click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

River Coquet

The River Coquet runs through the county of Northumberland, discharging into the North Sea on the east coast at Amble. It rises in the Cheviot Hills on the border between England and Scotland, follows a winding course across the landscape; the upper reaches are bordered by the Otterburn Ranges military training ground, are crossed by a number of bridges built in the 20th century. It passes a number of small villages and hamlets, feeds one of the lakes created by extraction of gravel that form the Caistron Nature Reserve, before reaching the town of Rothbury, where it is crossed by a grade II listed bridge. Below the town is Thrum Mill, the restoration of, featured on Channel 4 television, it loops around Brinkburn Priory, founded in the 1130s for Augustinian Canons, its associated mill. At Felton it is crossed by two bridges, one dating from the 15th century, its replacement, built in 1927, both of which are listed structures. Below the bridges is a sewage treatment works, built in the 1990s.

At Brainshaugh, the river passes over a large horseshoe dam, built in 1775 by the engineer John Smeaton to power an iron and tin works, which became a woollen mill, subsequently one of the first factories to be powered by hydroelectricity. Before it reaches Warkworth, the river passes over another dam, now part of the intake works for Warkworth Water Treatment Works, which supplies drinking water to some 92,000 customers in the region. Below the dam the river is tidal, Warkworth Castle is built in a loop of the Coquet; the river reaches the sea at Warkworth Harbour in Amble, where there is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution lifeboat station. The river has been used as a source of power, as a number of mills have been constructed along its length. One of the earliest was on Hepden Burn, a tributary in the upper reaches, mentioned in the early 13th century, but was not subsequently developed, due to unrest in the area. Archaelogical investigation between 2010 and 2013 revealed one of the few unaltered medieval mill sites in Britain, pushed the development of the breast-shot water wheel back by three centuries.

Although most of the mills were used for gring corn, some were used for fulling of wool, that at Brainshaugh for an industrial process. The earliest was at Warkworth, the rent from, used to provide a light in St Cuthbert’s shrine in 1214; the earliest known reference to the River Coquet is found in the Ravenna Cosmography, which dates from the 8th Century. The water quality of the non-tidal river is good, both ecologically and chemically, only in the final tidal section is the water affected by run-off from agricultural land, reducing the quality to moderate; the river, about 55 miles in length, rises in the Cheviot Hills close to the 1,440-foot contour, to the east of Grindstone Law and to the north of Ravens Knowe. The border between England and Scotland follows it before turning northwards at Chew Green, where there are the remains of Roman camps on the north bank of the river, the course of Dere Street crosses the river, there are the remains of the medieval village of Kemylpethe; the river continues in a north-easterly direction, where it is joined by Fulhope Burn, Buckham's Walls Burn, Blind Burn and Gable Burn, before it reaches Carshope plantation.

It turns to the east, to be joined by Carlcroft Burn, Rowhope Burn and Hepden Burn, after passing between Barrow Law to the north and Tindale Law to the south, the river turns to the south. The area to the south of the river forms part of the Otterburn Ranges, used as a military training ground since 1911, it is owned by the Ministry of Defence, public access is restricted. The Deerbush Burn joins the Dumbhope Burn before they join the Coquet, the river turns to the south-east, to be joined by Croft Sike and Pathlaw Sike, draining boggy areas to the south, while Usway Burn and Wholehope Burn drain hilly areas to the north; when it reaches the hamlet of Linbriggs, it turns to the east. At the village of Alwinton, the Barrow Burn, Hosedon Burn and River Alwin all converge, the Coquet continues in a south-easterly direction through Harbottle, where there is a Neolithic enclosure and several Bronze Age cairns. At Sharperton, the ford was replaced by a bridge around 1896, since the bridge and a weir just downstream of it appears on the 1897 map, but a ford appears on the 1895 map.

The bridge was rebuilt in 1920 using concrete beams, with six parapets with latticework. The upper Coquet above Alwinton is crossed by a number of bridges, all dating from a bridge-building programme in the 20th century, as prior to 1928, fords were the main means of crossing the channel on this section. Linbriggs Bridge was the first of the new bridges, consists of a concrete arch spanning a 70-foot gorge. Subsequent bridges were built with flat decks, the programme was completed in 1968, when Mackendon Bridge was opened; the 1897 Ordnance Survey map shows three suspension bridges carrying footpaths over the river. There is a second a short distance below Linbriggs and a third at Harbottle; the Holystone Burn joins the Coquet at Holystone. The village has a Holy Well, with a rectangular stone tank dating from Roman times, but the fact that Bishop Paulinus baptized around 3000 Northumbrians there in the year 627 is now thought to be based on a misreading of the writings of Bede; the well is a grade I listed structure, there is a Roman road which passed through the well enclosure and crossed the Coquet on its way from High Rochester fort to the River Aln.

