A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Dryfe Water is a river in Scotland about 18 miles in length which flows into the River Annan at grid reference NY 107 820, near Lockerbie. It starts at NT 170 041 on the southern slopes of Loch Fell, near Moffat, flows along a narrow valley to the Annan. Dryfe Water gives its name to the parish and the common Scottish surname, Drysdale. A second name is the much less common surname Dryfe; the meaning of the word Dryfe is unknown. It may be from the Old Norse, Anglo-Saxon or Brittonic languages which were all used at different times in Dumfriesshire
Lockerbie is a town in Dumfries and Galloway, south-western Scotland. It lies 75 miles from Glasgow, 20 miles from the English border, it had a population of 4,009 at the 2001 census. The town came to international attention in December 1988 when the wreckage of Pan Am Flight 103 crashed there following a terrorist bomb attack aboard the flight. Lockerbie has existed since at least the days of Viking influence in this part of Scotland in the period around 900; the name means Lockard's Town in Old Norse. The presence of the remains of a Roman camp a mile to the west of the town suggests its origins may be earlier. Lockerbie first entered recorded history in the 1190s in a charter of Robert de Brus, 2nd Lord of Annandale, granting the lands of Lockerbie to Adam de Carlyle, it appears as Lokardebi in 1306. About two miles to the west of Lockerbie on 7 December 1593, Clan Johnstone fought Clan Maxwell at the Battle of Dryfe Sands; the Johnstones nearly exterminated the Maxwells involved in the battle, leading to the expression "Lockerbie Lick."Lockerbie's main period of growth started in 1730 when the landowners, the Johnstone family, made plots of land available along the line of the High Street, producing in effect a semi-planned settlement.
By 1750 Lockerbie had become a significant town, from the 1780s it was a staging post on the carriage route from Glasgow to London. The most important period of growth was during the 19th century. Thomas Telford's Carlisle-to-Glasgow road was built through Lockerbie from 1816; the Caledonian Railway opened the line from Carlisle to Beattock through Lockerbie in 1847 and all the way to Glasgow. From 1863 until 1966 Lockerbie was a railway junction, serving a branch line to Dumfries. Known as the Dumfries and Lockerbie Railway, it was closed to passengers in 1952 and to freight in 1966; the town is served by Lockerbie railway station. Lockerbie had been home to Scotland's largest lamb market since the 18th century but the arrival of the Caledonian Railway increased further its role in the cross-border trade in sheep; the railway produced a lowering in the price of coal, allowing a gas works to be built in the town in 1855. About 1.5 miles south of Lockerbie along the C92 road to Dalton are the remains of Hallmuir prisoner-of-war camp.
After the Second World War, this camp housed Ukrainian soldiers from the Galician Division of the Waffen SS. They built a chapel from converted army huts, it was listed in 2003 as a Category B building. The chapel remains in use holding Ukrainian services on the first Sunday of every alternate month. Much of Lockerbie is built from red sandstone. There are several imposing buildings near the centre, including the Town Hall, finished in 1880, with its clock tower. A little to the north of the centre is the Dryfesdale Parish Church, with its brightly decorated interior; the name Dryfesdale comes from the local river, the Dryfe Water, which joins the River Annan a little to the west of the town. Lockerbie is known internationally as the place where, on 21 December 1988, the wreckage of Pan Am Flight 103 crashed after a terrorist bomb on board detonated. In the United Kingdom, the event is referred to as the "Lockerbie disaster" or the "Lockerbie bombing". Eleven residents of the town were killed in Sherwood Crescent, where the aircraft's wings and fuel tanks plummeted in a fiery explosion, destroying several houses and leaving a large crater, with debris causing damage to other buildings nearby.
