England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Waterhouses is a village in the south of the Staffordshire Peak District. It is around 8 miles from Leek and Ashbourne, being nearly the halfway point between the two towns on the A523 road, which follows the southern boundary of the Peak District National Park. Waterhouses is a civil parish, created in 1934 when the parishes of Calton, Cauldon and part of Ilam were merged; the hamlet of Winkhill is in the parish. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 1,134; the village of Waterhouses is on the River Hamps, a tributary of the River Manifold, at the southern end of the track of the former Leek and Manifold Valley Light Railway, which ran to Hulme End. Nearby is the Cauldon cement plant of Lafarge Cement, a large Tarmac limestone quarry. Waterhouses was served by a railway station opened by the North Staffordshire Railway on 1 July 1905, on the line from Leek to Waterhouses. Waterhouses was served by a railway station, opened by the Leek and Manifold Valley Light Railway on 27 June 1904, whilst being operated by the North Staffordshire Railway.
These two lines were next to each other. Due to the railway not being as successful as hoped and not utilised enough, it was opened for tourists, but still failed to make a profit and was closed and turned into a cycle path. Waterhouses situated on the A523 Leek to Ashbourne Road, near to Alton Towers and on the edge of the dramatic scenery of the Peak Park, is a popular place for visitors to the area, it offers a doorway to the beauty of the Peak District National Park, uninterrupted by traffic. Via many footpaths or the aforementioned Manifold Way Cycle path and is a common respite stop for visitors to Alton Towers; the Village is popular with tourists and has many great amenities available, The Crown - public house, a local Post Office, swimming baths, off licence / convenience store and the Riverside Cafe. Keys R and Porter L The Manifold Valley and its Light Railway, Moorland publishers
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
The River Manifold is a river in Staffordshire, England. It is a tributary of the River Dove; the Manifold rises at Flash Head just south of Buxton near Axe Edge, at the northern edge of the White Peak, known for its limestone beds. It continues for 12 miles. For part of its course, it runs underground, from Wetton Mill to Ilam. During this section it is joined by the River Hamps. Villages on the river include Hulme End and Ilam, its name may come from Anglo-Saxon manig-fald referring to its meanders. The Manifold Way is an 8-mile long-distance footpath from Hulme End to Waterhouses, along the former route of the narrow-gauge Leek and Manifold Valley Light Railway which operated between 1904 and 1934. Opened in July 1937 after the LMS handed over the trackbed to Staffordshire County Council, it is tarmacked throughout; the Manifold Valley Visitor Centre is housed in Hulme End Station, which has a model of the railway. The limestone cliffs that fringe the valley contain several rock-climbing areas, named rock features, including Thor's Cave and Beeston Tor, which overlooks the confluence with the River Hamps.
The Manifold valley was famous for the mining of copper and lead, the mines at Ecton were some of the richest in the country. The discovery of Stone Age implements in some of the caves imply that minerals were mined around the Manifold valley thousands of years ago. Nowadays there is little trace of the industry that made many people rich; the main areas of interest are around Ecton where the old spoil banks and the old engine house still remain. The river has been noted as being important for European lamprey, it was a bastion for white-clawed crayfish, but most of the species in this river were killed off with Crayfish plague in 2008. Crayfish have been noted in the tributaries of the Manifold and it is hoped that re-colonisation can be achieved by the surviving upstream crayfish. Rivers of the United Kingdom Staffordshire Past Track project: historical photos
Upper Hulme is a hamlet situated on the border of North Staffordshire and Derbyshire, between the historical market town of Leek and the spa town of Buxton. It is clustered around a redundant mill and is located within the upper reaches of the River Churnet; the Mill was restored, complete with a working water wheel, but no further information on its future is known. It can be accessed by one of the many footpaths through the hamlet; the hamlet is at the edge of the Peak District and is home to The Roaches and is therefore popular with ramblers and hikers alike. The A54 Road offers access to Tittesworth reservoir in the south and Ramshaw Rocks in the North, making the hamlet a popular base for walking holidays. There is a camp site, bunkhouse accommodation and holiday cottages available; the hamlet is popular with wildlife enthusiasts due to Wallaby having been sighted on the Roaches, the successful annual breeding of peregrine falcons. In Peregrine breeding season, a'bird watching post' is set up at the foot of Hen Cloud and park rangers are on hand to offer advice and information on the bird.
