click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

River Great Ouse

The River Great Ouse is a river in the United Kingdom, the longest of several British rivers called "Ouse". From Syresham in central England, the Great Ouse flows into East Anglia before entering the Wash, a bay of the North Sea. With a course of 143 miles flowing north and east, it is the one of the longest rivers in the United Kingdom; the Great Ouse has been important for commercial navigation, for draining the low-lying region through which it flows. Its lower course passes through drained wetlands and fens and has been extensively modified, or channelised, to relieve flooding and provide a better route for barge traffic. Though the unmodified river changed course after floods, it now enters the Wash after passing through the port of King's Lynn, south of its earliest-recorded route to the sea; the name Ouse is from the Celtic or pre-Celtic *Udso-s, means "water" or slow flowing river. Thus the name is a pleonasm; the lower reaches of the Great Ouse are known as "Old West River" and "the Ely Ouse", but all the river is referred to as the Ouse in informal usage.

The river has several sources close to the village of Syresham in Northamptonshire. It flows through Brackley through Oxfordshire and into Buckinghamshire, through Buckingham, Milton Keynes at Stony Stratford, Newport Pagnell and Kempston in Bedfordshire, the current head of navigation. Passing through Bedford, into Cambridgeshire through St Neots, Huntingdon, Hemingford Grey and St Ives, it reaches Earith. Here, the river enters a short tidal section before branching in two; the artificial straight Old Bedford River and New Bedford River, which remain tidal, provide a direct link north-east towards the lower river at Denver in Norfolk. The old course of the river passes through Hermitage Lock into the Old West River. After joining the Cam near Little Thetford, north of Cambridge, the course passes the cathedral city of Ely and Littleport, to reach the Denver sluice. Below Denver the river passes Downham Market to enter The Wash at King's Lynn; the river is navigable from the Wash to Kempston Mill, just beyond Bedford, a distance of 72 miles.

This section includes 17 locks which are maintained by the Environment Agency, the navigation authority and who attempt to attract more boaters to the river. It has a catchment area of 3,240 square miles and a mean flow of 15.7 m3/s as measured at Denver Sluice. Its course has been modified several times, with the first recorded being in 1236, as a result of flooding. During the 1600s, the Old Bedford and New Bedford Rivers were built to provide a quicker route for the water to reach the sea. In the 20th century, construction of the Cut-Off Channel and the Great Ouse Relief Channel have further altered water flows in the region, helped to reduce flooding. Improvements to assist navigation began with the construction of sluices and locks. Bedford could be reached by river from 1689. A major feature was the sluice at Denver, which failed in 1713, but was rebuilt by 1750 after the problem of flooding returned. Kings Lynn, at the mouth of the river, developed as a port, with civil engineering input from many of the great engineers of the time.

With the coming of the railways the state of the river declined so that it was unsuitable either for navigation or for drainage. The navigation was declared to be derelict in the 1870s. A repeated problem was the number of authorities responsible for different aspects of the river; the Drainage Board created in 1918 had no powers to address navigation issues, there were six bodies responsible for the river below Denver in 1913. When the Great Ouse Catchment Board was created under the powers of the Land Drainage Act in 1930, effective action could at last be taken. There was significant sugar beet traffic on the river between 1925 and 1959, with the last known commercial traffic occurring in 1974. Leisure boating had been popular since 1904, the post-war period saw the creation of the Great Ouse Restoration Society in 1951, who campaigned for complete renovation of the river, it was re-opened to Bedford in 1978, is now managed by the Environment Agency. The Ouse Washes are an internationally important area for wildlife.

Sandwiched between the Old Bedford and New Bedford rivers, they consist of washland, used as pasture during the summer but which floods in the winter, are the largest area of such land in the United Kingdom. They act as breeding grounds for lapwings and snipe in spring, are home to varieties of ducks and swans during the winter months; the river has been important both for drainage and for navigation for centuries, these dual roles have not always been complementary. The course of the river has changed significantly. In prehistory, it flowed from Huntingdon straight to Wisbech and into the sea. In several sequences, the lower reaches of the river silted, in times of inland flood, the waters would breach neighbouring watersheds and new courses would develop – in a progressively eastwards fashion. In the Dark Ages, it turned to the west at Littleport, between its present junctions with the River Little Ouse and the River Lark, made its way via Welney and Outwell, to flow into The Wash near Wisbech.

