Knaresborough is a market and spa town and civil parish in the Borough of Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England, on the River Nidd 4 miles east of Harrogate. Knaresborough is mentioned in the Domesday Book as Chenaresburg, meaning "Cenheard's fortress", in the wapentake of Burghshire, renamed Claro Wapentake in the 12th century. Knaresborough Castle is Norman; the present parish church, St John's, was established around this time. The earliest identified Lord of Knaresborough is around 1115 when Serlo de Burgh held the Honour of Knaresborough from the King. Hugh de Morville was granted the Honour of Knaresborough in 1158, he was constable of Knaresborough and leader of the group of four knights who murdered Archbishop Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral on 29 December 1170. The four knights fled to hid at the castle. Hugh de Morville forfeited the lands in 1173, not for his implication in the murder of Thomas Becket, but for "complicity in the rebellion of Henry the Young King", according to the Early Yorkshire Charters.
The Honour of Knaresborough passed to the Stuteville family. When the Stuteville line was broken with the death of Robert the 4th in 1205, King John took the Honour of Knaresborough for himself; the first Maundy Money was distributed in Knaresborough by King John on 15 April 1210. Knaresborough Forest, which extended far to the south of the town, is reputed to have been one of King John's favourite hunting grounds. Although a market was first mentioned in 1206, the town was not granted a Royal Charter to hold a market until 1310, by Edward II. A market is still held every Wednesday in the market square. In Edward II's reign, the castle was occupied by rebels and the curtain walls were breached by a siege engine. Scots invaders burned much of the town and the parish church. In 1328, as part of the marriage settlement, Queen Philippa was granted "the Castle, Town and Honour of Knaresborough" by Edward III and the parish church was restored. After her death in 1369, the Honour was granted by Edward to their younger son, John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster and since the castle has belonged to the Duchy of Lancaster.
After the accession of Henry IV the castle lost much of its importance in national affairs, but remained a key site in regional administration for another century. In the Civil War, following the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644, the castle was besieged by Parliamentary forces; the castle fell and in 1646 an order was made by Parliament for its destruction. The destruction was done by citizens looting the stone. Many town centre buildings are built of castle stone; the railway age began in Knaresborough in 1848 with the opening of a railway station on Hay Park Lane. The town had a railway line to Boroughbridge until it closed to passengers in 1950. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Knaresborough became part of North Yorkshire in 1974. Knaresborough House on the High Street houses Knaresborough Town Council and the Yorkshire Federation of Young Farmers' Clubs. Knaresborough hosts the annual Bed Race, organized by the Knaresborough Lions Club, it is held on the second Saturday of June. The event was first staged in 1966.
An annual town centre arts summer festival, FEVA, has run since 2001. The town was used in the opening election sequence in the first episode of the ITV comedy series The New Statesman and some exterior shots for the series were filmed around Knaresborough; the Frazer Theatre is just off High Street. Sights in the town include the remains of Knaresborough Castle, the Courthouse Museum in the castle grounds, Mother Shipton's Cave, the House in the Rock, St Robert's Cave, the railway viaduct over the River Nidd; the House in the Rock known as Fort Montague, is a local Knaresborough curiosity. In the early 19th century, a strange child appeared in the Hill family; this child had abnormal blonde woolly hair resembling the fleece of a sheep and was known as the Woolly-Headed Boy of Fort Montague. He was a great curiosity himself; the Chapel of Our Lady of the Crag on Abbey Road is a Grade I listed shrine dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It was built in 1408 by John the Mason after his son, presumed dead in a rockfall in a local quarry, was found alive, with the son's escape having been attributed to the mason's frequent prayers to Mary.
Knaresborough is the site of Ye Oldest Chymist Shoppe in England, opened in 1720. The principal areas of public open space are the Knaresborough Castle grounds, Horseshoe Field, the King George V Playing Field and Jacob Smith Park, a 30 acres parkland on the edge of the town, bequeathed to Knaresborough by Miss Winifred Jacob Smith in 2003. Conyngham Hall is close to the town centre; until the 1980s there was a small zoo in the grounds. Near to the castle are Bebra Gardens the Moat Gardens, renamed after Knaresborough's twin town in Germany; the Commercial public house, owned by the Samuel Smith Brewery, is the oldest pub in Knaresborough. The town has a large supermarket Lidl, located on the site of a former Co-Op store in Chain Lane, as well as smaller supermarkets in the town centre; the St. James retail park on the outskirts of the town, off Wetherby Road, has a number of retail chain units; the town has a wine bar, two working men's clubs and several restaurants. There are a number of national retailers with branches in the town centre around the High Street, M
Pateley Bridge is a small market town in Nidderdale in the Borough of Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it lies on the River Nidd, it has the oldest sweet shop in England. Established in 1827, it is housed in one of the earliest buildings in Pateley Bridge, dating from 1661. Pateley Bridge is the home of the Nidderdale Museum; the last Dales agricultural show of the year, the Nidderdale Show, is held annually on the showground by the River Nidd. The show attracts over 14,000 visitors each year; the town was listed in both the 2017 and 2018 Sunday Times reports on Best Places to Live in northern England. In the early Middle Ages the site of Pateley lay in lands of the Archbishop of York, which came to be known as Bishopside. In the 12th century the principal settlement in Bishopside was at Wilsill, rather than Pateley. Pateley was first recorded as Patleiagate, with 14th century forms including Patheleybrig; the final elements are clear, deriving from Old Norse gata and the northern dialect form brig respectively.
There is more debate about the Pateley section of the name: the usual explanation is Old English pæþ in the genitive plural form paða + lēah. However, the Pateley name forms competed in the Middle Ages with forms like Padlewath and Patheslayewathe which could be from Middle English *padil + Old Norse vath and it could be that they owe something to this name; the local story that the name comes from'Pate', an old Yorkshire dialect word for'Badger', is incorrect. In 1320 the Archbishop of York granted a charter for a fair at Pateley. From the 14th century until the early part of the 20th century, Scotgate Ash Quarry despatched hard-wearing sandstone from its site on the northern flank above Pateley Bridge; when the railway arrived in Nidderdale, the stone was exported by trains and was used in railway platforms, national buildings and harbour walls. Scotgate Ash Quarry closed in 1915; until 1964, Pateley Bridge railway station was the terminus of the railway line running up Nidderdale from Nidd Valley Junction, near Harrogate.
Between 1907 and 1937, the Nidd Valley Light Railway ran farther up the dale. Access is now with an hourly bus service from Harrogate. Pateley Bridge was once in the Lower Division of Claro Wapentake. In the 19th century local government reforms the town fell within the Pateley Bridge Poor Law Union the Pateley Bridge Rural Sanitary District and from 1894 Pateley Bridge Rural District. In 1937 the rural district was merged to become part of Pateley Bridge Rural District. Since 1974 the town has fallen within the Borough of Harrogate in North Yorkshire. Pateley Bridge is the largest settlement in the civil parish of High and Low Bishopside a township in the large parish of Ripon. High and Low Bishopside was created a civil parish in 1866. Pateley Bridge was granted town status in 1986, the High and Low Bishopside Parish Council was renamed Pateley Bridge Town Council. However, the official name of the parish remains Low Bishopside; the parish is bounded on the west by the River Nidd, includes a large area of moorland to the east of the town.
Other settlements in the parish include the southern part of Wath, Wilsill and Fellbeck. The parish does not include the Nidderdale showground or the district of Bridgehouse Gate, which are on the west bank of the Nidd in the parish of Bewerley. In the 2001 census the parish had a population of 2,153. An electoral ward in the name of Pateley Bridge exists; this stretches north to Stonebeck Up with a total population taken at the 2011 Census of 2,718. Bed & breakfast houses and chapel, hotels, Nidderdale Museum, primary school, public houses, public library, public park, secondary school and theatre. Bewerley Park Centre for Outdoor Education is in the nearby village of Bewerley. Brimham Rocks and Stump Cross Caverns are close by; the Nidderdale Way and Six Dales Trail both pass through the town. The town serves as a sporting hub, with several teams competing in football and crown green bowling. Pateley is served by Nidderdale Pool and Leisure Centre. Comprising a 20-metre swimming pool equipped gym and sport hall and two squash courts, the facility opened in 2005 after many years of local fundraising.