At this time of year, some access is restricted. The hamlet has two local pubs, it is home to a popular Tea Rooms. The main industry of the hamlet is agricultural. Upon entrance to the hamlet there is an old Dye Works, which has now been transformed into offices and workshops; until 2005 the area was used by the British Army as a training area. That space has now been vacated by the Ministry of Defence and is for sale. Media related to Upper Hulme at Wikimedia Commons
Leek and Manifold Valley Light Railway
The Leek and Manifold Valley Light Railway was a narrow gauge railway in Staffordshire, England that operated between 1904 and 1934. The line carried milk from dairies in the region, acting as a feeder to the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge system, it provided passenger services to the small villages and beauty spots along its route. The line was built to a 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge and to the light rail standards provided by the Light Railways Act 1896 to reduce construction costs; the route of the line is now a foot- and cycle- path. The North Staffordshire Railway's branch from Leek ended at Waterhouses; the L&MVLR continued from an end-on junction with this line. It ran for 8 1⁄4 miles down the valley of the River Hamps as far as Beeston Tor, before turning up the limestone gorge that the River Manifold had formed, through to Hulme End; the line had a large number of stations in a short distance, there were refreshment rooms at Thor's Cave and Beeston Tor. In all the line crossed the river Manifold dozens of times - including nine times in the short section between Sparowlee and Beeston Tor.
All stations had rather grand platforms were just 6 inches high. All stations had sidings except for Redhurst Halt. Hulme End station was a large building, with adjacent coach sheds. On the timetable it was described as "Hulme End for Hartington". Hartington being some 3 miles distant. Ecton station had both a standard gauge and narrow gauge siding, with a narrow gauge extension to the milk factory; the presence of the railway did not kick-start the local mining industry. Butterton station had a waiting room. There was a siding. Wetton Mill station had a station with waiting room, a standard gauge siding. At Redhurst Halt an old coach served as a waiting room. There was no siding here. Thor's Cave station served Wetton village, it had a waiting room. Its refreshment room was moved to Wetton in 1917. Grindon station, located at Weags Bridge, had a loop containing a 75 feet standard gauge siding. Beeston Tor station had a refreshment room. Sparrowlee station served Lee House Farm, but nowhere else, there was not a waiting room here.
The siding included a 60 feet standard gauge section. At Waterhouses station the platform had booking offices, there was a goods shed. There were two short loops, three short sidings which joined with standard gauge lines. Authorised in 1898, this was the narrow gauge section of the Leek Light Railways; the railway ran for 30 years, from 1904 to 1934. Its engineer was Everard Calthrop, a leading advocate of narrow gauge railways and builder of the Barsi Light Railway in India. A private concern, it was run by the North Staffordshire Railway on a percentage basis, but it came under the control of the London and Scottish Railway in 1923; the line was constructed to a high standard, Calthrop applying lessons learned on his other railways. Rail used was 35 lb/yard, the quality of trackwork is reflected in the fact that no re-laying was necessary; the line was a single track, most services only involved the use of one engine in steam. There was passing loop at Wetton Mill. At Waterhouses the timetable allowed for connections from Leek.
Trains ran at a maximum speed of 15 miles per hour, most halts were run on a request basis. More than this, the train would often stop to pick up passengers at other places on the lineside footpath, if requested. Timetables show single journey times of 50 minutes. Most outbound freight consisted of milk, in both churns and bulk tankers, the products of the dairy goods factory at Ecton. In all, some 300 milk churns were handled daily at Waterhouses, from 1919 a daily milk train ran from Waterhouses to London for this traffic. Latterly milk tanks were carried on the transporter wagons. Passenger traffic was minimal – the settlements were some distance from the line – except on Bank Holidays when all the line's rolling stock was used to run frequent services to handle the crowds. There was some talk of extending the line northwards, whereby Hulme End would become the half-way point of the line, but this never materialised; the railway was filmed in operation for Pathé News in 1930 under the title "A quaint little Railway".
The company only had two locomotives: outside-cylindered 2-6-4Ts, built by Kitson & Co. of Leeds in 1904, which were the first 2-6-4T locomotives to run in Britain - the first standard gauge examples being the Great Central Railway's Class 1B of 1914. Number 1 was named E. R. Calthrop, after the line's engineer, number 2 was named J. B. Earle. Due to the influence of Calthrop, the locomotives had a somewhat colonial appearance with large headlights which were never used, they had fittings for cow catchers - again never fitted, they sported rerailing jacks by the smokebox. The locos were painted brown with gold and black lining, after the grouping replaced by crimson lake with gold and black lining. Latterly, after the Great Depression had set in, they ran in plain black. There was no turntable on the line, engines ra
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman