKaye "set in motion a die-hard mindset that begat everything we now call Hardcore" with his "virulent anti- industry, anti-star, pro-scene exhortations." One of the important philosophies in the hardcore scene is authenticity. The
End on End
End on End is a compilation album by American post-hardcore band Rites of Spring. It was released in 1991 on Dischord; the album consists of the group's first album Rites of Spring and its EP All Through a Life, along with an extra studio track. All songs written by Rites of Spring. "Spring" – 2:32 "Deeper than Inside" – 2:16 "For Want Of" – 2:58 "Hain's Point" – 1:53 "All There Is" – 2:00 "Drink Deep" – 2:23 "Other Way Around" – 3:11 "Theme" – 2:11 "By Design" – 2:11 "Remainder" – 2:31 "Persistent Vision" – 2:37 "Nudes" – 2:32 "End on End" – 7:36 "All Through a Life" – 2:27 "Hidden Wheel" – 2:31 "In Silence/Words Away" – 3:00 "Patience" – 1:58Track 7 was first released on a 1987 re-issue of Rites of Spring. Tracks 14-17 were released as the out-of-print All Through a Life EP, Dischord #22, recorded in January 1986, released in May 1987. Rites of Spring: Guy Picciotto - vocals, guitar Eddie Janney - guitar Mike Fellows - bass guitar Brendan Canty - drums Ian MacKaye - producer Michael Hampton - producer Silver Sonya - 2001 Remastering
Rites of Spring (album)
Rites of Spring is the only studio album by American post-hardcore band Rites of Spring. It was recorded at Inner Ear Studios in February 1985 and released on vinyl in June 1985 as Dischord Records #16; the album contains twelve songs. The album was re-released on CD and cassette in 1987, with an additional track from the same session, "Other Way Around", as well as the four songs from the Rites' follow-up EP, All Through a Life, recorded January 1986 and released in 1987. End on End features the same cover as the debut album; the CD and cassette retained the number "16", while the 1991 repress, as well as the 2001 remastered version of the same seventeen songs, were numbered "16CD" and given the new title "End On End". The album was listed at number 30 on Kurt Cobain's top 50 favorite albums. Pitchfork online magazine ranked it number 96 on its list of the Top 100 Albums of the 1980s. Influenced by The Faith, Rites of Spring continued to combine desperate introspective lyrics with angry melody-tinged songwriting that moved further from the hardcore formula.
All songs written by Rites of Spring. "Spring" – 2:09 "Deeper Than Inside" – 2:17 "For Want Of" – 3:09 "Hain's Point" – 2:08 "All There Is" – 2:54 "Drink Deep" – 4:54 "Theme" – 2:19 "By Design" – 2:38 "Remainder" – 2:30 "Persistent Vision" – 2:21 "Nudes" – 2:48 "End On End" – 7:23 Guy Picciotto – vocals, guitar Eddie Janney – guitar Mike Fellows – bass Brendan Canty – drums Ian MacKaye – backing vocals Ian MacKaye – production Michael Hampton – production Rites of Spring at Dischord.com
Me and You (Egg Hunt song)
The single play record "Me and You" known as Egg Hunt, 2 Songs, is the first and only stand-alone release by the American experimental post-hardcore duo Egg Hunt. Egg Hunt's only output, a piece of "experimental, post-hardcore" music, is notable for its B-side, "We All Fall Down", a "post-punk melodic masterpiece" whose lyrics are a heartfelt and bitter reflection on the demise of Washington, D. C.'s 1985 Revolution Summer: The song was written by Ian MacKaye for his band Embrace, whose other members rejected it. Although a small release in comparison to Dischord's significant catalog, this record is still a notable sample of MacKaye and Jeff Nelson's songwriting abilities, as well as their chemistry together as artists; the single features MacKaye's recording debut as a guitarist and his final collaboration with Nelson. Egg Hunt was a one-off musical experiment of long time friends and musicians Ian MacKaye and Jeff Nelson, former singer and drummer of the hardcore punk band Minor Threat, Dischord Records co-founders.
In the spring of 1986, during a MacKaye and Nelson trip to London, England to discuss possible European distribution of Dischord releases with Southern Studios, its owner, John Loder, invited them to do, just for fun, some recording while they were there. They recorded four songs in three days, they liked the results so much that they decided to release a two-song single record to commemorate the occasion, they called it "Egg Hunt". Just after returning to Washington, D. C. MacKaye's band, Embrace and unexpectedly dissolved, so he and Nelson tried turning their experiment in the United Kingdom into an actual band, they recruited former Gray Matter members Steve Niles and Geoff Turner, but the project never surpassed the rehearsal stage and MacKaye decided to leave. However, Nelson and Niles stayed together and soon invited former Gray Matter guitarist Mark Haggerty to join them to form the Dischord band Three in the summer of 1986. For his part, MacKaye directed his energy and creativity toward the forming of Fugazi in 1987.
The Southern session ended up being the last time Nelson would record together. "Me and You" was recorded with engineer John Loder at Southern Studios in London, England, on March 27, 28 and 30, 1986. It was released on Dischord Records in 7-inch vinyl disc format. "Me and You" was reissued by Dischord as a CD single on June 16, 1997. In 2002, the song "We All Fall Down" was featured on the 3-CD compilation box set 20 Years of Dischord. On September 27, 2011, Dischord re-released the single on light blue vinyl. All tracks written by Ian MacKaye
An extended play record referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of The Denver Post said, "EPs—originally extended-play'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of maximum length and no more than four tracks. EPs were released in various sizes in different eras; the earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records, were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records.
By 1949, when the 45 rpm single and 331⁄3 rpm LP were competing formats, seven-inch 45 rpm singles had a maximum playing time of only about four minutes per side. As an attempt to compete with the LP introduced in 1948 by rival Columbia, RCA Victor introduced "Extended Play" 45s during 1952, their narrower grooves, achieved by lowering the cutting levels and sound compression optionally, enabled them to hold up to 7.5 minutes per side—but still be played by a standard 45 rpm phonograph. These were 10-inch LPs split onto two seven-inch EPs or 12-inch LPs split onto three seven-inch EPs, either sold separately or together in gatefold covers; this practice became much less common with the advent of triple-speed-available phonographs. Some classical music albums released at the beginning of the LP era were distributed as EP albums—notably, the seven operas that Arturo Toscanini conducted on radio between 1944 and 1954; these opera EPs broadcast on the NBC Radio network and manufactured by RCA, which owned the NBC network were made available both in 45 rpm and 331⁄3 rpm.
In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact discs. RCA had success in the format with their top money earner, Elvis Presley, issuing 28 Elvis EPs between 1956 and 1967, many of which topped the separate Billboard EP chart during its brief existence. During the 1950s, RCA published several EP albums of Walt Disney movies, containing both the story and the songs; these featured the original casts of actors and actresses. Each album contained two seven-inch records, plus a illustrated booklet containing the text of the recording so that children could follow along by reading; some of the titles included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and what was a recent release, the movie version of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, presented in 1954. The recording and publishing of 20,000 was unusual: it did not employ the movie's cast, years a 12 in 33⅓ rpm album, with a nearly identical script, but another different cast, was sold by Disneyland Records in conjunction with the re-release of the movie in 1963.
Because of the popularity of 7" and other formats, SP records became less popular and the production of SPs in Japan was suspended in 1963. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were compilations of singles or album samplers and were played at 45 rpm on seven-inch discs, with two songs on each side. Other than those published by RCA, EPs were uncommon in the United States and Canada, but they were sold in the United Kingdom, in some other European countries, during the 1950s and 1960s. Record Retailer printed the first EP chart in 1960; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Music Echo and the Record Mirror continued to list EPs on their respective singles charts. The Beatles' Twist and Shout outsold most singles for some weeks in 1963; when the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to compile a chart it was restricted to singles and EPs disappeared from the listings. In the Philippines, seven-inch EPs marketed as "mini-LPs" were introduced in 1970, with tracks selected from an album and packaging resembling the album they were taken from.
This mini-LP format became popular in America in the early 1970s for promotional releases, for use in jukeboxes. Stevie Wonder included a bonus four-song EP with his double LP Songs in the Key of Life in 1976. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was less standardization and EPs were made on seven-inch, 10-inch or 12-inch discs running either 331⁄3 or 45 rpm; some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors, a few of them were picture discs. Alice in Chains was the first band to have an EP reach number one on the Billboard album chart, its EP, Jar of Flies, was released on January 25, 1994. In 2004, Linkin Park and Jay-Z's collaboration EP, Collision Course, was the next to reach the number one spot after Alice in Chains. In 2010, the cast of the television series Glee became the first artist to have two EPs reach number one, with Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna on the week of May 8, 2010, Glee: The Music, Journey to Regionals on the week of June 26, 2010. In 2010, Warner Bros. Records revived the format with their "Six-Pak" offering of six songs on a compact disc.