The football team, known as Pateley Bridge F. C. competes in the 14th level of the footballing pyramid in the Harrogate and District Football League Premier. The town is famous for the "Oldest Sweet Shop in England", established in 1827 and is validated as the longest continuous trading sweet shop in the world and is housed in one of the oldest buildings in Pateley Bridge. King Street workshops can be found on house a talented group of artists and designers, their studios are open and they include jewellers, textile art & gifts, fine artist and glassblowers. Like much of the British Isles, Pateley Bridge has a Temperate Maritime Climate; the warmest temperature recorded was 31.0 °C on 1 July 2015. The nearest location where data is available is Dishforth Airfield, it is notable that the warmest and the coldest temperatures for May both occurred in 2010, within the space of just 12 days. The heatwave at the begin
Nidd Gorge makes up a section of the River Nidd in North Yorkshire, England, in which the river enters a deep ravine with sheer, tree covered valley sides. The river as a whole flows from its source near Great Whernside in Nidderdale, to its confluence with the River Ouse near Nun Monkton. Nidd Gorge makes up 3 miles of the entire length of the river, stretches from the now defunct Nidd viaduct at Bilton in Harrogate to Grimbald Bridge, just south of Knaresborough; the 120 feet gorge was cut out of the soft sandstone during the last Ice Age. Humans were first active in this area around 5,000 years ago, but the extensive woodland has only been there since the early 17th century. During the 18th century and the advent of the industrial revolution, mills began to operate along this stretch of the river, using the force of the water to drive the machinery. Scotton Flax mill was erected in 1798 and run by the company Eteson Dearlove until it ceased operation in 1851. Although this mill was classified as being in Bilton, there was another Bilton mill on the other side of the weir, which shared the Scotton weir with Scotton Flax mill as its source of power.
Most evidence of this mill has since disappeared, while the'Scotton' mill still stands, although it has been deindustrialised and now exists as a private residence. In 1982, Harrogate Borough Council set up the Nidd Gorge Management Project in a bid to make the 68 acres area more accessible to hikers and cyclists, as the path along the river became treacherous and impassable when there had been heavy rain. In areas in which the path was susceptible to becoming impassable after heavy rain, the council placed duck boards which enable users of the route to negotiate any areas of the path which are to become muddy. Since this work has been carried out, the route is now popular among hikers and cyclists from all over Yorkshire, the United Kingdom as a whole; the woodland in this area is popular among birdwatchers, who come to observe the variety of species which inhabit the gorge. The project keeps a close watch on the wildlife in this area as well as maintaining the route for hikers and cyclists, as such is responsible for keeping the gorge an idyllic route for all members of the public.
The woodland which surrounds Nidd Gorge is cared for by Woodland Trust who manage over 1000 areas of woodland within the United Kingdom. The Nidd viaduct at the western end of the gorge, used to carry a railway between Harrogate and Pateley Bridge and Thirsk, was closed in 1967, it now carries the Nidderdale Greenway, a tarmac path that allows walkers and those in wheelchairs or mobility scooters to travel the 4 miles between the Bilton area of Harrogate and Ripley. The gorge and the greenway itself are under threat from a new inner ring road proposal linking Knaresborough and the north end of Harrogate. A wide variety of wildlife inhabits the gorge; the area is known among local entomologists for the diverse range of butterflies, high number of rare species of ladybirds. There are many species of birds who live in the mixture of deciduous and coniferous woodland, such as treecreepers and the lesser spotted woodpecker. Nidd Gorge Woodland Trust Knaresborough Nidd Gorge Conservation Group Bilton Conservation Group Harrogate Borough Council OS map of the area
Birstwith is a village and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England. It is part of the Nidderdale, is situated on the River Nidd. According to the 2001 census, the parish had a population of 756 increasing to 868 at the 2011 Census. Birstwith Mill on Wreaks Road is run by a food products manufacturer; the River Nidd provided water for the mill, although sluice gates and a mill race exist, the water wheel no longer turns—an existing weir provided the mill with a head of water. The mill race rejoins the river downstream. About 1 mile upstream is a packhorse bridge; the local public house is the Station Hotel which acts as a meeting place, venue for organised charity events such as the Birstwith Coast 2 Coast Cycle Challenge. The village has store and post office, a doctor's surgery, part of a Nidderdale medical group. Sport facilities include tennis courts and a snooker room; the village had a railway station on the NER line running between Pateley Bridge. This was closed by the Beeching cuts in the 1960s.
The goods yard became a housing development for commuters. The railway line continued along the Nidd Valley and was used in the construction of Scar House and Angram reservoirs. A village primary school and a Reading Room and donated by the owner of the local Swarcliffe Hall in about 1880, still exist. In the mid-1970s Swarcliffe Hall was sold and the contents auctioned, the building becoming a private prep school. Today Birstwith has a Church of England primary school, a private school which occupies Swarcliffe Hall. Media related to Birstwith at Wikimedia Commons Birstwith Parish Council website The Station Hotel, Birstwith The Annual Birstwith Show
Moor Monkton is a village and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England. It is 7 miles north-west from York city centre. Moor Monkton is a village of 110 houses; the parish church, dedicated to All Saints, dates in part from the 12th century. It was restored in 1879 by James Fowler, who added the chancel east window, one at the south of the nave. Media related to Moor Monkton at Wikimedia Commons The ancient parish of Moor Monkton: historical and genealogical information at GENUKI. Moor Monkton Mercury, UK individual registrant web site Moor Monkton Village Website, UK individual registrant web site
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is an area of countryside in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value. Areas are designated in recognition of their national importance, by the relevant public body: Natural England, Natural Resources Wales, or the Northern Ireland Environment Agency. In place of AONB, Scotland uses the similar national scenic area designation. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty enjoy levels of protection from development similar to those of UK national parks, but unlike with national parks the responsible bodies do not have their own planning powers, they differ from national parks in their more limited opportunities for extensive outdoor recreation. The idea for what would become the AONB designation was first put forward by John Dower in his 1945 Report to the Government on National Parks in England and Wales. Dower suggested there was need for protection of certain beautiful landscapes which were unsuitable as national parks owing to their small size and lack of wildness.
Dower's recommendation for the designation of these "other amenity areas" was embodied in the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 as the AONB designation. The purpose of an AONB designation is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the designated landscape by placing it under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. There two secondary aims: meeting the need for quiet enjoyment of the countryside and having regard for the interests of those who live and work there. To achieve these aims, AONBs rely on practical countryside management; as they have the same landscape quality, AONBs may be compared to the national parks of England and Wales. National parks are well known to many inhabitants of the UK. However, the National Association of AONBs is working to increase awareness of AONBs in local communities, in 2014 negotiated to have the boundaries of AONBs in England shown on Google Maps. There are 46 AONBs in Britain; the first AONB was designated in 1956 in South Wales.
The most confirmed is the Tamar Valley AONB in 1995, although the existing Clwydian Range AONB was extended in 2012 to form the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley AONB, the Strangford Lough and Lecale Coast AONBs were merged and redesignated as a single AONB in 2010. AONBs vary in terms of size and use of land, whether they are or wholly open to the public; the smallest AONB is the Isles of Scilly, 16 km2, the largest is the Cotswolds, 2,038 km2. The AONBs of England and Wales together cover around 18% of the countryside in the two countries; the AONBs of Northern Ireland together cover about 70% of Northern Ireland's coastline. AONBs in England and Wales were created under the same legislation as the national parks, the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Unlike AONBs, national parks have special legal powers to prevent unsympathetic development. AONBs in general remain the responsibility of their local authorities by means of special committees which include members appointed by the minister and by parishes, only limited statutory duties were imposed on local authorities within an AONB by the original 1949 Act.
However, further regulation and protection of AONBs in England and Wales was added by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, under which new designations are now made, the Government has in the National Planning Policy Framework stated that AONBs and national parks have equal status when it comes to planning decisions on landscape issues. Two of the AONBs, which extend into a large number of local authority areas, have their own statutory bodies, known as conservation boards. All English and Welsh AONBs have other staff; as required by the CRoW Act, each AONB has a management plan that sets out the characteristics and special qualities of the landscape and how they will be conserved and enhanced. The AONBs are collectively represented by the National Association for AONBs, an independent organization acting on behalf of AONBs and their partners. AONBs in Northern Ireland was designated under the Amenity Lands Act 1965. There are growing concerns among environmental and countryside groups that AONB status is under threat from development.
The Campaign to Protect Rural England said in July 2006 that many AONBs were under greater threat than before. Three particular sites were cited: the Dorset AONB threatened by a road plan, the threat of a football stadium in the Sussex Downs AONB, larger than any other, a £1 billion plan by Imperial College London to build thousands of houses and offices on hundreds of acres of AONB land on the Kent Downs at Wye. In September 2007 government approval was given for the development of a new football ground for Brighton and Hove Albion within the boundaries of the Sussex Downs AONB, after a fierce fight by conservationists; the subsequent development, known as Falmer Stadium, was opened in July 2011. The Weymouth Relief Road in Dorset was constructed between 2008 and 2011, after environmental groups lost a High Court challenge to prevent its construction. Writing in 2006, Professor Adrian Phillips listed threats facing AONBs, he wrote that the apparent big threats were uncertainty over future support for lan