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River Shannon

The River Shannon is the longest river in Ireland at 360.5 km. It drains the Shannon River Basin which has an area of one fifth of the area of Ireland; the Shannon divides the west of Ireland from the south. County Clare, being part of the province of Munster, is the major exception; the river represents a major physical barrier between east and west, with fewer than thirty-five crossing-points between Limerick city in the south and the village of Dowra in the north. The river is named after a Celtic goddess; the Shannon has been an important waterway since antiquity, having first been mapped by the Graeco-Egyptian geographer Ptolemy. The river flows southwards from the Shannon Pot in County Cavan before turning west and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean through the 102.1 km long Shannon Estuary. Limerick city stands at the point; the Shannon is tidal east of Limerick as far as the base of the Ardnacrusha dam. By tradition the Shannon is said to rise in the Shannon Pot, a small pool in the townland of Derrylahan on the slopes of Cuilcagh Mountain in County Cavan, from where the young river appears as a small trout stream.

Surveys have defined a 12.8 km2 immediate pot catchment area covering the slopes of Cuilcagh. This area includes Cavan, 2.2 km to the northeast, drained by Pollnaowen. Further sinks that source the pot include Pollboy and, through Shannon Cave, Pollahune in Cavan and Polltullyard and Tullynakeeragh in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland; the highest point in the catchment is a spring at Tiltinbane on the western end of the Cuilcagh mountain ridge. From the Shannon Pot, the river subsumes a number of tributaries before replenishing Lough Allen at its head; the river runs through or between 11 of Ireland's counties, subsuming the tributary rivers Boyle, Suck and Brosna, among others, before reaching the Shannon Estuary at Limerick. Many different values have been given for the length of the Shannon. A traditional value is 390 km. An official Irish source gives a total length of 360.5 km. Most Irish guides now give 344 km; some academic sources give 280 km. The reason is; the 344 km length relates to the distance between Shannon Pot and a line between Kerry Head and Loop Head, the furthest reaches of the land.

The 280 km distance finishes where the Shannon estuary joins the estuary of the River Fergus, close to Shannon Airport. Longer distances emerged before the use of modern surveying instruments. At a total length of 360.5 km, this means. That the Shannon is the longest river in either Ireland or Great Britain was evidently known in the 12th century, although a map of the time showed this river as flowing out of the south of Ireland. There are some tributaries within the Shannon River Basin which have headwaters that are further in length than the Shannon Pot source's length of 360.5 km, such as the Owenmore River, total length 372 km in County Cavan and the Boyle River, total length 392.1 km with its source in Mayo. The River Shannon is a traditional freshwater river for about 45% of its total length. Excluding the 102 km tidal estuary from its total length of 360 km, if one excludes the lakes from the Shannon's freshwater flow of 258 km, the Shannon, as a freshwater river, is only about 161 km long.

Apart from being Ireland's longest river, the Shannon is by far, Ireland's largest river by flow. It has a long term average flow rate of 208.1 m3/s. This is double the flow rate of Ireland's second largest river, the River Corrib (104.8 m3/s. If the discharges from all of the rivers and streams into the Shannon Estuary are added to the discharge at Limerick, the total discharge of the River Shannon at its mouth at Loop Head reaches 300 m3/s. Indeed, the Shannon is a major river by the time it leaves Lough Ree with an average flow rate of 98 m3/s, larger than any of the other Irish rivers' total flow; the Shannon Callows, areas of lowland along the river, are classified as a Special Area of Conservation. Settlements along the river include Kilrush, Glin, Askeaton, Shannon Town, Castletroy, Castleconnell, O'Briensbridge, Killaloe, Portumna, Athlone, Carrick-on-Shannon, Leitrim village and Dowra; the river began flowing along its present course after the end of the last glacial period. Ptolemy's Geography described a river called Σηνος from PIE *sai-/sei- ‘to bind’, the root of English sinew and Irish sin ‘collar’, referring to the long and sinuous estuary leading up to Limerick.

According to Irish mythology, the river was named after a woman named Sionann, the granddaughter of Lir. She went to Connla's Well to find wisdom, despite being warned no

Nikolai Ishutin

Nikolai Andreyevich Ishutin was one of the first Russian utopian socialists, who combined socialist propaganda with conspiratorial and terrorist tactics. Ishutin was a hereditary noble in his hometown of Serdobsk, he was raised in Penza by the family of his cousin Dmitry Karakozov. In 1863, he became a lecturer at Moscow State University; that same year Ishutin organized a secret revolutionary society, which would come to be known as the Ishutin Society. On April 8, 1866, he was arrested in connection with his cousin Karakozov's assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander II; the Supreme Criminal Court sentenced Ishutin to death by hanging, commuted to exile for life shortly before his scheduled execution. Ishutin was placed in solitary confinement in Shlisselburg Fortress until May 1868, when he was transferred, mentally ill, to Algachi prison in Eastern Siberia. In 1871, Ishutin's place of exile was changed to Nerchinsk and, in 1875, to Kara katorga, where he died in 1879

Halcyon horseshoe bat

William Tipping

William TippingJP MP was an English railway magnate and Conservative politician. Tipping was the son of a Quaker corn merchant of Liverpool. William Tipping was educated at a private school in Tottenham. During his twenties he travelled into Palestine making drawings of archaeological sites, some of which were published in Punch, he became a director of the London and North Western Railway and in 1857 purchased Brasted Park, at Brasted, where he helped restore dilapidated cottages, paid for the widening of local roads, supported local community institutions. He was persuaded by friends to stand for Parliament. At the 1868 general election, Tipping was elected as Member of Parliament for Stockport, but he lost the seat at the 1874 general election, he did not defend his seat at the 1886 general election. By 1876 he was director of 13 railway companies, he was appointed J. P. for Kent and West Riding of Yorkshire. Tipping was buried at the parish church in Brasted. Tipping married Maria Walker, the daughter of a Quaker flax mill owner from Leeds, in 1844.

They had four sons: John Walker Tipping William Fearon Tipping, who became a Colonel in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, a J. P. and High Sheriff of Kent Edward Alexander Tipping Henry Avray Tipping, who became a noted writer on country houses and gardens, a garden designer, Architectural Editor of Country Life magazine for 17 years. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Tipping

Tree-in-bud sign

In radiology, the tree-in-bud sign is a finding on a CT scan that indicates some degree of airway obstruction. The tree-in-bud sign is a nonspecific imaging finding that implies impaction within bronchioles, the smallest airway passages in the lung; the differential for this finding includes malignant and inflammatory etiologies, either infectious or sterile. This includes fungal infections, mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis or mycobacterium avium intracellulare, chronic aspiration pneumonia, cystic fibrosis or cellular impaction from bronchovascular spread of malignancy, as can occur with breast cancer, leukemia or lymphoma, it includes lung manifestations of autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren syndrome or rheumatoid arthritis. Histopathologic studies have shown that the tree-in-bud pattern is caused by demarcation of the invisible branching course of the peripheral airways, which results from bronchioles being plugged or blocked with mucus, pus or fluid. In addition and thickened walls of the peripheral airways and peribronchitis can make the affected bronchioles more visible, as is seen in patients with cystic fibrosis. HRCT interpretation

Looking for Paradise

"Looking for Paradise" is a 2009 single by singer Alejandro Sanz which features Alicia Keys. It is the first single from Paraíso Express. Released through Warner Music via music download on September 23, 2009; the song used in Ugly Betty's episode "All the World's a Stage". The music video was directed by Gil Green, filmed in Barcelona, Spain during September; the single was first released to a members-only section of Sanz's fan club website on September 18, 2009, as a preview of the material. Sanz said Billboard about the record: "I told Tommy Torres that I wanted it to have a British pop sound with the rock touch that the songs call for... Tommy did a perfect interpretation in that sense. Everything flowed in a natural way."In Brazil, the song was included in the international soundtrack of Tempos Modernos. The song entered the U. S. Billboard charts on the week of October 10, 2009, it debuted at number 10 on the Latin Pop Songs chart. On the next week, it rise to number 4; the song, so far, peaked at number 67 on the Billboard Radio Songs chart.

On the week of November 14, 2009, the song went to number 1 on the Billboard Latin Pop Songs chart and Tropical Songs chart. A week the song went to number 1 on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart; this was Keys' first number one on all three charts, which made her the first African-American of non-Hispanic origin to reach number 1 on the Hot Latin Tracks. List of number-one singles of 2009 List of number-one Billboard Hot Latin Songs of 2009 List of number-one Billboard Hot Latin Pop Airplay of 2009 List of number-one Billboard Hot Latin Pop Airplay of 2010 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics