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Rivendell is a valley in the fictional world of Middle-earth created by J. R. R. Tolkien, it was established in the Second Age by Elrond Half-elven, who protected it with the powers of his elven ring Vilya and ruled it until the events of The Lord of the Rings four or five thousand years later. It is an important location in Tolkien's legendarium, featured in The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales. Elrond lived in Rivendell with his wife Celebrían, their sons Elladan and Elrohir, their daughter Arwen, many other Elves, both Noldor and Sindar. Notable Elves who lived in Rivendell included Glorfindel and Erestor. In some writings, featured in Unfinished Tales and Celeborn lived in Rivendell for a time before they became rulers of Lothlórien. Unique among non-elves, Bilbo Baggins "retired" to Rivendell as an old hobbit, before going over the sea. Rivendell is a direct translation or calque into English of the Sindarin name Imladris, both meaning "deep valley of the cleft".

The name Rivendell is formed by two English elements: "riven" and "dell", making the whole word purport "deeply cloven valley". Imladris was rendered "Karningul" in Westron, the "Common Tongue" of Middle-earth represented as English in the text of The Lord of the Rings; the house of Elrond in Rivendell is referred to as The Last Homely House, alluding to the elves' old cities, in Beleriand and Aman, the wilderness that lies east of the Misty Mountains. Rivendell was located in eastern Eriador at the edge of a narrow gorge of the river Bruinen, but well hidden in the moorlands and foothills of the Hithaeglir or Misty Mountains. Contrary to the map of western Middle-earth published in The Lord of the Rings, the Great East Road did not in Tolkien's view lead through Rivendell: Rivendell was maintained as a hidden valley away from the road to the High Pass; the climate was cool-temperate and semi-continental with moderately warm summers snowy—but not frigid—winters and moderate precipitation. Seasons were more pronounced than in areas further west, such as the Shire, but less extreme than the places east of the Misty Mountains.

Like Hobbiton, it is located at about the same latitude as Tolkien's hometown Oxford. Rivendell is founded in the second Age, following the destruction of the Elvish realm of Eregion by the forces of Sauron. Sauron invades Eregion to wrest the rings of power from the Elven smiths. In response to this attack, Gil-galad sends a force from Lindon, commanded by Elrond, to bolster Eregion's defence. After two years of fighting Eregion is destroyed; the remnants of Elrond's army and Eregion's refugees are driven north into the hills by Sauron's forces, are subsequently besieged for three years in the valley that becomes the site of Rivendell. They are relieved when an army of Elves from Lindon and their allies the Men of Númenor, in conjunction with the defenders, attack the besieging force and annihilate it. After the siege is lifted it is decided to abandon Eregion, leaving Rivendell the only Elven settlement in eastern Eriador. At the end of the Second Age it serves as a mustering station for the forces of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men on their way to war in Mordor.

After this war Rivendell enjoys centuries of peace, but is attacked in the fourteenth century of the Third Age by the armies of the Witch-king of Angmar. It again withstands a siege for some years, but its enemies are driven off when reinforcements arrived from Lothlórien. Several centuries a force sent from Rivendell, commanded by Glorfindel, takes part in the final battle against the armies of Angmar. Following the destruction of Arnor, the northern kingdom of the Númenórean exiles Rivendell becomes an important location for the remnants of its people, the Rangers of the North. Elrond holds several important relics of the kingdom in his keeping, all of the heirs of the chieftains of the Rangers are fostered in Rivendell as children; the most notable, last, of these is Aragorn, whom Elrond regards as a foster son. During his time in Rivendell Aragorn falls in love with Arwen, they are married after he is crowned king of Gondor and Arnor. Rivendell is an important location in the Lord of the Rings.

Fearing the growing power of Sauron, his enemies form the White Council to allow them to debate and strategize how to confront his menace. Elrond was a prominent member of the Council, it met in Rivendell. One of these meetings occurred in T. A. 2941. That same year, another Council member, the wizard Gandalf, helped the Hobbit Bilbo Baggins and a company of dwarves on their quest to reclaim Erebor. On their way they stopped at Rivendell, while there learned important information as to how they could achieve their goal. Bilbo and Gandalf stopped in Rivendell on their return journey. After his 111th birthday Bilbo retired to Rivendell, spending his time writing his memoirs and scholarly works, but his finding of the One Ring on his previous adventure soon set great events in motion. Frodo Baggins and his companions journey to Rivendell to deliver the Ring to safety from Sauron's agents, stay there for more than two months. During that time, several other Elves and Men arrive at Rivendell on separate errands, at the Council of Elrond they learned that all of their errands are related to the fate of the Ring.

After a lengthy debate, the council decides upon destroying the Ring. Subsequently, the Fellowship of the Ring is formed and departs from Rivendell on the quest for Mount Doom. Following the destruction of th


Pirelli & C. S.p. A. is an Italian multinational company based in Milan, listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922, with a temporary privatization period by the consortium led by the Chinese state-owned enterprise ChemChina. The company is the 5th largest tire manufacturer behind Bridgestone, Michelin and Continental, is focused on the consumer business, it is present in Europe, the Asia-Pacific, Latin America, North America and ex-USSR, operating commercially in over 160 countries. It has 19 manufacturing sites in 13 countries and a network of around 14,600 distributors and retailers. Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series for 2008–2010, FIA Formula One World Championship for 2011–2023 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli's headquarters are located in Milan's Bicocca district. Pirelli is now a tyre manufacturing company. In the past it has been involved in fashion and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility.

On 4 October 2017, Pirelli returned to the Milan Stock Exchange after focusing its business on pure consumer products and related services, separating the business of industrial tyre. Pirelli has published its Pirelli Calendar since 1964, which has featured the contributions of many famous photographers over the years such as Helmut Newton, Steve McCurry, Peter Lindbergh, Richard Avedon, Bruce Weber, Herb Rits and Annie Leibovitz. Founded in Milan in 1872 by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company specialised in rubber and derivative processes and made scuba diving rebreathers. Thereafter, Pirelli's activities were focused on the production of tyres and cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its cable division to Goldman Sachs, which changed the new group's name to Prysmian. In the 1950s, Alberto Pirelli commissioned the building of a skyscraper, Pirelli Tower, in the same Milanese area that housed the first Pirelli factory during the 19th century. In 1974, Pirelli invented the "wide radial tyre", upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tyre strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos.

At that time, racing tyres were either slick tyres made with the cross ply technique, or radial tyres, which were too narrow to withstand the Stratos' power and did not provide enough grip. Both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, in 1975 Pirelli created a wide tyre with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, but with a radial structure. Subsequently, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, headquartered in New Haven, for $190 million. In 2000, Pirelli sold its terrestrial fibre optic cables business to Cisco and its optical components operations to Corning, for 5 billion euro, it invested – through Olimpia -part of the resulting liquidity to become a majority shareholder in Telecom Italia in 2001, maintaining this position until 2007. In 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded clothing and eyewear.

In 2005, Pirelli sold its Cables, Energy Systems and Telecommunications assets to Goldman Sachs and the newly formed company was named Prysmian. In the same year, 2005, Pirelli opened its first tyre production plant in China; this was the beginning of the group's production complex in the country. In 2006, Pirelli chose Slatina for its first tyre production plant in Romania, extending the facility in 2011. In 2010, Pirelli completed its conversion to a pure tyre company by selling Pirelli Broadband Solutions and spinning off the real estate assets of Pirelli Re. Fondazione Pirelli was established in the same year to safeguard and celebrate the company's past and to promote business culture as an integral part of Italy's national cultural assets. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders had accepted a €7.1 billion bid from ChemChina, together with Camfin and LTI, for the company. The transaction was completed and the company was delisted in November 2015. In May 2017, it was announced that Pirelli returns to the world of cycling with a new road cycling tyre range, Pzero Velo.

In September 2017, the company announced the will to sell up to 40 percent of its equity capital in an initial public offering as it plans to return to the Milan stock exchange in October. In March 2019 Pirelli announced a new range of mountainbiking tires, called Scorpion. Pirelli is focused on the consumer business, producing tyres for cars and bicycles. PZero: tyres for ultra-high performance cars. Including F1 vehicles Cinturato: tyres for high end cars. Winter: tyres for low temperatures and snow. Scorpion: tyres for SUV and cross-over Diablo: road and track tyres. Angel: street and commuting tyres. Scorpion: road and off-road tyres. PZero Velo: road racing. Cycl-e: urban and electric. Scorpion: Mountainbike Pirelli shareholders as of September 2019: The list of Pirelli Board of Directors: *The performance takes into account, as well as the deconsolidation of Venezuela, a non-recurring fiscal impact of 107.6 million euro linked to the devaluation of active deferred taxation by the Parent Group as a consequence of Pirelli’s new financial status after its merger with Marco Polo Industrial Holding.

The Pirelli Calendar is published annually. The calendar features the work of fashion photographers, including Richard Avedon, Peter Lindbergh, Annie Leibovitz, Patrick Demarchelier; the Pirelli Internetional Award is given annually for the be

Marilyn Johnson (author)

Marilyn Johnson is an American writer and the author of the nonfiction books Lives in Ruins: Archaeologists and the Seductive Lure of Human Rubble. How Librarians and Cybrarians Can Save Us All. Publishers Weekly called Johnson "dangerously good at. By dangerously, I mean drop-what-you're-doing-start-a-new-career-path good,” and named Lives in Ruins one of the 100 best books of 2014. Johnson has a B. A. from the University of Pennsylvania. She studied with poet Charles Simic at the University of New Hampshire began working for fiction editor Rust Hills at Esquire in 1978, she edited articles at Esquire and Outside, was a staff writer for Life, where she wrote profiles and obituaries of celebrities, including Diana, Princess of Wales. In 2015, she wrote the Smithsonian’s story about the excavation of four leaders of Jamestown Colony. Johnson’s first book, The Dead Beat, “explores the world of obituaries—both the journalists who write them and the readers who love them.” The New York Times Book Review called it “ fascinating book about the art and subculture of obituary writing” and singled out its chapters on obituary fans and readers as “downright amazing.”This Book Is Overdue!, Johnson's second book, looked at the field of librarianship as it responded and adapted to the digital age with creativity and panic.

It received a Washington Irving Book Award. Library Journal called it a “kaleidoscopic” book “by a non-librarian captures the breathtaking transformations in the field in recent years,” and noted that her subjects ranged from digital cataloging and collections to savvy young urban librarians and the Connecticut Four, who challenged the Patriot Act; the book was embraced by librarians and Johnson subsequently spoke on the importance of librarians and libraries in the digital age at library conferences across the U. S, she is a founding member of Authors for Libraries, affiliated with the American Library Association. In her 2014 book, Lives in Ruins, Johnson “captures the vivid and quirky characters drawn to archaeology.” She writes about contemporary archaeologists in the context of their work in the field in the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, Machu Picchu, Asia, the U. K. Africa, the Pine Barrens of New Jersey, multiple other stateside locations. Nature called it a “gem of hands-on reportage,” and archaeologists confirmed it as an accurate portrait of the profession with respect to the scarcity of paying jobs and the challenges of preservation in a dynamic world.

Johnson has three children with editor Rob Fleder. Johnson is a former fellow at the Purchase College Writers Center and has published poetry as Marilyn A. Johnson, she lives in the Hudson Valley in New York. Lives in Ruins: Archaeologists and the Seductive Lure of Human Rubble. How Librarians and Cybrarians Can Save Us All.