There was a fourth suspension bridge near Hepple, made of iron with a 90-foot span, which cost £30 when it was constructed. By the time the river rea

Aviation Innovation, Reform, and Reauthorization (AIRR) Act

The Aviation Innovation and Reauthorization Act was a bill introduced on February 3, 2016 in the 114th Congress by Congressman Bill Shuster and Frank LoBiondo. Among other things, the bill would have privatized the American air traffic control system; the bill would have reauthorized the Federal Aviation Administration through 2019. The bill passed the House House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee but died before reaching a full House floor vote; because bills do not carry over into the next Congress, Shuster reintroduced an updated version of the bill in the 115th Congress on June 22, 2017. The subsequent bill is H. R. 2997, the 21st Century Aviation Innovation and Reauthorization Act. His bill has never reached a floor vote. In the spring of 2016, the Senate passed and the President signed into law a separate piece of legislation, a short term reauthorization of the FAA; this reauthorization expires in September 2017. In 2017, House and Senate Transportation Committees began to hold hearings on the status of the airline sector in pursuit of a multi-year authorization.

A priority for long-term authorization from House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Chairman Shuster is the privatization of air traffic controllers. In the short-term reauthorization passed in 2016, the privatization component—a major component of Shuster's H. R. 4441—was not included. In the United States, the aviation industry helps drive the national economy; the industry employee millions of people and accounts for over 5% of GDP. The American aviation system continues growing. With the size and scope of the American aviation system, the air traffic control system "still utilizes World War II-era radar technology.” According to the House Transportation Committee, “We have an antiquated, inefficient air traffic control system. Bureaucracy hinders our manufacturers’ ability to compete and threatens to drive jobs in new technologies – like drones – overseas, and Americans are growing weary of delays and hassles associated with flying.” The United States’ Air Traffic Organization is a division of the Federal Aviation Administration and a unit of the U.

S. Department of Transportation; the ATO is the operational arm of the FAA responsible for efficient air navigation. It oversees 17 percent of the world's airspace: the entire United States plus large parts of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; the idea to spin off air traffic control from a government agency to an independent, non-governmental body is modeled after Canada's reforms from two decades ago. Under the reform model, a board of stakeholders would oversee the body and would charge user fees instead of aviation taxes. Canada's system is regarded as one of the most efficient and advanced air navigation service providers in the world. Air traffic control costs 26 percent more in the United States; the FAA's “NextGen” program is replacing aging equipment. ATC reform would replace the actual system, how it is organized, who oversees it. An Inspector General report released in January 2017 restarted the debate over moving ATC from FAA to a private corporation governed by the airline industry.

Congress must renew the short-term FAA authorization that expires on September 30, 2017, this issue will be part of the debate. Several events in the past have highlighted need for reform. For example, in September 2014 arson brought down a regional facility in Chicago, which disrupted airline flights for several weeks. In October 2015 the radar room in the tower at Austin-Bergstrom airport flooded. According to UPI, “The Federal Aviation Administration has long maintained control over air traffic control at the nation's airports due to the sensitive nature of the work and the government's desire to prevent private airlines from competing for space complicating travel time and creating a safety hazard.”In February 2017, the Eno Center for Transportation released the report Time for Reform: Delivering Modern Air Traffic Control. The report recommends moving ATC from FAA to either a government corporation or an independent nonprofit organization; the report proposes changing the funding structure to user fees rather than mix of taxes and general Treasury funds.

According to the Eno Center, “The report finds that spinning-off air traffic control would create a more stable system that the current one, subject to political uncertainty. A separate system would not depend on annual budget appropriations, nor subject to budget sequesters and government shutdowns. In the long run this will make running ATC cheaper, providing benefits for the economy and the travelling public.” The air traffic control program is "an issue with enormous economic consequences that impacts every American regardless of how they fly."The National Business Aviation Association is a Washington-based organization lobbies on behalf of the interests of private and corporate jet owners. Drew Johnson, a senior fellow at the Taxpayers Protection Alliance, wrote in an opinion editorial in the Huffington Post that the NBAA "is the reason why the nation’s air traffic control system is so antiquated and incapable of keeping pace with the modern demands of air travel that it accounts for nearly half of all flight delays."In 1993, President Bill Clinton was the first to suggest major reform of the ATC system.

