Witham is a town in the county of Essex in the East of England, with a population of 25,353. It is twinned with the town of Waldbröl, Germany. Witham stands between the city of Chelmsford and the town of Colchester, on the Roman road between the two; the River Brain joins the River Blackwater just outside. Excavations by Essex County Council field archaeological unit at the recent Maltings Lane development discovered evidence of Neolithic occupation at Witham, including human remains and several trackways across ancient marsh. Excavations of the Witham Lodge area of the town in the 1970s unveiled remains of a Roman temple as well as a pottery kiln; this would have been alongside the main Roman road from Colchester to London and used as a stopover point on the long journey. Another notable find during the excavation was a votive offering pool in the grounds of the temple, containing several artefacts that would have been offered to the gods. In 913, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Edward the Elder marched from Hertford to reconquer Essex, encamped in Witham on his route to set up a base at Maldon.
Witham's position on the Roman road in relation to the major Viking army based at Colchester was the most reason for this, it would have cut Essex in two. The name Witham is a composite name, part Brythonic and "ham" a typical Saxon ending, remains unchanged in spelling; the parish of Witham appears in the Domesday Book of 1086. The manor of Witham was given to the Knights Templar in 1148. To the north of the current town is Cressing Temple, the earliest foundation of Templar lands in Britain, built over 700 years ago; the town as it is now started life on'Chipping Hill', the location of St Nicolas's Church. As the years went by, the hamlet grew to become'Witham' and St Nicolas's Church of England Church serves a congregation of around 150 people each Sunday. During the latter half of the 18th century and the early 19th century, Admiral Sir William Luard was the town's most prominent citizen, a resident of Chipping Hill and a founder and patron of St Nicolas's Church, his funeral cortège through the town in 1910 was witnessed by thousands.
In the 18th century, Witham enjoyed a period as an affluent spa town after the discovery of a mineral-bearing spa by a Dr Taverner. Witham was a centre of the wool trade until the decline of the industry in the late 17th century. Witham railway station was the scene of a serious accident on 1 September 1905; the 09:27 London Liverpool Street to Cromer 14-coach express derailed whilst travelling at speed through the station. Ten passengers and a luggage porter were killed when several of the carriages somersaulted on to the platforms causing considerable damage to the rolling stock and the station. Seventy-one passengers were injured, it remains to this day the worst single loss of life in a railway accident in Essex. In 2005, an opportunity to commemorate the centenary was missed and the incident is now forgotten. Ben Sainty, a signalman, whose quick action averted the next train hitting the wreckage has a road named after him in the town, Ben Sainty Court; the town expanded in the late 1960s and 1970s when the Greater London Council built three large council estates on the west and north sides of the town, a smaller one to the south, for families from London to move to as part of the'New Town' and'Expanded Town' overspill policy of that time.
A famous one-time resident of the town was the author Dorothy L. Sayers, whose statue stands opposite the town's library, a short distance from the author's house; the library stands on the site of the old Whitehall cinema, which closed in the late 1970s, and, itself a conversion of the White Hall country house. Witham has grown in size after the development of the Maltings Lane estate to the south of the town between 2002 and 2003; this was followed in 2012 by the moving of the Chipping Hill Primary School from its old premises in Church Street to newly-built premises in Owers Road. The development of this area has continued, including the opening in 2015 of an Aldi superstore. Approved developments include the reconstruction of both the New Rickstones Academy, the Maltings Academy, completed in 2011; the town is served by Witham railway station, situated on the Great Eastern Main Line operated by Abellio Greater Anglia. Trains take 40–45 minutes to reach Liverpool Street; the station is the junction for the Braintree branch line to Braintree.
Another branch line, now dismantled, went from Witham to Maldon. Witham is situated on the A12 trunk road between Chelmsford and Colchester, to say the Roman road from London to Colchester; the A12 ran in a straight line through the middle of the town. Witham is on National Cycle Route 1; because of the excellent transport links the town has a large number of residents who commute to work in London. This is evident by Witham railway station's appearance within the 150 busiest railway stations in Great Britain, which would not be expected based on the town's population alone. Witham has a linear town centre focused around the high street and two shopping precincts to form a cros
Basildon is the largest town in the borough of Basildon with a population of 107,123 in the county of Essex, England. It lies 26 miles east of Central London, 11 miles south of the city of Chelmsford and 10 miles west of Southend-on-Sea. Nearby smaller towns include Billericay to the northwest, Wickford northeast and South Benfleet to the southeast, it was created as a new town after World War II in 1948 to accommodate the London population overspill, from the conglomeration of four small villages, namely Pitsea, Laindon and Vange. The local government district of Basildon, formed in 1974 and received borough status in 2010, encapsulates a larger area than the town itself. Basildon Town is one of the most densely populated areas in the county; some of Basildon's residents work in Central London due to the town being well connected in the county to the City of London and the Docklands financial and corporate headquarters districts, with a 36–58 minute journey from the three Basildon stations to London Fenchurch Street.
Basildon has access to the City via road, on the A127, A13. The first historical reference to Basildon is in records from 1086, it is mentioned in the Domesday Book as'Belesduna'. The name'Basildon' may be derived from the Anglo-Saxon personal name'Boerthal' and the Anglo-Saxon word'dun', meaning hill. In historical documents, this name had various forms over the centuries, including Berdlesdon and Belesduna. Railway service started in the 19th century to Pitsea and Laindon but it was only that proposals to provide service to the new town of Basildon, shelved for many years because of concerns that it would become a commuter suburb of London, were forced through. A significant number of modern-day residents do commute to London. By the beginning of the 1900s, Basildon had evolved with much of the land having been sold in small plots during a period of land speculation and development taking placed haphazardly with building by plot owners ranging from shelters created from recycled materials to brick-built homes and with amenities such as water, gas and hard-surfaced roads lacking.
In the 1940s, Billericay Urban District Council and Essex County Council, concerned by lack of amenities in the area and by its development, petitioned the Government to create a New Town. Basildon was one of eight'New Towns' created in the South East of England after the passing of the New Towns Act. On 4 January 1949 Lewis Silkin, Minister of Town and Country Planning designated Basildon as a'New Town'. Basildon Development Corporation was formed in February 1949 to transform the designated area into a modern new town; the New Town incorporated Laindon and Pitsea and was laid out around small neighbourhoods with the first house being completed in June 1951. The first tenants moved into homes in Redgrave Road in Vange. A large, illuminated town sign "Basildon Town Centre Site" at 3.5 feet was erected in 1956 by the railway and stood until early construction was completed. Since March 2010 Basildon has a miniature famous white Hollywood sign, reading "Basildon": at five feet tall, the new sign is one-ninth of the height of the Hollywood original.
This was aimed "to bring the town into the 21st century and to attract more visitors" part of a plan of landscaping and infrastructure improvements funded by £400,000 from the Prescott-spearheaded Thames Gateway. Opponents from all parties believe; the constituency of Basildon was considered a barometer of public opinion in general elections. The results of the constituency elections have been the same as the overall result of general elections since 1983. Basildon was said to epitomise the working class conversion to Thatcherism during the 1980s, though the town did not vote Conservative in 1979. Nor did the Conservative Party hold an absolute majority in the town – its success was due to the split between the SDP and the Labour Party. "Basildon Man" or "Essex Man" was coined to describe an aspirational working class voter. The current MP is Conservative politician John Baron. Due to boundary changes, in the 2010 General Election the Basildon and Billericay constituency elected 1 MP and South Basildon and East Thurrock elected another MP.
In terms of local politics Basildon District elects five Councillors to Essex County Council. Following the 2017 election the seats were split 2 to the Conservatives, 2 to Labour and 1 Independent. Noak Bridge has a parish council. Basildon was built like many new towns with each area being a planned community; these communities are now the local areas of the town: Pitsea - one of the original four villages that were incorporated into the new town. Pitsea itself is split into 7 distinct communities - Pitsea, Pitsea Mount, Chalvedon, Burnt Mills and Nevendon. Laindon - one of the original four villages that were incorporated into the new town. Vange - one of the original four villages that were incorporated into the new town. Fryerns - an area of Basildon, located along Whitmore Way; the name came from a nearby farm and was the home of Fryerns Comprehensive School. Craylands - an area between Fryerns and Pitsea, was named after the former Craylands County Secondary School; the area has been renamed by them as Beechwood Village.
Barstable - an area situated along Timberlog Lane. The area is named after the former Barstable Hu
Braintree is a town in Essex, England. The principal settlement of Braintree District, it is located 10 miles northeast of Chelmsford and 15 miles west of Colchester. According to the 2011 Census, the town had a population of 41,634, while the urban area, which includes Great Notley and High Garrett, had a population of 53,477. Braintree has grown contiguous with several surrounding settlements. Braintree proper lies on the River Brain and to the south of Stane Street, the Roman road from Braughing to Colchester, while Bocking lies on the River Blackwater and to the north of the road; the two are sometimes referred to together as Braintree and Bocking, in 1 April 1934 they formed the civil parish of that name, now unparished. Braintree is bypassed by the modern-day A120 and A131 roads, while trains serve two stations in the town, at the end of the Braintree Branch Line. Braintree is twinned with Pierrefitte-sur-Seine and gives its name to the towns of Braintree and Braintree, Vermont, in the United States.
The origin of the name is obscure. Braintree was called'Brantry' and'Branchetreu' in the Domesday Book. Another variation can be seen in various Medieval Latin legal records, where it appears as "Branktre". In many early American Colonial documents, it is referred to as Branktry. One theory is that Braintree was Branoc's tree, Branoc being an ancient name. Another theory is that the name is derived from that of Rayne, the more important settlement in Norman times. A third theory is that the name means "settlement by the river Bran or Braint"; the name "Braint" is well attested as a river name in Britain. The suffix to either Braint or Bran is the Common Brittonic word tre found in Wales and Cornwall, but noted in other town names such as Daventry, with the meaning of a farm or settlement and a town. Braintree dates back over 4,000 years. People in the area during the Bronze and Iron Ages built houses on the lower part of the town, near the River Brain, known as the Brain Valley; this area was inhabited by the Saxons, who occupied the town after the Romans left and named the Roman road Stane Street, a name it still bears.
Most notable road names in Braintree now coincide with names of people who fought for the town, locals living there, such as Aetheric Road, Trinovantian Way. Other road names reflect places that have since been built on, such as Coldnailhurst Avenue, Becker's Green Road, Mark's Farm residential estate, Fairfield Road; when the Romans invaded they built two roads. The town was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 where it was named “Branchetreu, consisted of 30 acres in the possession of Richard, son of Count Gilbert. Pilgrims used the town as a stopover and the size of the town increased, leading the Bishop of London to obtain a market charter for the town in 1190; as early as the 14th century, Braintree was processing and manufacturing woollen cloth, a trade it was involved with until the late 19th century. The town prospered from the 17th century when Flemish immigrants made the town famous for its wool cloth trade, they took the current manufacturing methods to a finer detail, the main markets for the production in the Braintree area were abroad, notably in Spain or Portugal.
In 1665, the Great Plague killed 865 out of the population of just 2,300 people. The wool trade died out in the early 19th century and Braintree became a centre for silk manufacturing when George Courtauld opened a silk mill in the town. Others followed, including Warner & Sons. By the late 19th century, Braintree was a thriving agricultural and textile town, benefited from a railway connection to London; the wealthy Courtauld family had a strong influence on the town, supporting plans for many of the town's public buildings such as the town hall and public gardens established in 1888. The town's influence on the textile weaving industry is remembered today in the Warner Textile Archive and at Braintree Museum. Braintree played its part during World War II, providing men for battle in Britain's armed forces, but recruiting women into the town's engineering works or munitions work at Crittalls. Braintree and its surrounding areas were the drop-zone for excess bombs that were left over from raids on London.
One particular bomb hit the corner of Coggeshall Road, near the White Hart Inn. The inn stayed intact, but on the opposite side of the road, two buildings were demolished by the bomb, it opened up the town and provided what you see today, with the building that houses the Lloyds Bank, built in 1958. Since the end of the Second World War
Loughton is a town and civil parish in the Epping Forest District of Essex and, for statistical purposes, part of the metropolitan area of London and the Greater London Urban Area. It is located between 11 and 13 miles north east of Charing Cross in London, south of the M25 and west of the M11 motorway and has boundaries with Chingford, Waltham Abbey, Theydon Bois and Buckhurst Hill. Loughton includes three conservation areas and there are 56 listed buildings in the town, together with a further 50 that are locally listed; the parish of Loughton covers an area of about 3,724 acres, of which over 1,300 acres are part of Epping Forest. The ancient parish contained over 3,900 acres, but in 1996 some parts of the south of the old parish were transferred to Buckhurst Hill parish, other small portions to Chigwell and Theydon Bois. At the time of the 2001 census Loughton had a population of 30,340, at the 2011 Census, 31,106, it is the most populous civil parish in the Epping Forest district, within Essex it is the second most populous civil parish and the second largest in the area.
The earliest structure in Loughton is Loughton Camp, an Iron Age earth fort in Epping Forest dating from around 500 BC. Hidden by dense undergrowth for centuries it was rediscovered in 1872; the first references to the site of modern-day Loughton date from the Anglo-Saxon period when it was known as Lukintune. The earliest written evidence of this settlement is in the charter of Edward the Confessor in 1062 which granted various estates, including Tippedene and Alwartune, to Harold Godwinson following his re-founding of Waltham Abbey. Following the Norman conquest, the town is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, with the name Lochintuna; the settlement remained a small village until the early 17th century when the high road was extended north through the forest. The road became the main route from London to Cambridge and East Anglia, Loughton grew into an important stop with coaching inns; the most significant of the great houses of this period, built as country retreats for wealthy City merchants and courtiers, was Loughton Hall, owned by Mary Tudor two months before she became Queen Mary of England in 1553, by the Wroth family from 1578 to 1738.
Sir Robert Wroth and his wife Lady Mary Wroth entertained many of the great literary figures of the time, including Ben Jonson, at the house. It was rebuilt in 1878 by Revd. J. W. Maitland, whose family held the manor for much of the 19th century, it is a grade II listed building. Loughton's growth since Domesday has been at the expense of the forest. Expansion towards the River Roding was arrested owing to the flooding marshy meadows, encroachments into the forest to the north and west of the village were possible. Loughton landlords and villagers both exploited the forest waste, but the trickle of forest destruction threatened to turn into a flood in the 19th century after royalty had lost interest in protecting the woodland as a hunting reserve; as the forest disappeared and landowners began enclosing more of it for private use, many began to express concern at the loss of such a significant natural resource and common land. Some Loughton villagers defied landowners to practice their ancient right to lop wood—a series of court cases, including one brought by the Loughton labourer Thomas Willingale, was needed before the City of London Corporation took legal action against the landowners' enclosures, resulting in the Epping Forest Act of 1878 which preserved the forest for use by the public.
The arrival of the railway spurred on the town's development. The railway first came to Loughton in 1856 when the Eastern Counties Railway, opened a branch line via Woodford. In 1948 the line was electrified and transferred to London Transport to become part of the Central line on the London Underground; the arrival of the railway provided visitors from London with a convenient means of reaching Epping Forest and thus transforming it into the "East Enders' Playground". The Ragged School Union began organising visits to the forest for parties of poor East End children in 1891 paid for by the Pearsons Fresh Air Fund. Loughton artist Octavius Dixie Deacon depicted many scenes of the town including some of its residents during the late Victorian period; as the Great Eastern Railway Company did not offer workmen's fares, the town's development was of a middle-class character. Much of the housing in Loughton was built in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, with significant expansion in the 1930s. Loughton was a fashionable place for artistic and scientific residents in Victorian and Edwardian times, a number of prominent residents were renowned socialists and social reformers.
In the north-east is a post-war development being one of the London County Council's country estates. Built with the express purpose of co-locating industrial and residential properties to facilitate supported re-location of London families affected by war damage within the Capital. Located within Debden's industrial estate is the former printing works of the Bank of England; the headquarters of greeting card company Clinton Cards and construction firm Higgins Group are located within the Debden Industrial Estate. In 2008, electronics firm Amshold announced their intention to move the group's headquarters to Loughton from Brentwood, they moved to a site in Langston Road.
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the south-west; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state; as well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire.
Its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested; the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Hatfield and Waltham. Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities.
12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, as shown in the map on the right. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk. Part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; the boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford and Wanstead and Woodford districts were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having been part of the South East England region.
In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the two unitary authorities; the county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county, it has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100; the County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet; the ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by its estuary.
The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been developed and expanded. Epping Forest prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area; as it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. Part of the s
Epping is a market town and civil parish in the Epping Forest district of the County of Essex, England. It is located 3 miles northeast of Loughton, 5 miles south of Harlow and 11 miles northwest of Brentwood. Although it is the terminus for London Underground's Central Line, the town retains some elements of rurality, being surrounded by Epping Forest and working farmland. Epping has many old buildings, some of which are Grade I and II listed buildings; the town retains its weekly market, held every Monday and dates back to 1253. In 2001 the parish had a population of 11,047 although this has increased marginally since to 11,461 at the 2011 CensusEpping has been twinned with the German town of Eppingen in north-west Baden-Württemberg since 1981. Although the once-famous Epping Butter, sought after in the 18th and 19th centuries, is no longer made, the well-known Epping sausages are still manufactured by Church's Butchers who have been trading on the same site since 1888. "Epinga", a small community of a few scattered farms and a chapel on the edge of the forest, is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086.
However, the settlement referred to is known today as Epping Upland. It is not known for certain. By the mid-12th century a settlement known as Epping Heath, had developed south of Epping Upland as a result of vigorous clearing of the forest for cultivation. In 1253 King Henry III conveyed the right to hold a weekly market in Epping Street which helped to establish the town as a centre of trade and has continued to the present day; the linear village of Epping Heath developed into a small main-road town and by the early 19th century considerable development had taken place along what is now High Street and Hemnall Street. Up to 25 stagecoaches and mailcoaches a day passed through the town from London en route to Norwich and Bury St. Edmunds. In the early 19th century, 26 coaching inns lined the High Street. A couple survive today as e.g.. The George and Dragon and The Black Lion; the advent of the railways put an end to this traffic and the town declined, but it revived after the extension of a branch line from Loughton in 1865 and the coming of the motor car.
A number of listed buildings, most dating from the 18th century, line both sides of the High Street although many were altered internally during the 19th century. Some of the oldest buildings in the town can be found at each end of the Conservation Area, e.g. Beulah Lodge in Lindsey Street, the attractive group of 17th and early 18th century cottages numbered 98–110 High Street; the original parish church, first mentioned in 1177, was All Saints' in Epping Upland, the nave and chancel of which date from the 13th Century. In 1833, the 14th-century chapel of St John the Baptist in the High Road was rebuilt in the Gothic Revival style, it was again rebuilt. A large tower was added in 1909. Epping, as it stands today, has grown as a favoured town of residence for those, its market still brings shoppers in from surrounding towns every Monday. The most prominent building in Epping these days is the District Council's office with its clock tower, designed to bring balance to the High Street with the old Gothic Revival water tower at the southern end, built in 1872, St John's Church tower in the centre.
The centre of Epping on and around the High Street is a designated conservation area. Epping's increasing popularity with young professionals and families, along with the Government's planning policies has led to the current situation: Epping is experiencing the biggest threat to its rural status yet and a number of sites are being proposed for redevelopment as new housing estates; the various developments would see Epping’s housing stock rise by around 20% and has caused strong opposition from residents who wish to retain Epping’s rural ‘charm’, they state the town does not have the infrastructure to cope with a large influx of new residents and vehicles. Residents point to the regular traffic congestion, lack of parking spaces, low water pressure and total lack of an NHS dentist as examples; this opinion has been echoed by Epping Town Council, who have stated that Epping will not be able to cope with any new housing estates for at least 10 years. Epping is part of the Epping Forest parliamentary constituency, represented by Conservative MP Eleanor Laing.
From 1924 to 1945, the old Epping division of Essex was represented by Winston Churchill. It now sits in the Epping and Theydon Bois division of Essex County Council, Liberal Democrat held; the town is divided into two district council wards. Epping Hemnall encompasses most of the town south-east of Epping High Street including Ivy Chimneys, Fiddlers Hamlet and Coopersale Street; the rest of Epping lies in Epping Lindsey and Thornwood ward, as does Thornwood in the adjacent parish of North Weald Bassett. Both wards elect three councillors each; as well as the county and district councils, Epping has a town council consisting of 12 councillors, six each elected from Epping Hemnall and Epping Lindsey wards, one of, elected Mayor of Epping and acts as Chairman of Council, as well as a civic and ceremonial head of the local community. Epping is a successor parish, created in 1974 when the Eppin
Buckhurst Hill is a suburban settlement in the Epping Forest District of Essex, the north east of the metropolitan area of London and the Greater London Urban Area. The area developed following the opening of a railway line in 1856 – part of the Eastern Counties Railway, but now on the Central line of the London Underground; the first mention of Buckhurst Hill is in 1135, when reference was made to "La Bocherste", becoming in years "Bucket Hill" meaning a hill covered with beech trees. It lay in Epping Forest and consisted of only a few scattered houses along the ancient road from Woodford to Loughton. Before the building of the railways, Buckhurst Hill was on the stagecoach route between London and Cambridge, Bury St Edmunds and Dunmow, it was a part of the parish of Chigwell. The Parish Church of St John was built in 1838 as a chapel of ease but Buckhurst Hill did not become a separate ecclesiastical parish until 1867. St John's National School was built in 1838; the lord of the manor gave a site next to the church.
The opening of Buckhurst Hill Station in 1856 saw a rapid expansion in the population of the area. Some of the land for this expansion was enclosed from Epping Forest, before this practice was halted by the Epping Forest Act, 1878; the civil parish of Buckhurst Hill became Buckhurst Hill Urban District in 1894. In 1933, it was merged with the Chigwell and Loughton Urban District to form the Chigwell Urban District. A further merger with Epping Urban District, Waltham Holy Cross Urban District and most of Epping and Ongar Rural District in 1974 brought Buckhurst Hill into Epping Forest District, in 1996, Buckhurst Hill Parish Council was established as a first tier of local government, it is at the western edge of Essex, 10.7 miles northeast of Charing Cross and near to the boundary with the London Borough of Redbridge. Parts of Epping Forest are in Buckhurst Hill intermingled with residential areas. Buckhurst Hill is served by two London Underground stations: Buckhurst Hill and Roding Valley, which are on the Central Line.
The line directly links the area to central London, as well as local areas including Woodford, South Woodford, Leytonstone and Loughton. From nearby Chingford station, services can be used to reach London Liverpool Street via Walthamstow and Hackney. Bus service 397 can be used to reach Chingford station. Most bus routes serving Buckhurst Hill are London Buses services. Loughton Rugby Union Football Club has its clubhouse and pitches on Hornbeam Rd at the south of the town. Buckhurst Hill Football Club is on Roding Lane at the east of the town. Buckhurst Hill Cricket Club plays in the Shepherd Neame Essex League, fields four Saturday XIs, two Sunday XIs, teams in a junior section; the club plays at two cricket fields: one off Roding Lane at the east of the town. Buckhurst Hill was featured on the ITV1 series Essex Wives a programme about women in the area who were in business or well-off. Filming for The Only Way Is Essex takes place at a beauty salon in Queens Road. Sir William Addison – historian and author, lived at Buckhurst Hill and owned a bookshop in Loughton Richard Crossman, Labour politician, grew up in Buckhurst Hill Jack Straw, Labour politician, was born in Buckhurst Hill Dick Turpin moved to Buckhurst Hill in 1725.
Population figures Buckhurst Hill Cricket Club Media related to Buckhurst Hill at Wikimedia Commons