At that time it was known as the Wellstream or Old Wellenhee, parts of that course are marked by the Old Croft River and the border between Cambridgeshire and Norfolk. After major inland flood events in the early 13th century it breached anot

Andrzej M. Chołdzyński

Andrzej Marek Chołdzyński is a Polish architect. He is the designer of Plac Wilsona metro station in Warsaw, the central part of the second Warsaw metro line and the headquarters of the Warsaw Stock Exchange in Warsaw, among others, he was nominated for the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture in 2001. He has lived and worked in Paris since 1982, in Warsaw since 1996, his awards include: 2000 - 2001 - Nominated for the first prize in the "Life in Architecture" 2001 - Nominated for the annual European Union Prize Foundation Mies van der Rohe in Barcelona 2002 - State Award of the first one degree for outstanding creative achievement in the field of Architecture and Construction for the design and construction of the building of the Warsaw Stock Exchange 2008 - Title for the best new subway station in the world at the Conference in Copenhagen for the Wilson Square station in Warsaw 2008 - The title of the world's best public utility building with reinforced concrete in 2008 - Mexico 2000 - Knight of the Order of Polonia Restituta 2013 - Special Award of the Polish Builder magazine Hercules in 2012 under the honorary patronage of the Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Economy.

Lifetime Achievement for the development of Polish architecture and construction

European Russia

European Russia is the western part of the Russian Federation, located in Eastern Europe. It covers up to 39% of Europe's total land area. Although European Russia covers less than 25% of Russia's territory, it has a population of 110 million people, housing 77% of Russia's population, making Russia the most populous European nation. European Russia includes the two largest cities in Russia; the eastern boundary of Europe is considered, by convention, to run along the Dardanelles–Sea of Marmara–Bosphorus, the Black Sea, along the watershed of the Greater Caucasus, the northwestern portion of the Caspian Sea and along the Ural River and Ural Mountains to the Kara Sea, as mapped and listed in most atlases including that of the National Geographic Society and as described in The World Factbook. The southern part of Russia has some small areas that lie geographically south of the Caucasus Mountain range, therefore are geographically in Asia; the other, part of the Russian Federation forms part of northern Asia, is known as North Asia called Asian Russia or Siberia.

Europe forms a subcontinent within Eurasia, making all of Russia a part of the Eurasian continent. Russia is not proportionately populated between its larger Asian portion, which contains about 23% of the country's population, its smaller European portion, which contains about 77%; the European portion contains about 110 million people out of Russia's total population of about 144 million in an area covering nearly 4,000,000 km2. The eastern portion of Russia encompassing Siberia, is part of Asia and makes up more than 75% of the territory with 22% of the country's population at 2.5 people per kilometre2. The historical population of European Russia was composed of Slavic, Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Scandinavian, Finnic, Khazarian and Norse peoples; some theories say that some early Eastern Slavs arrived in modern-day western Russia sometime during the middle of the first millennium AD. The Eastern Slavic tribe of the Vyatichis was native to the land around the Oka river. Finno-Ugric and Turkic tribes were present in the area.

The western region of Central Russia was inhabited by the Eastern Slavic tribe of the Severians. One of the first Rus' regions according to the Sofia First Chronicle was Veliky Novgorod in 859. In late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD the Rus' Khaganate was formed in modern western Russia; the region was a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers and pirates. From the late 9th to the mid-13th century a large section of today's European Russia was part of Kievan Rus'; the lands of Rus' Khaganate and Kievan Rus' were important trade routes and connected Scandinavia, Byzantine Empire, Rus' people and Volga Bulgaria with Khazaria and Persia. According to old Scandinavian sources among the 12 biggest cities of Kievan Rus' or Ancient Rus' were Novgorod, Polotsk, Smolensk and Rostov. Through trade and cultural contact with Byzantine Empire, the Slavic culture of the Rus' adopted the Eastern Orthodox religion. Many sources say that Ryazan, Moscow and Kiev were destroyed by the Mongol Empire.