He recommended the creation of an independent entity to manage the nation's ATC system. To date, major editorial boards have endorsed the idea. President Donald Trump, House Speaker Paul Ryan, the Chairman of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee have all publicly supported it

Borovsky, Russia

Borovsky or Borovskoy, Borovskaya, or Borovskoye is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia. As of 2010, one rural locality in Altai Krai bears this name: Borovskoye, Altai Krai, a selo in Borovskoy Selsoviet of Aleysky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Arkhangelsk Oblast bear this name: Borovskaya, Nyandomsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, a village in Moshinsky Selsoviet of Nyandomsky District Borovskaya, Shenkursky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, a village in Mikhaylovsky Selsoviet of Shenkursky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Belgorod Oblast bears this name: Borovskoye, Belgorod Oblast, a selo in Shebekinsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Irkutsk Oblast bears this name: Borovskoy, Irkutsk Oblast, a settlement in Bratsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Kirov Oblast bears this name: Borovskaya, Kirov Oblast, a village in Luzyansky Rural Okrug of Darovskoy District As of 2010, one rural locality in the Komi Republic bears this name: Borovskaya, Komi Republic, a village in Zamezhnaya selo Administrative Territory of Ust-Tsilemsky District As of 2010, three rural localities in Kostroma Oblast bear this name: Borovskoy, Pyshchugsky District, Kostroma Oblast, a settlement in Golovinskoye Settlement of Pyshchugsky District Borovskoy, Sharyinsky District, Kostroma Oblast, a settlement in Shangskoye Settlement of Sharyinsky District Borovskoye, Kostroma Oblast, a village in Orekhovskoye Settlement of Galichsky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Kurgan Oblast bear this name: Borovskoye, Belozersky District, Kurgan Oblast, a selo in Borovskoy Selsoviet of Belozersky District Borovskoye, Kataysky District, Kurgan Oblast, a selo in Borovskoy Selsoviet of Kataysky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Lipetsk Oblast bears this name: Borovskoye, Lipetsk Oblast, a selo in Tikhvinsky Selsoviet of Dobrinsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast bears this name: Borovsky, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, a cordon in Chashchikhinsky Selsoviet of Krasnobakovsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Novgorod Oblast bears this name: Borovskoye, Novgorod Oblast, a village in Borovskoye Settlement of Khvoyninsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Orenburg Oblast bears this name: Borovsky, Orenburg Oblast, a settlement in Troitsky Selsoviet of Buzuluksky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Smolensk Oblast bears this name: Borovskoye, Smolensk Oblast, a village in Leninskoye Rural Settlement of Pochinkovsky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Sverdlovsk Oblast bear this name: Borovskoy, Artyomovsky District, Sverdlovsk Oblast, a settlement in Artyomovsky District Borovskoy, Talitsky District, Sverdlovsk Oblast, a settlement in Talitsky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Tver Oblast bear this name: Borovskoye, Maksatikhinsky District, Tver Oblast, a village in Maksatikhinsky District Borovskoye, Sandovsky District, Tver Oblast, a village in Sandovsky District As of 2010, one urban locality in Tyumen Oblast bears this name: Borovsky, Tyumen Oblast, a work settlement in Borovsky Rural Okrug of Tyumensky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Vologda Oblast bears this name: Borovskaya, Vologda Oblast, a village in Olyushinsky Selsoviet of Verkhovazhsky District

OrganoClick

OrganoClick AB, based in Stockholm, Sweden, is a company that sells chemical formulations and licenses for modifying all cellulose-based materials in the green way. Since the start in 2006, the company has collaborated with partners from several industry sectors on numerous development projects. OrganoClick was founded by researchers Jonas Hafrén and Armando Córdova and found to be promising by business developers and serial entrepreneurs Saeid Esmaeilzadeh and Ashkan Pouya. Mårten Hellberg was invited to be the CEO and OrganoClick was established in May 2006. OrganoClick was founded in 2006 based on scientific breakthroughs in methods for modifications of biofibers made by the co-founders, Associate Professor Jonas Hafrén at the Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor Armando Córdova at Stockholm University, it was located at the Science Park, Teknikhöjden in Stockholm where its offices and R&D facilities were based. In order to meet bigger volumes of production and increasing demands for its products the company decided to move on to a bigger production facility at Ritarslingan in Täby.

The mission of the company is to develop and market new cellulose-based materials with high functionality, including water-resistance, dry- wet-strength and flame retardance etc. using green chemistry as the fundamental pillar. Using their patented technology, OrganoClick has the capabilities of modifying the properties of different cellulose-based materials such as paper, packaging and wood; this is achieved by attaching functional moieties to the cellulose fibers at low temperature using organic molecules and catalysts which have minimal impact on the environment and the natural ecosystem. OrganoClick is able to produce paper and packaging with increased strength, enhanced mechanical properties and water-resistant properties; this inexpensive and efficient method reduces the raw materials required for paper production. Using it proprietary technology OrganoClick has developed a new product, OrganoTex, used to make cellulose-based fabrics hydrophobic, it is a clean tech innovation with the advantage of replacing the conventionally used non-environmentally friendly fluorocarbons.

