Exminster is a village situated on the southern edge of the City of Exeter on the western side of the Exeter ship canal and River Exe in the county of Devon, England. It is around 6 km south of the centre of Exeter, has a population of 3,084, increasing to 3,368 at the 2011 census. Exminster is an ancient village associated with a Saxon minster or religious community, founded here in the 8th century, and left by King Alfred the Great to his youngest son Aethelweard in his will of 889. In the 14th century, it was the seat of the Earls of Devon. William Courtenay, the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1381 to 1396, was born here. Exminster is a major part of the electoral ward of Kenn Valley, its population at the above census was 5,906 Exminster Marshes, to the east of the village, are a major site for birds migratory ones including the rare cirl bunting. The present parish church of Saint Martin of Tours is a Grade I listed building and was built in the late 14th and 15th centuries in the Perpendicular style.
It was restored in 1841 and again in 1852. It has a large three-storied tower with a polygonal stair turret. Inside, the Peamore chapel has a plaster ceiling dated 1633, depicting the Twelve Apostles and the Four Evangelists, scenes of the Nativity, Christ carrying the cross and the Resurrection. There is a notable monument to Otho Petre of Bowhay who died in 1607; the churchyard contains the war graves of eight British service personnel of World War I - the first and highest ranking being Major General Robert Kekewich - and three of World War II. The football club of Exminster is Exminster St Martins AFC. On a hill overlooking the Exe estuary at the north-west side of the village is the former Devon County Asylum, designed by Charles Fowler and opened in July 1845, it featured a central administration block with six radiating arms and had a capacity of around 800 beds. The hospital closed in the mid-1980s. After years of neglect, the surrounding land was built upon for housing and the grade II listed hospital was converted to apartments and town houses.
Exminster railway station was opened by George Hennet on behalf of the South Devon Railway in 1852. It closed to passenger traffic on 30 March 1964 and to goods on 4 December 1967, but its distinctive building still stands next to the railway line; the signal box remained standing on the site until September 2006 but has now been removed for preservation to Broadway, Worcestershire. Exminster's amenities include a surgery, pharmacy, a village shop, a convenience store, several estate agents, a golf course, a hairdresser, as well as a community facility which incorporates a gym, an IT suite with web access, daytime family and toddlers' groups. Exminster has a primary school; the Topsham and Exminster Brewery, which produces Ferryman Ale, is located at a former RAF GCI radar station in the midst of the Exminster Marshes RSPB reserve. The Exeter Canal cycle path leads from Exminster into the centre of Exeter, giving commuters in the village a traffic-free route into the city. Peamore, Exminster Bowhay, a seat of the Petre family the seat of Aaron Baker the first President of the Madras Presidency.
The novelist Frances Mary Peard was born here Exminster's Community Website Devington Park - the alternative Website Exminster at Curlie Exminster in the Domesday Book
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley. It is a drowned river valley. Rias have a dendritic, treelike outline although they can be straight and without significant branches; this pattern is inherited from the dendritic drainage pattern of the flooded river valley. The drowning of river valleys along a stretch of coast and formation of rias results in an irregular and indented coastline. There are naturally-occurring islands, which are summits of submerged, preexisting hill peaks. A ria coast is a coastline having several parallel rias separated by prominent ridges, extending a distance inland; the sea level change that caused the submergence of a river valley may be either eustatic, or isostatic. The result is a large estuary at the mouth of a insignificant river; the Kingsbridge Estuary in Devon, England, is an extreme example of a ria forming an estuary disproportionate to the size of its river. The word ria comes from Portuguese ria or Galician ría, related to Spanish and Galician río and Portuguese rio.
Rias are present all along the Galician coast in Spain. As defined, the term was restricted to drowned river valleys cut parallel to the structure of the country rock, at right angles to the coastline. However, the definition of ria was expanded to other flooded river valleys regardless of the structure of the country rock. For a period of time, European geomorphologists regarded rias to include any broad estuarine river mouth, including fjords; these are long, narrow inlets with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. In the 21st century, the preferred usage of ria by geologists and geomorphologists is to refer to drowned unglaciated river valleys, it therefore excludes fjords by definition. Portugal: the country has no rias as such: the Ria de Aveiro in Aveiro, Ria Formosa in Eastern Algarve are lagoons. Atlantic coast of Spain Galicia: The Rias Baixas, including the Ria of Vigo, Ria of Pontevedra, Ria de Arousa, Ria of Muros and Noia, Ria of Corcubion and Ria de Aldán.
The Rias Altas, including the Ria of Corunna, Ria of Ares and Betanzos, Ria of Cedeira, Ria of O Barqueiro, Ria of Ferrol, Ria of Ortigueira, Ria of Viveiro, Ria of Foz and Ria of Ribadeo. Asturias: Ria of Avilés, Ria of Ribadeo, Ria of Navia, Ria of Villaviciosa, Ria of Ribadesella, Ria of Llanes, Ria of Tina Mayor. Cantabria: Ria of Tina Mayor, Ria of Tina Menor, Ría de San Vicente de la Barquera, Ría of la Rabia, Ría of San Martín de la Arena, Ría of Mogro, Ría of Solía, Ría of Carmen, Ría of Boo, Ría of Tijero, Ría of Cubas, Ría de Ajo, Ría of Cabo Quejo, Ría of Treto, Ría of Oriñón. Basque Country: Ria of Bilbao, mouth of the rivers Nervión, Cadagua. Andalusia: Ria of Carreras, Ria of Huelva at the mouth of the rivers Odiel and Tinto. Brittany: The rias in northern Brittany are called Abers: Aber Wrac'h, Aber Benoît, Aber Ildut; the Roadstead of Brest includes several rias. Ireland: Bantry Bay located on the southwest coast of Ireland is an example of an Irish ria. Wales: Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire is a ria.
England: The south coast of England is a submergent coastline which contains many rias, including Southampton Water, Poole Harbour, the estuaries of the Exe and Dart Kingsbridge Estuary, Plymouth Sound in Devon, the estuaries of the River Fowey, River Fal and Helford River in Cornwall. On the north coast is the River Taw. In Essex is the Blackwater River Crouch; the River Severn forms a large ria. Croatia: Lim, Ombla Montenegro: The Bay of Kotor Italy: The Fiordo di Furore on the Amalfi Coast in Campania is a ria, despite its name. Malta: Grand Harbour and Marsamxett Harbour Kenya: Kilindini Harbour, a deep channel between Mombasa island and South Coast mainland, is a ria. Sanriku Coast: North Japan, east coast of Honshū Island. Sendai city, Miyagi Prefecture and Iwate Prefecture are included. Ago Coast in Shima is a Ria coast, well known for its pearls. Coasts on western, southern sides of the Korean Peninsula: Rias formed by sea level rising after Ice Age; the Chinese east coast, from the Guangdong province to Shanghai.
Papua New Guinea: Rias formed by eroded volcanic lava flow are found all around the town of Tufi at Cape Nelson, in Papua New Guinea's Oro Province. Australia: The east coast of Australia features several rias around Sydney, including Georges River, Port Hacking, Port Jackson, which includes Sydney Harbour. There are many examples in Western Australia, including the Swan River around Perth and several rivers in the west Kimberley region. New Zealand: Rias of various scales abound on the eastern shores of the upper North Island. On the west coast, in contrast, they are larger. Kaipara Harbour is the country's largest, the Hokianga Harbour, further north, is of historical significance to the native Māori people; the Marlborough Sounds at the northern tip of the South Island form a large network of rias. United States: Narragansett Bay, New York Harbor, Delaware Bay, Indian River Bay, the Chesapeake Bay, Charleston Harbor are rias on the East Coast. Willapa Bay and Grays Harbo
Topsham is a town in Exeter in the county of Devon, England, on the east side of the River Exe north of its confluence with the River Clyst and the former's estuary, between Exeter and Exmouth. Although village-sized, with a current population of around 5,023, increasing to 5,519 at the 2011 census for the electoral ward population which includes Countess Wear, its own individual settlement, Topsham was designated a town by a 1300 royal charter, until the Exeter urban district was formed, it is served by Topsham railway station on the branch line to Exmouth. In 2011 was the 150th anniversary of the railway coming to Topsham, on what is now called the Exeter–Exmouth Avocet Line; the native Celtic settlement of Topsham became the port of the Roman city of Isca Dumnoniorum in the first century AD, continued to serve it until the Roman occupation of southern Britain ceased about the year 400. In the 7th century the Saxon rule in East Devon saw. St Margaret's Anglican Church in Topsham, dates back to the 10th century.
Although reconstructed several times, it remains in its original location as granted in 937 by King Athelstan, who gave "a parcel of land, i.e. a manse, which the vulgar called Toppesham, to the monastery Church of St Mary and St Peter in Exeter, for the cure of his soul, to have in eternal freedom so long as the Christian Church shall endure."Topsham's position, offering a sheltered harbour to seagoing trade enabled it to thrive as a port, a centre for both fishing and shipbuilding. Notable ships such as HMS Terror and HMS Cyane were built here in the early 19th century; the town was the scene of a notable Parliamentarian naval assault during the English Civil War. There are many Dutch style houses in Topsham dating from the time when Topsham was an important cotton port. Many of Topsham's houses are built using Dutch bricks, which were brought over as ballast from Holland – to where the wool and cotton from South-West England had been exported. After a period of decline over the first half of the 20th century, Topsham has become a desirable and high-value residential location.
The 21st century has seen development into the'Topsham Gap' – greenfield land between Topsham and Exeter. A major seaport, the town is now of interest for its architecture and proximity to nature reserves for wading and migrating birds, such as RSPB Bowling Green Marsh on the Exe Estuary, the whole of, a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Topsham Museum is located in one of a set of 17th century buildings looking out over the Exe Estuary, it consists of furnished period rooms, displays of the local history of the town and memorabilia of Vivien Leigh, the film star. The name is an Anglo-Saxon one, means Toppa's village, Toppa having been the local landowner. There is some difference of opinion on the correct pronunciation of the town, it is referred to as with the sh sounded as in shoe. The local pronunciation amongst older native Devonians, however, is with the s being sounded as in some and the -ham suffix being reduced to um. Topsham's local football club is a non-league side in Devon. Topsham Rugby Club has two senior sides and over 200 juniors making it one of the largest "junior" clubs in the South West.
The town has a bowling club, an outdoor swimming pool and a sailing club. One of the main focal points of the town is Topsham Pool. Topsham Pool is a community run project in the centre of the town, it was funded by a large fundraising exercise in the 1970s which included collecting waste paper and glass bottles, jumble sales and donations. A Sports Council grant completed the fund raising effort and, in 1979, the pool was opened by Olympic gold medallist swimmer David Wilkie. Topsham Pool is an open-air pool and, as a result, is only open between September. Between 6 am and 8.30 am each morning, the Pool welcomes the Nutters Club – a group that swims when the outside temperature is to be at its coolest. In response to what had been described in the early 1960s as "a period of genteel decline", The Topsham Society was formed; the objectives of the Topsham Society are "To promote high standards of planning and architecture in or affecting Topsham. The Society has around 400 members. A monthly magazine is published called Estuary: A Monthly Community Magazine for Topsham, published by St Margaret's Anglican Church, but is more of a community publication than an ecclesiastical one.
It is priced £0.70 per month, copy to be received by the 15th of the preceding month. It is co-edited by José Northey. Twice a year Estuary Players present a theatrical production in the Matthews Hall, they are a notably eclectic group, but Shakespeare and Brecht have featured among their favourite playwrights over their 35-year existence. Topsham Art Group had a summer exhibition in 2012 at the local Topsham Primary School featuring local artists.. In addition to St Margaret's Anglican church, there is a Methodist church, situated in Fore Street; the Bridge Inn is a Grade II listed public house at Bridge Hil
The River Usk rises on the northern slopes of the Black Mountain, Wales, in the westernmost part of the Brecon Beacons National Park. Forming the boundary between Carmarthenshire and Powys, it flows north into Usk Reservoir east by Sennybridge to Brecon before turning southeast to flow by Talybont-on-Usk and Abergavenny after which it takes a more southerly course. Beyond the eponymous town of Usk it passes the Roman legionary fortress of Caerleon to flow through the heart of the city of Newport and into the Severn estuary at Uskmouth beyond Newport at Newport Wetlands; the Monmouthshire and Brecon Canal follows the Usk for most of the length of the canal. The name of the river derives from a Common Brittonic word meaning "abounding in fish", this root appears in other British river names such as Exe, Axe and other variants; the name is cognate with the Welsh word for fish, borrowed from Latin piscis. The name of the river appears as "Wÿsk" on the Cambriae Typus map of 1573; the whole river has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest.
It contains estuary with mudflats and salt marsh, lagoons and marsh, varied grassland and woodland habitats along its course. Its flora and fauna are diverse and includes Atlantic salmon, twait shad, lamprey, European perch, brown trout, common dace and common roach as well as kingfishers and other wildfowl and bird life. Dippers can be seen upriver along with red kites in the river's valley upstream from around the town of Usk; the Usk has long been trout fishing river. Salmon of over 30 pounds may still be caught; the river has the highest estimated salmon egg deposition of any river south of Cumbria and the Scottish rivers, exceeded its spawning target. The river has been rated as the best fly fishing water in Wales for salmon and inside the UK Top Ten; the normal tidal limit of the river is just below the bridge at Newbridge-on-Usk, some five miles north of Newport. The River Usk has played an important role in the history of Wales and features in some local folk-tales; the tidal reaches of the Usk have been used as a major shipping port for much of the last millennium because of its wide and deep mouth, good navigable access from the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel and thence access to home waters and further overseas.
Evidence of the Usk's long-standing use in transport and trade came in the form of the remains of the Newport Ship that were discovered in 2002. This ship, dated to around 1465, was most a trading vessel and may have sailed around Europe or beyond in its lifetime, its presence in the Usk has confirmed what an important trading route the Usk must have been to the many towns and villages along its course. The Usk has played a role in many local legends; the Medieval Latin text De Ortu Waluuanii recounts a humorous tale in which an incognito Gawain pushes his uncle King Arthur into the Usk, is forced to explain to his wife Gwendoloena why he is so wet. Geoffrey of Monmouth writes of Caerleon in the mid 12th century: For it was located in a delightful spot in Glamorgan, on the River Usk, not far from the Severn Sea. Abounding in wealth more than other cities, it was suited for such a ceremony. For the noble river I have named flows along it on one side, upon which the kings and princes who would be coming from overseas could be carried by ship.
"It is not until the 13th century French prose romances that Camelot began to supersede Caerleon, then, many descriptive details applied to Camelot derive from Geoffrey's earlier grand depiction of the Welsh town."The Usk valley contains many sites of prehistorical archaeological significance and the valley has long been a trade route, settlement area and an avenue into Wales for successive invaders such as the Romans and Normans. The Newport Transporter Bridge, the lowest crossing point on the river, has the greatest length of any surviving transporter bridge in the world. List of rivers of Wales Usk Valley Walk List of bridges in Wales The Usk Valley Walk - photos A trophy salmon from the Usk in October 1917 Canoe Wales website information on canoe touring the Usk
A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower. It is a structure that uses a water wheel or water turbine to drive a mechanical process such as milling, rolling, or hammering; such processes are needed in the production of many material goods, including flour, paper and many metal products. These watermills may comprise gristmills, paper mills, textile mills, trip hammering mills, rolling mills, wire drawing mills. One major way to classify watermills is by wheel orientation, one powered by a vertical waterwheel through a gear mechanism, the other equipped with a horizontal waterwheel without such a mechanism; the former type can be further divided, depending on where the water hits the wheel paddles, into undershot, overshot and pitchback waterwheel mills. Another way to classify water mills is by an essential trait about their location: tide mills use the movement of the tide. According to Terry S. Reynolds and R. J. Forbes, the water wheel may have originated from the ancient Near East in the 3rd century BC for use in moving millstones and small-scale grain grinding.
Reynolds suggests that the first water wheels were norias and, by the 2nd century BC, evolved into the vertical watermill in Syria and Asia Minor, from where it spread to ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. S. Avitsur supports a Near-Eastern origin for the watermill. Engineers in the Hellenistic world used the two main components of watermills, the waterwheel and toothed gearing, along with the Roman Empire, operated undershot and breastshot waterwheel mills. Early evidence of a water-driven wheel is the Perachora wheel, in Greece. An early written reference is in the technical treatises Pneumatica and Parasceuastica of the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium; the British historian of technology M. J. T. Lewis has shown that those portions of Philo of Byzantium's mechanical treatise which describe water wheels and which have been regarded as Arabic interpolations date back to the Greek 3rd-century BC original; the sakia gear is fully developed, attested in a 2nd-century BC Hellenistic wall painting in Ptolemaic Egypt.
Lewis assigns the date of the invention of the horizontal-wheeled mill to the Greek colony of Byzantium in the first half of the 3rd century BC, that of the vertical-wheeled mill to Ptolemaic Alexandria around 240 BC. The Greek geographer Strabon reports in his Geography a water-powered grain-mill to have existed near the palace of king Mithradates VI Eupator at Cabira, Asia Minor, before 71 BC; the Roman engineer Vitruvius has the first technical description of a watermill, dated to 40/10 BC. He seems to indicate the existence of water-powered kneading machines; the Greek epigrammatist Antipater of Thessalonica tells of an advanced overshot wheel mill around 20 BC/10 AD. He praised for its use in grinding grain and the reduction of human labour: Hold back your hand from the mill, you grinding girls. For Demeter has imposed the labours of your hands on the nymphs, who leaping down upon the topmost part of the wheel, rotate its axle. If we learn to feast toil-free on the fruits of the earth, we taste again the golden age.
The Roman encyclopedist Pliny mentions in his Naturalis Historia of around 70 AD water-powered trip hammers operating in the greater part of Italy. There is evidence of a fulling mill in 73/4 AD in Roman Syria. Another Roman author Ausonius mentions a lot of watermills in the walley of Rhine and its tributaries in the 4th century, it is that a water-powered stamp mill was used at Dolaucothi to crush gold-bearing quartz, with a possible date of the late 1st century to the early 2nd century. The stamps were operated as a batch of four working against a large conglomerate block, now known as Carreg Pumpsaint. Similar anvil stones have been found at other Roman mines across Europe in Spain and Portugal; the 1st-century AD multiple mill complex of Barbegal in southern France has been described as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world". It featured 16 overshot waterwheels to power an equal number of flour mills; the capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for the 12,500 inhabitants occupying the town of Arelate at that time.
A similar mill complex existed on the Janiculum hill, whose supply of flour for Rome's population was judged by emperor Aurelian important enough to be included in the Aurelian walls in the late 3rd century. A breastshot wheel mill dating to the late 2nd century AD was excavated at Les Martres-de-Veyre, France; the 3rd-century AD Hierapolis water-powered stone sawmill is the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod mechanism. Further sawmills powered by crank and connecting rod mechanisms, are archaeologically attested for the 6th-century water-powered stone sawmills at Gerasa and Ephesus. Literary references to water-powered marble saws in what is now Germany can be found in Ausonius 4th-century poem Mosella, they seem to be indicated about the same time by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia, demonstrating a diversified use of water-power in many parts of the Roman Empire. The earliest turbine mill was
The River Barle runs from the Chains on northern Exmoor, in Somerset, England to join the River Exe at Exebridge, Devon. The river and the Barle Valley are both designated as biological Site of Special Scientific Interest. On the Chains above Simonsbath is a 3-acre reservoir known as Pinkery Pond, it was formed in the 19th century when his son dammed the river at that point. The pond's purpose is unknown. Wheal Eliza Mine was an unsuccessful iron mine on the river near Simonsbath; the river passes under a late medieval six-arch stone Landacre Bridge in Withypool, the Tarr Steps a prehistoric clapper bridge dating from 1000 BC. The stone slabs weigh up to 5 tons apiece. According to local legend, they were placed by the devil to win a bet; the bridge has 17 spans. It has been designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building. In Dulverton the river is crossed by the Barle Bridge; the river flows through the Somerset Wildlife Trust's Mounsey Wood Nature Reserve and Knaplock and North Barton SSSI, first notified in 1954, which are within Exmoor National Park.
This is notable for the presence of rare plant and bird life and including Kingfisher habitats and one of the only sites of great burnet on Exmoor. The river itself has been recorded as a habitat for otters. Salmon and trout are fished from the Barle. For much of its route, the river's banks are the path of the Two Moors Way footpath; the upper reaches of the Barle produced favourable rapids. The rapids are Graded at 2 which beginner to intermediate canoeists paddle. Rivers of the United Kingdom
Exford is a rural village at the centre of Exmoor National Park, 7 miles north-west of Dulverton, 10 miles south-west of Minehead, in Somerset, England. Less than a mile away is the hamlet of Lyncombe. Situated on the B3224, the main route across Exmoor, it is a small village on the River Exe with activities including hunting, shooting and horse riding; the centre of the village surrounds a traditional village green, is home to a post office, general store, car repair shop, youth hostel and primary school as well as a children's play area. The village is on the route of the Celtic Way Exmoor Option. To the east of the village are the prehistoric hillside enclosures of Road Castle and Staddon Hill Camp and to the west is Cow Castle, an Iron age hill fort; the Domesday Book of 1086 records eight settlements in the parish, five called Exford and the others at Almesworthy and Downscombe. The parish was part of the hundred of Carhampton; the bridge over the river was built in 1930 on a medieval site.
In the mid 19th century there were several iron and copper mines in and around the village by the Exford Iron Ore Co. The Devon and Somerset Staghounds have had their kennels, which were built by Montague Bissett, at Exford since 1875; the parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of West Somerset, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Dulverton Rural District.
The district council is responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning; as Exford falls within the Exmoor National Park some functions administered by district or county councils have, since 1997, fallen under the Exmoor National Park Authority, known as a ‘single purpose’ authority, which aims to "conserve and enhance the natural beauty and cultural heritage of the National Parks" and "promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of the Parks by the public", including responsibility for the conservation of the historic environment. It is part of the Bridgwater and West Somerset county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. There are two hotels: The Exmoor White Horse Inn. Five minutes' walk south of Exford alongside the River Exe lies the hamlet of Court; the church, dedicated to St Mary Magdalene, is a stone structure with a lofty tower dating from the 15th century. The south aisle dates from 1542, however the nave and porch were not built until 1867, it has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building. It is about half a mile from the village itself. Christopher Woodforde served as rector of the parish between 1936 and 1939; the current benefice priest is the Revd. David Wier. Media related to Exford, Somerset at Wikimedia Commons