After the Mongol invasion the Muscovite Rus' arose, over all this time, western Russia and the various Rus' regions had strong cultural contacts with the Byzantine Empire, while the Slavic culture was cultivated all the time. The elements of East Slavic paganism and Christianity overlapped each other and sometimes produced double faith in Muscovite Rus'. In the fourteenth century Muscovite Russia served as the intermediary in the trade between Europe and Persia as well as Turkey. During all this time, Russian culture had not only strong cultural links and exchanges with Central Europe and Asia, but with its many ethnic minorities which exist until today in Russia, like Tatars, Finno-Ugrics and Chuvashs. While Russia evolved over periods of time with a balanced European influence, it was tsar Peter the Great who wanted to reform Russia and bring it up to a true Western standards and way of life. Peter the Great was able to change Russian society resistance existed among peasants, the traditionalists and Old Believers within the Orthodox Church.

With the Soviet Union, Russia was cut off from Western culture. In the nineties, the Russian political elites hoped to integrate Russia into the West; the Russian culture was shaped for centuries by the Orthodox faith, Slavic traditions, the Cyrillic script, the geographical location between Europe and Asia, with significant Swedish, French, Polish and German influences, from 1500-1945. Significant cultural influence came from Tatars, Iran, Ottoman Empire and other Central- and Western Asian cultures. Despite all these influences from the Western and Asian-Oriental cultures and many common traditions with Russia, Russian culture was exposed to longer isolations which created a independent, different kind of culture, which differed in many elements from both Western cultures and Eastern cultures and created its own Russian otherness. In the age of globalization, the Russian elite seeks a development in which Russia, as a sovereign state with its own culture and identity, can participate in global cooperation.

The administrative districts of the Russian Federation do not li

Portola Road Race

The Portola Road Race was an automobile race spanning several cities of Alameda County, California, in 1909 and 1911, the start/finish line positioned in Oakland. The races were held in concert with the Portola Festival celebrating San Francisco's renewal following the devastation of the 1906 earthquake; the main race in 1909 ran under the auspices of the Automobile Club of Southern California. It was a little over 254 miles long—12 laps of a course laid out over 21.18 mi which included road segments of Melrose, a settlement newly annexed by Oakland, San Leandro and Hayward—two communities south of Oakland in Alameda County. An estimated 250,000, 280,000 or 300,000 people watched the nearly four-hour race. A 24-page race program was published with photographs, a diagram of the race circuit. An article written by Mrs. Frederick J. Linz was included: "Women as well as Men can Motor". First prize was $2,000. Jack Fleming won the race in car number 4, a four-cylinder, 40-horsepower Pope-Hartford machine that Fleming used to increase his lead to more than one lap over the closest competitor.

His average speed of 64.51 mph set a new record for a road race higher than the most recent results of the Santa Monica Road Race and the Vanderbilt Cup. The fastest lap of the day may have been produced by car number 15, a Stearns driven by Charles Soules, reported by one newspaper as having clocked in at 18:19 for the 21.18-mile circuit to yield 69.4 mph. Another reporter showed Fleming's Pope-Hartford making the fastest lap at 19 minutes flat, a speed of 66.66 mph. Second place went to an Apperson. Unusually, the racecourse held three different race events; the first starters were the lightest cars, limited to an engine displacement of 231 to 450 cu in —these cars ran 7 laps. The second group were heavier cars limited to an engine displacement of 451 to 600 cu in —these cars ran 10 laps; the unlimited grand prize race was open to any qualifier who thought they could race 12 laps and win. Each of the cars was started a few minutes after the previous one. Fleming's winning car held an engine, he won the first 7-lap event and appeared to be in first place at end of the 10-lap event though he was not driving a heavyweight car and thus was not entered in this event.

He continued in first place to finish the 12-lap grand prize course. One spectator death and several injuries occurred because of accidents at the race. A fatal incident happened when a Sunset machine driven by Howard Hall lost a wheel retaining ring while cornering. Frank Free driving a Knox went off the road on Stanley Avenue near Foothill Boulevard and gravely injured a man, standing next to his wife-to-be watching the race, she was unharmed. The driver and his mechanic were bruised. Near the southern limit of the racecourse in Hayward, a dog sat down in the middle of the road and was killed by Michener's Lozier; the grandstands and start/finish line were placed on Foothill Boulevard around Fairfax Avenue and 55th Avenue because Foothill was a long straightaway at that area. In the grandstands could be seen well-known people such as senator George Clement Perkins and Oakland mayor Frank K. Mott; the racecourse was kept clear of spectators by the National Guard of California. In 1911 the circuit was shortened to 10.923 mi describing the shape of a quadrilateral with four right-angle turns.

The course was described as "tortuous" for the driver, "filled with turns and grades which require frequent gear shifting." The race consisted of three simultaneous events of increasing numbers of laps intended to be 9, 14 and 19. As in 1909, the first starter was a lightweight car with the least engine displacement, followed every few minutes by a car with greater displacement; the lightweight cars ran the heavy cars ran 14 laps. The unlimited grand prize race was to go 19 laps but it was stopped at 15 because of darkness; the winner of the lightweight race, called the Oakland Trophy, was Charles Bigelow in a 30-horsepower Mercer car averaging 57.3 mph. The heavyweight race, called the St. Francis Hotel Trophy, was won by Charlie Merz in a National car averaging 66.8 mph. The Panama-Pacific Road Race, a "free-for-all" unlimited event, was won by Bert Dingley in a Pope-Hartford. Several injuries were sustained by spectators who crowded the course, forcing drivers to run a narrow gantlet at some points in the race.

Post-race criticism observed that civilian police protection of the course was insufficient compared to 1909's National Guard protection. Newly seated California Governor Hiram Johnson refused to call up the National Guard for the race. Photograph of 1909 race, taken on Foothill Blvd, Oakland

William IV, Prince of Orange

William IV was Prince of Orange from birth and the first hereditary Stadtholder of all the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 1747 till his death in 1751. During his whole life he was furthermore ruler of the Principality of Orange-Nassau within the Holy Roman Empire. William was born in Leeuwarden, the son of John William Friso, Prince of Orange, head of the Frisian branch of the House of Orange-Nassau, of his wife Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel, he was born six weeks after the death of his father. William succeeded his father as Stadtholder of Friesland and under the regency of his mother until 1731, as Stadtholder of Groningen. In 1722 he was elected Stadtholder of Guelders; the four other provinces of the Dutch Republic:, Zeeland and Overijssel had in 1702 decided not to appoint a stadtholder after the death of stadtholder William III, issuing the history of the Republic into a period, known as the Second Stadtholderless Period. In 1747 those four provinces accepted William as their stadtholder.

In 1720 William was named the 549th Knight of the Order of the Garter. On 25 March 1734 he married at St James's Palace Anne, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach. William and Anne had five children: a stillborn daughter a stillborn daughter Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau, married Karl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg Princess Anna of Orange-Nassau William V, Prince of Orange In 1739 William inherited the estates owned by the Nassau-Dillenburg branch of his family, in 1743 he inherited those owned by the Nassau-Siegen branch of his family. In April 1747 the French army entered Flanders, threatening the Netherlands, weakened by internal division; the Dutch decided that their country needed a single strong executive, turned to the House of Orange. William and his family moved from Leeuwarden to The Hague. On 4 May 1747, the States General of the Netherlands named William General Stadtholder of all seven of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, made the position hereditary for the first time.

William first met Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1747, two years appointed him field marshal of the Dutch States Army, which led to Louis Ernest serving as one of the regents for William's heir. William IV was considered an attractive and accomplished prince in his prime. Although he had little experience in state affairs, William was at first popular with the people, he stopped the practice of indirect taxation by which independent contractors managed to make large sums for themselves. He was a Director-General of the Dutch East India Company, his alliance with the business class deepened while the disparity between rich and poor grew. William served as General Stadtholder of all the Netherlands until his death in 1751 at The Hague; the county of Orange and the city of Orangeburg, South Carolina, are named after him. Media related to William IV, Prince of Orange at Wikimedia Commons

Dale Hansen

Dale Eugene Hansen is an American sportscaster, the weeknight sports anchor during the 10 pm newscasts on ABC's Dallas affiliate WFAA. He hosts Dale Hansen's Sports Special on Sundays at 10:35 pm one of the highest-rated local programs in Dallas-Fort Worth, his segment each night garners an audience of over 300,000 people. He serves as the station's Sports Director. Hansen was born in Iowa. After high school, Hansen served in the United States Navy, he now lives in Texas. He has two children. According to the New York Times, Hansen served in the United States Navy during the Vietnam War. Dale's best friend, Carrol Meyer, served with him in the Navy, was killed at the age of 18 just after six weeks of being deployed to Vietnam. On Memorial Day in 2018, the WFAA Channel 8 team surprised Hansen with a portrait of Meyer by a local artist; the gift brought tears to Hansen eyes as he stated, "Meyer had died 50 years ago today but Meyer will be 18 years old forever" Hansen began his career in Newton, Iowa as a radio disc jockey and operations manager at KCOB, covering the Newton Cardinals and the Newton Nite Hawks.

He went to Knoxville, Iowa to KNIA radio as News Director. After that he moved to Minnesota to KCLD radio. After that he got closer to his hometown of Logan, Iowa by working at a radio station he grew up listening to, KOIL in Omaha, Nebraska, he took a job as a sports reporter at KMTV in Omaha. Hansen took his first job in Dallas at KDFW, which at the time was CBS's Dallas affiliate, he left KDFW and joined WFAA in 1983. Hansen was at 10 pm, legendary anchor Verne Lundquist was at 6 pm, so WFAA had claimed them to be "Texas' Best Sportcasters." Hansen made his reputation in 1986 when he and his producer, John Sparks, broke a story about a massive scandal involving payments to players on Southern Methodist University's football team. Hansen's reporting led to the NCAA canceling the Mustangs' 1987 season—the so-called "death penalty." His reporting of the scandal garnered him a Peabody Award for distinguished journalism, a duPont-Columbia Award, several death threats. Hansen became nationally and internationally famous in recent years when his commentaries on matters such as racism and domestic violence were circulated on YouTube.

A 2015 profile of Hansen at the now-defunct Grantland site noted that many viewers assumed Hansen was a former conservative, when in fact he has been politically liberal his entire adult life and his views have clashed with the mostly-conservative Dallas fan base of the Cowboys and Mavericks Since 1983, Hansen has had a segment during "Sports Special" on the Sunday of the week before Christmas. He always shares a story of a child's death in the past year and talks about it before playing a video of clips from the 1980s of kids in Dallas. At the end is young Hansen with his own children; the video is played to "Thank God for Kids" by The Oak Ridge Boys. Hansen used the segment in 2011 to admit he was a victim of sexual abuse as a child, in hopes that it would convince others to come forward; each week since 1988, Hansen introduces his scholar-athlete of the week, a high school senior or recent high school graduate who excels in sports as well as in the classroom. McDonald's donates $250 to the school in honor of the student.

In a February 2014 broadcast, Hansen delivered a commentary supporting NFL draft candidate Michael Sam coming out as a gay man. He contrasted Sam's homosexuality making players "uncomfortable", with criminal activity by other NFL players, condoned, likened contemporary discomfort with gay players to white athletes' and fans' past discomfort with black players, he concluded saying, "I'm not always comfortable when a man tells me he is gay. But I do understand that he is part of mine." In Hansen's commentary he described as what he saw a double standard within the NFL, stating, "“You beat a woman and drag her down a flight of stairs, pulling her hair out by the roots? You’re the fourth guy taken in the draft,” he said. Caught with drugs? Kill someone driving drunk? Rape a woman? People are O. K. with that. You love another man?” Hansen said. “Well, now you’ve gone too far”The video, posted to YouTube, garnered a large amount of interest on social media. It received attention from mainstream media, featured by the New York Daily News, CTV News, People magazine, others.

As a result, Hansen appeared on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on Feb 14, 2014. In September 2017, President Donald Trump criticized the Colin Kapernick and other players took a knee during the national anthem to raise awareness for Police Brutality and the racial injustice, he spoke at a rally in Alabama, stating, "Wouldn’t you love to see one of these NFL owners, when somebody disrespects our flag, to say, ‘Get that son of a bitch off the field right now. Out! He’s fired. He’s fired!" Hansen took to the air to discuss this week's NFL protests. Hansen mentioned he himself had served in the Vietnam War and that his best friend in high school “did not die so that you can decide, a patriot and who loves America more.” He stated, "The young, black athletes are not disrespecting America or the military by taking a knee during the anthem. They are respecting the best thing about America. It’s a dog whistle to the racists among us to say otherwise"; the video went viral. It gained so much widespread attention, prompting The New York Times to profile Hansen in a piece titled, The Progressive Voice Bursting From Texas and Spreading Everywhere.

The Times' describeed Hansen as a progressive voice, "talking — in remarkably personal terms", about sexual