Cornelius Vermuyden

Sir Cornelius Vermuyden was a Dutch engineer who introduced Dutch land reclamation methods to England. Commissioned by the Crown to drain Hatfield Chase in the Isle of Axholme, Vermuyden was knighted in 1629 for his work and became an English citizen in 1633. In the 1650s, he directed major projects to drain The Fens of East Anglia, introducing the innovation of constructing washes, to allow periodic flooding of the area by excess waters. Cornelius was the son of Giles Vermuyden and Sarah Werkendet, he was born in 1595 in Sint-Maartensdijk on the Isle of Tholen in Netherlands. He trained in the Netherlands as an engineer, learning Dutch techniques for controlling water and draining marshland. By the period of 1621 to 1623, Vermuyden was working in England, where his first projects were on the River Thames, repairing a sea wall at Dagenham and working to reclaim Canvey Island, Essex; the latter project was financed by Joas Croppenburg, a Dutch haberdasher to whom Vermuyden was related by marriage.

This, or work at Windsor, brought him to the notice of Charles I, who commissioned him in 1626 to drain Hatfield Chase in the Isle of Axholme, Lincolnshire. The King was Lord of the four principal manors there: Hatfield, Epworth and Misterton, as well as 13 of the adjacent manors, he wanted to expand the cultivable area. Vermuyden was to receive one third of the drained land, most of, commons, as recompense for his investment. To finance the drainage project, he sold shares in this land to other investors, including some fellow Dutchmen; some French and Walloon Protestant refugees settled in the area as landowners or tenants. The King intended to enclose one third of the common fen in his right of "improvement" as the Lord of the Manor, leaving one-third for those local residents who had common rights of pasturage in the fens; the local people were upset by the project those of the Manor of Epworth, whose lord had enclosed part of the commons in the 14th century. He had signed a legal document giving up all subsequent rights of enclosure within the manor.

As with other fen drainage schemes at the time, the locals did not oppose drainage per se, but were outraged about the large enclosures of their common pasture and turbary fens. This threatened their commons rights and livelihoods, as they depended on the fens for pasturage and for peat for burning as fuel. From 1627, the richer members of the community challenged the project in court by lawsuits as large groups of commoners rioted against the works and the enclosures; because the legal position of the commoners of Epworth was unique, the legal debate over the drainage and enclosures lasted into the eighteenth century. Vermuyden was knighted in 1629 for his work, became a British citizen in 1633. In 1631 he built the Horseshoe Sluice on the tidal river at Wisbech, Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire at a cost of £8,000, by a "little Army of Articifers Venting and acting outlandish devises" The work on Hatfield Chase was only successful: the straightening of the river Don and outlet into the Aire caused flooding in Fishlake and Snaith.

As a result of a lawsuit in 1633, Vermuyden dug the Dutch River, which provided a direct route from the Don to the River Ouse at Goole. It required him to deplete most of the land; the same year he bought 4,000 acres of land in Sedgemoor on the Somerset Levels and Malvern Chase in Worcestershire. Contrary to popular belief, Vermuyden was not involved with the draining of the "Great Fen" in Cambridgeshire and Norfolk in the 1630s, he did not participate until the second phase of construction in the 1650s. This area of marshland was drained by a labyrinth of rivers, it had been inadequately maintained since before the dissolution of the monasteries in 1537 during the English Reformation, as the monasteries had been chiefly responsible in the region for keeping the channels clear. The initial plan for the drainage was based on a proposal by John Hunt in 1604 – 1605, to construct a new river 21 miles long from Earith to Denver, shortening the length of the River Great Ouse by many miles, it was named the Bedford River after Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford, the chief Adventurer and financier.

The project improved eight other channels. The operation was judged as complete in 1637, it was criticized for its limited goal to provide "summer lands", leaving the land subject to winter flooding. The Merchant Adventurers had been offered 95,000 acres by the Crown as the reward for their work; this settlement was disrupted: first by the riots, which erupted against the enclosures, second, by the King. He reversed the granting of Bedford's contract and declared himself as the principal in the project, taking 52,000 acres and leaving the other parties with only 40,000 acres. At this time, Vermuyden was recruited to participate in the Great Level, as in 1637 he wrote a "Discourse Touching the Draining of the Great Fennes" for the King. In it, he proposed two innovations to the drainage scheme: washes – areas of land allowed to flood in periods of bad weather to absorb the extra water that cannot drain to the sea – and a catchdrain around the eastern edge of the fen; the washes were constructed as part of the second phase of drainage in the 1650s, but the catchdrain was not developed until the early 1960s.