All 259 people on the flight died. The 270 total victims were citizens of 20 different nations; the event remains the deadliest terrorist aviation disaster in Britain. Lockerbie Academy, the town's high school, became the headquarters for the response and recovery effort after the Pan Am Flight 103 disaster. Subsequently, the academy, in cooperation with Syracuse University of Syracuse, New York, US, which lost 35 students in the bombing, established a scholarship at the university; each year, two students spend one academic year at Syracuse University as Lockerbie Scholars before they begin their university study. The rector of Lockerbie Academy, Graham Herbert, was recognised in November 2003 at Syracuse University with the Chancellor's Medal for outstanding service. A former student of the Academy, Helen Jones, was killed in the 7 July 2005 London bombings. In her memory, a new scholarship was set up, awarding £1000 towards further education to aspiring accounting students from the Academy.
Dryfesdale Lodge Visitors' Centre a cemetery worker's cottage, was opened on 25 October 2003 after extensive renovation work funded by the Lockerbie Trust and is maintained with grant assistance from Dumfries & Galloway Council. There are two exhibition rooms in the Lodge and the Dryfesdale Room, used as a quiet room for visitors to reflect. A permanent exhibition room displays ten history panels depicting Lockerbie's past stretching from its prehistoric origins to 1988's terrorist attack and beyond. In the cemetery grounds nearby is the Lockerbie Memorial Garden of Remembrance. Located across the road from Lockerbie Academy, Lockerbie Ice Rink was built in 1966 and is one of the oldest indoor ice rinks in the country. In curling it has given rise to World and European Champions and Olympians in the adult and junior disciplines; the town's senior football club is Mid-Annandale, who compete in the South of Scotland Football League. The club play at the refurbished King Edward Park. Lockerbie House was built in 1814 for Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet of Kelhead and Dame Grace Johnstone and their children.
Moffat is a former burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, lying on the River Annan, with a population of around 2,500. It was a centre of a spa town. Moffat is around 59 mi to the south of Glasgow, 51 mi to the south of Edinburgh, 21 mi to the north of Dumfries and 44 mi to the north of Carlisle; the Moffat House Hotel, located at the northern end of the High Street, was designed by John Adam. The nearby Star Hotel, a mere 20 ft wide, was listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the narrowest hotel in the world. Moffat won the Britain in Bloom contest in 1996. Moffat is the home to Moffat toffee; the town is held to be the ancestral seat of Clan Moffat. The Devil's Beef Tub near Moffat was used by the members of Clan Moffat and the members of Clan Johnstone to hoard cattle stolen in predatory raids. From 1633 Moffat began to grow from a small village into a popular spa town; the sulphurous and saline waters of Moffat Spa were believed to have healing properties curative for skin conditions, gout and stomach complaints.
In 1730 these were complemented by the addition of iron springs. During the Victorian era the high demand led to the water being piped down from the well to a tank in Tank Wood and on to a specially built bath house in the town centre. Luxurious hotels sprang up to accommodate the increasing numbers of tourists. One such hotel opened during Moffat's heyday in 1878, Moffat's Hydropathic hotel was destroyed in a fire in 1921; the old well was refurbished in the mid 1990s, is still accessible by vehicle and foot. The water smells strongly of sulphur, with deposits on the walls and well itself. At the grand reopening of the well, people visiting it were encouraged to drink a glass of it; the well can be reached by following Haywood Road and climbing up Tank Wood: the path at the end was the original route to the well. An alternative is to drive or walk up Well Road, one will reach the Well Cottage and the car park for the well; as stated, when the water was first piped into town for the baths, it was pumped uphill to a tank in the appropriately named Tank Wood, before travelling back downhill to the bath house.
Larchhill Well was a chalybeate well located on Old Well Road near Wellwoodhead Cottage. The well is no longer visible; the name of the town Moffat is a Gaelic Anglicization of Movvat, of Norman origin. This quasi-place-name has been theorized to be translated as "the long plain," which could be derived from two elements: magh and fada; the area of Moffat does not resemble a "long plain" at all, so it is thought that "Moffat" was the locals' attempt at pronouncing "Mowat" as the Mowats and Montaltos all share a common progenitor and at one time bore identical arms. Records as far back as the 1300s show an individual named "Monte Alto, pronounced'Mowat.'" This is an example of the Anglicization of a Norman name. A good example of this is Belvoir Castle, pronounced "Beaver Castle." The castle in no way resembles a furry aquatic mammal. The name Monte Alto was written as Movvat, from there "very corruptible to Moffat". There are no records of the name "Moffat" appearing prior to the Norman Mowat family appearing in the area.
A Norman motte ruin. Moffat was a notable market in the wool trade, this is commemorated with a statue of a ram by William Brodie in the town's marketplace; the ram was presented to the town by William Colvin, a local businessman, in 1875. The ram's ears are missing. Danny Bhoy, comedian. William Carruthers, botanist. William Dickson, was secretary to the Governor of Barbados for 13 years. There he witnessed slaves being brutally treated. From January to March 1792 he toured Scotland from Kirkcudbright to Nairn presenting evidence of the evils of the slave trade; this evidence was summarised in'An abstract of the evidence delivered before a select committee of the House of Commons'. He wrote a book on the subject entitled Mitigation of Slavery. Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding, commander of RAF Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain, was born at St Ninian's School, Moffat in 1882; the former school is now sheltered housing for RAF veterans. There is a memorial to Dowding in Station Park, it is in a local red sandstone with a bronze memorial tablet on the wall and RAF crest badges on the flanking'wings'.
The architect and designer was D. Bruce Walker and the sculptor Scott Sutherland RSA. James Fraser, Scottish international footballer,Ellen or Helen Hyslop, was said to have had a daughter, Helen or Ellen Armstrong, fathered by the poet Robert Burns; the gravestone of the mother and her daughter is to be found in the old cemetery. Unusually for Victorian memorials, the name of the father is not recorded on the stone. Ellen died aged 87 and her daughter lived until the age of 98. James D. Murray, mathematical biologist. James B Niven, Scottish international footballer. Ivor Robson, the official starter for the Open golf tournament since 1975.. D. E. Stevenson and cousin to Robert Louis Stevenson. Robert Burns frequented the local bars; the infamous murderer and alleged graverobber William Hare may have stayed in the Black Bull Hotel during his escape to Ireland after turning King's evidence against William Burke. John Loudon McAdam, Scottish engineer and road-builder, is buried there. In 1935, the remains of the victims of the Lancaster murderer, Dr Buck Ruxton, were found
Annandale is a strath in Dumfries and Galloway, named after the River Annan. It runs north–south through the Southern Uplands from Annanhead to Annan on the Solway Firth, in its higher reaches it separates the Moffat hills on the east from the Lowther hills to the west. A 53-mile long-distance walking route called Annandale Way running through Annandale was opened in September 2009. Annandale was an historic district of Scotland, bordering Liddesdale to the east, Nithsdale to the west and Tweeddale to the north and the Solway Firth to the south; the district, in the Sheriffdom of Dumfries and became part of the County of Dumfries, one of the counties of Scotland. The main reorganisation took place during the Local Government Act 1889, which established a uniform system of county councils and town councils in Scotland and restructured many of Scotland's counties.. It is one of three subdivisions of Dumfriesshire, along with Nithsdale, it is famous for its connection with Ben Johnson and Robert the Bruce, as the de Brus family was given this land by David I in 1124, as one of the border lordships when David became Prince of the Cumbrians.
Along with Carrick, these lands acted as a buffer between the quasi-independent Lordship or Kingdom of Galloway and David's lands of Strathclyde and Cumbria. Annandale distillery Historic map showing Annandale, Eusdale/Eskdale and Liddesdale Historic map of the divisions of Scotland Historic map of the divisions of Scotland Historic map of the divisions of Scotland
The Decemberists are an American indie rock band from Portland, Oregon. The band consists of Colin Meloy, Chris Funk, Jenny Conlee, Nate Query, John Moen, their debut EP, 5 Songs, was self-released in 2001. Their eighth and latest full-length album I'll Be Your Girl was released on March 16, 2018 by Capitol Records, is the band's fifth record with the label. In addition to their lyrics, which focus on historical incidents and/or folklore, The Decemberists are well known for their eclectic live shows. Audience participation is a part of each performance during encores; the band stages whimsical reenactments of sea battles and other centuries-old events of regional interest, or acts out songs with members of the crowd. In 2011, the track "Down by the Water" from the album The King Is Dead was nominated for Best Rock Song at the 54th Grammy Awards; the Decemberists formed in 2000 when Colin Meloy left his band Tarkio in Montana and moved to Portland, Oregon. There he met Nate Query, who introduced Meloy to Jenny Conlee and the three scored a silent film together.
Playing a solo show prior to meeting Query, Meloy met Chris Funk. Funk was a fan of Tarkio and played pedal steel on the first two Decemberists releases, not "officially" becoming a member until the third effort; the band's first drummer, Ezra Holbrook, was replaced by Rachel Blumberg after Castaways and Cutouts, who in turn was replaced by John Moen after Picaresque. The band's name refers to an 1825 insurrection in Imperial Russia. Meloy has stated that the name is meant to invoke the "drama and melancholy" of the month of December. 5 Songs, the band's debut extended play, was self-released in 2001. The members at that time played for several hours in a McMenamins hotel the night before to raise the money needed to record in the studio the next day; this served as a demo tape and the five songs on it were recorded in under two hours. After releasing its first full record and Cutouts, on Hush Records, the group moved onto the Kill Rock Stars recording label. After the re-release of Castaways, Her Majesty the Decemberists was released in 2003.
In 2004, the band released "The Tain," an eighteen-and-a-half minute single track based on the Irish mythological epic Táin Bó Cúailnge. The band's final album with Kill Rock Stars was Picaresque, recorded in a former church. In March 2005, the band distributed a music video via BitTorrent, the self-produced "16 Military Wives". In the same month, the band's equipment trailer was stolen; the band received help from Lee Kruger, the Shins, The Dandy Warhols, other musicians. C. F. Martin & Company offered 6- and 12-string guitars on permanent loan. In early April, police discovered the trailer and a portion of the band's merchandise in Clackamas, but the instruments and equipment were not recovered. On December 12, 2005, Meloy revealed to Pitchfork Media that the band had signed to Capitol Records, planned to begin recording their major label debut with producers Tucker Martine and Chris Walla in April 2006; the band's first album on Capitol, The Crane Wife, was released on October 3, 2006. The release was accompanied by an appearance the same day on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, during which the band performed "O Valencia!".
The supporting tour began on October 2006, at Portland, Oregon's Crystal Ballroom. The opening act was Lavender Diamond. In the tour, Alasdair Roberts opened for the band. In 2006, The Crane Wife was voted NPR listeners' favorite album of the year, as announced on the December 5 episode of All Songs Considered, it remains one of the Decemberists' most critically acclaimed records. In November 2006, the band encouraged fans to create a music video for the single "O Valencia!" using footage of the band in front of a green screen. On his Comedy Central program, Stephen Colbert started a mock feud with the band, claiming his "green screen challenge" came first; the feud culminated in a December 20 guitar solo competition on Colbert's show, with lead guitarist Funk representing the band. After Colbert feigned a hand injury, Peter Frampton won an audience vote. Show guests got involved, with New York Governor-elect Eliot Spitzer and Dr. Henry Kissinger declaring, "Tonight, I think the American people won."
The prize for winning the challenge was revealed to be a copy of The Crane Wife. According to Meloy, the Colbert challenge was not scripted, though the band was told that Frampton would step in for Colbert. In July 2007, the band embarked on a five-date tour with a full orchestral accompaniment. On July 7, the tour put the band on the stage of the historic Hollywood Bowl for the first time, pairing them with the Los Angeles Philharmonic. On July 15, the band performed with The Mann Festival Orchestra at the Mann Center for the Performing Arts in Philadelphia, where they debuted a new song. On July 23 with the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra at the legendary Chastian Park Amphitheater in Atlanta, Georgia; the band played a free concert in Chicago at the Millennium Park with the Grant Park Symphony Orchestra. On October 6, 2007, the band announced the cancellation of the remainder of their European tour, citing the ill health of a band member. On November