The first EPs were seven-inch vinyl records with more tracks than a normal single. Although they shared size and speed with singles, they were a recognizably different format than the seven-inch single. Alth
Ian Thomas Garner MacKaye is an American singer, guitarist, record label owner and producer. Active since 1979, MacKaye is best known as the co-founder and owner of Dischord Records, a Washington, D. C.-based independent record label and the frontman of the influential hardcore punk band Minor Threat and the post-hardcore band Fugazi. MacKaye was the frontman for the short-lived bands The Teen Idles and Pailhead, a collaboration with the band Ministry. MacKaye is a member of The Evens, a two-piece indie rock group he formed with his wife Amy Farina in 2001. Along with his seminal band Minor Threat, he is credited with coining the term "straight edge" to describe a personal ideology that promotes abstinence from alcohol and other drugs, though MacKaye has stated that he did not intend to turn it into a movement. A key figure in the development of hardcore punk and an independent-minded, do-it-yourself punk ethic, MacKaye has produced releases by Q and Not U, John Frusciante, 7 Seconds, Nation of Ulysses, Bikini Kill, Rites of Spring, Dag Nasty and Rollins Band.
Ian MacKaye was born in Washington D. C. on April 16, 1962, grew up in the Glover Park neighborhood of Washington D. C, his father was a writer for the Washington Post, first as a White House reporter as a religion specialist. In his capacities as a journalist in the White House Press Corps, MacKaye's father was in the presidential motorcade when John F. Kennedy was killed in 1963. Ian Mackaye's Grandmother on his fathers side was Dorothy Cameron Disney Mackaye, she worked with Paul Popenoe on marriage advice columns. She was a member of the Cosmopolitan Club, his Grandfather was Milton MacKaye a magazine writer, he was an executive with the Office of War Information. According to MacKaye's longtime friend, singer Henry Rollins, MacKaye's parents "raised their kids in a tolerant, super-intellectual, open-minded atmosphere."MacKaye first learned to play piano as a child. He took lessons, but quit when his mother placed him in a more academic environment to continue his instrument, he first attempted guitar at around ten due to inspirations such as Jimi Hendrix, but again he quit when he was unable to understand the connection between piano and guitar.
MacKaye listened to many types of music, but was fond of mainstream hard rock like Ted Nugent and Queen before discovering punk music in 1979 when he saw The Cramps perform at nearby Georgetown University. He was influenced by the California hardcore scene. MacKaye looked up to hardcore bands like Bad Brains and Black Flag and was childhood friends with Henry Garfield. Ian MacKaye's first band consisted of one performance as The Slinkees in the summer of 1979, performing a song titled "I Drink Milk." The band recorded two demo tapes of covers as well as songs that would be recorded by the Teen Idles. Ian MacKaye's next project, The Teen Idles, he played bass guitar and sang back up vocals in from 1979–1980, the short-lived Skewbald/Grand Union. After feeling creatively limited in the Teen Idles, MacKaye was determined to be the frontman and primary lyricist for Minor Threat. MacKaye cited the dynamic performance of singer Joe Cocker in Woodstock as a major influence on his own animated stage persona.
The Teen Idles and Minor Threat were modestly successful in and around Washington D. C. but would be cited as two of the earliest and most influential hardcore punk groups, as pioneers of the straight edge philosophy that rejects use of drugs. In his early teens, MacKaye saw the negative effects of drug abuse on several close friends and one immediate family member, he vowed to never use tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs. After Minor Threat broke up, MacKaye was active with several short-lived groups, including Embrace and Egg Hunt. Pailhead, a collaboration between MacKaye and the industrial metal band Ministry consisting of Al Jourgensen, Paul Barker, William Rieflin, featured MacKaye on lead vocals. In 1987, MacKaye founded Fugazi, a band, cited as one of the most important post-hardcore groups. Fugazi set itself apart from most other bands by never playing a show with high-priced tickets, they would turn down venue options for this rule, the band would go so far as to stop a show and have unruly concert goers escorted out of the venue – complete with a refund of their ticket money.
The band famously turned down at least one offer to headline Lollapalooza because festival organizers refused to price tickets cheaply. MacKaye has never conducted an interview with Rolling Stone magazine or any other similar publication, stating he'd only do so if the magazine agreed to not advertise cigarettes or alcohol. MacKaye estimates that for every concert Fugazi played, they turned down another 50 venue options. Fugazi have since been on an indefinite hiatus. MacKaye sings and plays baritone guitar in The Evens with drummer and vocalist Amy Farina of the Warmers; the band pride themselves on playing in non-standard locations, such as community centres, bookshops, or other atypical spaces. The Evens released their self-titled album in early 2005, their second album, "Get Evens", was released in November 2006. On September 22 they announced on Dischord Records' website: "The Evens are mixing a new record, due out at the end of this year." The new album is called The Odds and was released November 20, 2012.
In 1982, MacKaye sang lead voc
The Faith (American band)
The Faith was an early American hardcore punk band, from Washington D. C. with strong connections to the scene centered on the Dischord label. Along with Minor Threat, The Faith were key players in the early development of hardcore, with a melodic approach that would influence not just associated acts like Rites of Spring and Fugazi, but a subsequent generation of bands such as Nirvana, whose Kurt Cobain was a vocal fan; the band formed as a four-piece in the summer of 1981 and featured Alec MacKaye, former vocalist for the Untouchables, on vocals, Michael Hampton and Ivor Hanson of Henry Rollins' first band, State of Alert on guitar and drums as well as Chris Bald on bass. They called themselves'The Faith' and played their first show at H. B. Woodlawn High School in November'81. Alec described the name as "a positive kind of sound, not negative like so many others." "We felt. We did want something more hopeful and less nihilistic, in spite of our chaotic and sometimes destructive approach to performance."Filling part of the void left by Minor Threat's hiatus, The Faith became one of the most popular bands in D.
C. After recording a demo in December 1981, the band released a split LP with fellow D. C. hardcore band, Void. It was released by Dischord Records, a local independent label founded by MacKaye's elder brother Ian MacKaye and Jeff Nelson of Minor Threat; the first pressing of the record sold out in two weeks. It featured the song "You're X'd," which addressed the straight edge philosophy popularized by Minor Threat and S. O. A, and at the same time it was a strong critic to the people that did not take the straight edge movement and only pretended to follow it in order to sympathise with other people. The Faith members stated that they felt rather frustrated and angry because "people tend to compare the two sides of the record, sort of dumb, we would have reviewed it as two separate bands—not comparing—instead of saying'Oh, Void is so crazy and The Faith is just boring typical hardcore.'" "Our approaches to music were so different that there isn’t much point in comparing the two sides…they are never close enough to compare, only to contrast and to complement."In 1983 The Faith released an eight-song twelve inch EP called Subject to Change.
It was produced by Ian MacKaye and showed the band progressing into more melodic territory with the addition of a second guitarist. Edward Janney of the Untouchables and Ian MacKaye's short-lived Skewbald/Grand Union, joined The Faith at the end of 1982 to play second guitar and made his recorded debut; the addition was made because they wanted to get some more complex guitar ideas into the songs and soften the impact of guitar malfunctions, which were a constant threat during good shows. Not to mention, they liked the way Eddie played; the Faith was short lived. According to Ian "People were unhappy, they just loved that band."After The Faith broke up, guitarist Eddie Janney formed Rites of Spring with Guy Picciotto. When Embrace broke up in early 1986, Chris Bald rejoined Alec MacKaye in Ignition meanwhile, Janney reunited with Michael Hampton for One Last Wish following Rites of Spring's breakup Finally and Hanson reunited in Manifesto in 1991, while Alec MacKaye sang with The Warmers during the mid-'90s.
Washington D. C.'s The Faith took hardcore punk to new places in the early 1980s. During their existence, their music hinted at what was to come, softening the standard-issue hardcore approach somewhat with better-developed melodies and a more inward-looking perspective. To be sure, it was high-energy, high-velocity punk, but its subtle deviations from the norm opened up new vistas for the D. C. scene. They were influenced by the first wave of US and UK punk rock. Though the sound of the late'70s can still be heard in their demos, The Faith are leaner and more direct than their predecessors. Chris Bald would write most of the lyrics while Michael most of the music. Chris defined their lyrics as "very personal, all I can write about is things that influence me in my life. Whatever influences our lives is what we write about." Reason for which they never were interested in writing about politics as many other bands, if not all, were doing it. Minor Threat's influence is still obvious in tracks like "Face to Face," but The Faith had their own thing going on.
For one thing, Alec's voice is spiteful, the slow songs have a darkness that no other D. C. band came near to. His intense vocals were what set them apart from any of their hardcore contemporaries. Instead of just the normal-typical hardcore brash screaming and pushing everything all in one verse, Alec had a way of making these minute blast songs melodic without compromising or losing any intensity. By the time they recorded the Subject to Change EP –, first released in late 1983, shortly after they disbanded – The Faith had adopted a more melodic and emotional approach owing to the addition of a second guitar player; the two guitars together seem to chime. And instead of employing hardcore's usual strangled bark, Alec MacKaye makes sure his words are clear and easy to discern: The Faith's musicality trumps their rage. In spite of their limited lifespan and discography, The Faith were a seminal influence on the early hardcore punk movement in Washington, D. C, their songs not only stand up with the best of D.