This catch

John F. Limehouse Memorial Bridge

The John F. Limehouse Memorial Bridge, located about 15 miles west of downtown Charleston, South Carolina, was completed in 2003, it replaced an obsolete low-level swing bridge over the Stono River. The new bridge, which crosses a channel between Johns Island and St. Andrews Parish, an area called West Ashley, was completed under a partnership between the South Carolina Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard; the Stono River is a critical part of the 3,000 miles of Intracoastal Waterway used by barges, fishing boats, recreational mariners. The former swing bridge, built in 1958, was an obstruction to vessel traffic, thus removal was mandated by the Coast Guard in an Order to Alter issued in 1994, leaving only a few swing bridges in the Coast Guard’s Seventh District, from Key West, Florida to the northernmost areas of South Carolina The new, 2,800-foot concrete structure is a high-level, fixed span; the new bridge has a horizontal clearance for vessels of 215 feet compared with the former clearance of 93-feet and a vertical clearance of 65-feet above the high-water mark, compared to a previous clearance of only 13-feet.

The new structure accommodates four lanes of traffic and provides access to Johns, Kiawah and Wadmalaw Islands. Design of the bridge was contracted to Ralph Whitehead Associates, Inc. of Charlotte, North Carolina Construction was awarded to Jones brothers, Inc. from MT. Juliet, Tenon; the Coast Guard provided about $21 million of the total $30 million bridge cost, with the rest paid by the State. The State government donated the debris to the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources artificial reef program. After demolishing the old span, the contractor transported its concrete and steel components to the Kiawah Reef site about 23 miles away; the Bridge was opened to traffic in June 2003 two months ahead of schedule. Start to finish: Project makes interesting use of concrete Go Bridges, March 1, 2004, Douglas E. McClure, P. E.. E. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration locations of tide stations South Carolina Dept. of Transportation Annual Report page 106 US Coast Guard Document, Release #: 10-11, Release date: Oct. 27, 2003 STV Inc. builder’s webpage describing project

Gerry O'Malley

Gerald Joseph O'Malley was a Canadian politician. He represented the electoral district of Halifax Needham in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1988 to 1998, as a member of the Liberals. An avid educational advocate, O’Malley worked at Nova Scotia Community College as a principal before entering politics, he served in the Nova Scotia Assembly for a decade and became the Minister of Supply and Services and Minister of Science and Technology under Premier John Savage. O'Malley was born in Halifax in 1927 to Mary Brackett, he was educated at Saint Mary's University wanting to be an electrician. He served in the Royal Canadian Air Force, retiring in 1967. An avid educational advocate, O’Malley was an educator working as a vocational teacher and as principal at the Akerley campus of the Nova Scotia Community College in Halifax. In 1980, O'Malley was elected to Halifax City Council, where he served as Deputy Mayor in 1984. O'Malley entered provincial politics in the 1988 election, defeating New Democrat Maureen MacDonald by 776 votes in the Halifax Needham riding.

He was re-elected in the 1993 election. He served as a backbench member of John Savage's government until March 1995, when he was appointed to the Executive Council of Nova Scotia as Minister of Supply and Services. In March 1996, O'Malley was shuffled to Minister of Technology; when Russell MacLellan was sworn-in as premier in July 1997, O'Malley was moved to Minister of Labour. O’Malley was moved to the Labour portfolio, where he brought in safety training changes in the wake of the Westray mining disaster that resulted in 26 deaths. During his time as Minister of Supply and Services, O'Malley once faced public criticism and outcry when he was in Sydney to announce the plan to cap the tar ponds. Protesters forced O'Malley to cut the event short and he was escorted out of the room due to security concerns as the protests intensified. Despite indications he might retire, O'Malley ran for re-election in 1998, but was defeated by New Democrat Maureen MacDonald by over 2,300 votes. O'Malley married Marie Elizabeth Langan in 1963.

They had four children. He continued to live in Nova Scotia until his death at his Halifax home on 16 November 2018, nine days shy of his 91st birthday