This technology allows cellulosic fibers to covalently bind to a unique bio-additive developed and manufactured by OrganoClick. Furthermore, technology to achieve increased strength properties in nonwoven textiles has been developed. OrganoClick has developed a technology, able to retard the rate of wood decay and impart fire resistant characteristics with its product, OrganoWood, it can be applied to other biofiber-based materials such as fiberboards. Mårten Hellberg, CEO Ashkan Pouya, Chairman Anders Wall, Med Dr. h. c. Consul General, Board Member Claes-Göran Beckeman, Board Member Bertil Hagman, Consul General, Board Member Armando Córdova, Ph. D. Board Member Despite being a young company, OrganoClick has won the following awards. Innovation and Technology Award 2008 Miljöinnovation 2008 50 most promising Nordic cleantech companies in 2009 H. M. King Carl XVI Gustaf’s 50th Birthday Fund for environmentally friendly innovations OrganoClick has been elected as one of Sweden’s top 20 innovations that will place Sweden on the world map as an innovative country.

Starting from October 2011, a world tour organized by the Swedish Institute will begin, with exhibitions in Silicon valley, Washington DC, Asia and Europe during which the 20 companies and their innovations will be presented. OrganoClick was invited to become a member company of the exclusive network, Cleantech Inn Sweden, a governmental initiative aiming at promoting the “national team of cleantech companies” and speeding up the commercialization of Swedish cleantech innovations. OrganoClick OrganoClick’s Green Chemistry to Slim and Detoxify Packaging

Ukraine–NATO Civic League

NATO-Ukraine Civic League is a Ukrainian non-governmental organization, partnership network of NGOs which support Euro-Atlantic/European course of Ukraine. NATO-Ukraine Civic League was established in September 26, 2003 as independent community organization; that day 26 NGOs joined the League. Ukrainian Integration into NATO: working together, the First All-Ukraine NGO's Assembly of NATO-Ukraine Civic League in Kyiv, Ukraine took place on October 20, 2003. George Robertson, Secretary General of NATO taken part in Assembly. Since April 27, 2006, the Head of the Coordination Council of the NATO-Ukraine League is Serhiy Dzherdzh, Ph. D. League unites 48 NGOs today; the Partnership Network activities should make a substantial impact on development of positive attitude of people to the strategic direction of defense and security policy implementation in Ukraine. It is expected to: Increase public engagement and involvement of NGOs into discussing key issues of Ukraine’s defense and security. Ukraine–NATO relations NATO-Ukraine Civic League Website

Amund Helland

Amund Helland was a Norwegian geologist and non-fiction writer. He is known for his works on glacial erosion and the role of glaciers in the formation of valleys and lakes, he is known for starting the series Norges Land og Folk, published in 20 volumes from 1885 to 1921. Helland was born in Bergen as the son of Karen Marie Folkedal, he had six siblings. When his father died in 1859, his mother earned to the family's living by running a pension, he died in Kristiania in 1918. Helland was a student from 1864, graduated as cand.min. in 1868. In his early career he made excursions to Greenland and other European countries. In his first work, the monography Ertsforekomster i Søndhordland og Forekomster af Kise i visse Skifere i Norge from 1871, he claimed unconventional views which were not appreciated by elder colleagues, his pioneering works on glacial erosion and the role of glaciers in the formation of valleys and lakes, from the mid-1870s, have become classics. His views on glacial erosion opposed the mainstream theories of the time, but have been adopted in the geological sciences.

He suggested that the deposits on the North European Plain and the North Sea shelf originated from erosion of Scandinavian fjords. In 1878 he published a popular book on the structure of Om Jordklodens Bygning. From 1879 he lectured in mining operations, he was appointed extraordinary professor in 1885, he published a book on the Kongsberg Silver Mines, Kongsbergs sølværks drift før og nu, in 1885, three volumes of a handbook of mining, Haandbog i grubedrift, in 1887. and Norsk bergret med udsigt over andre lands bergværkslovgivning from 1892. His works on soils include Jordbunden i Norge from 1893, Jordbunden i Jarlsberg og Larviks Amt from 1894, Jordbunden i Romsdals Amt from 1895. Other geological works include Lakis kratere og lavastrømme from 1886 and Lofoten og Vesteraalen from 1897, he initiated the monumental work Norges Land og Folk, a book series published from 1885 until after his death. He was a member of Nordlendingenes Forening and in 1912 he was awarded the Petter Dass Metal; the mountain of Hellandfjellet at Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard, is named after him, as is the Helland Glacier of South Georgia.

Norges land og folk