Braunton Burrows is a sand dune system on the North Devon coast. It is owned and forms part of the Christie Devon Estates Trust. Braunton Burrows is the largest sand dune system in England, it is important ecologically because it includes the complete successional range of dune plant communities, with over 400 vascular plant species. The short turf communities are rich in lichens and herbs, the dune slacks are rich; the many rare plants and animals include 14 with UK Biodiversity Action Plans. For example, this is one of only two sites in the UK for the Amber Sandbowl Snail Catinella arenaria, found on the wet dune slacks; the Devon historian Tristram Risdon wrote as follows: "Santon is in the parish of Branton, not unaptly so termed the town by the sand not, that hath overblown many hundred acres of land. And near this hamlet the country people had so undermined a hill of sand, by digging it to carry it into to their grounds, that a great quantity thereof fell down, discovering the top of a tree, which by farther search was found to be thirty feet in length, so that it plainly appeareth this circuit of marsh land was in elder ages stored with woods and tall timber trees".
Similar stories exist in respect of the south coast of Glamorgan, across the Bristol Channel, regarding the Merthyr Mawr Sand Dunes which started shifting in the late 14th century and encroached on Kenfig Castle, resulting in its evacuation but which spared Candleston Castle, now surrounded by dunes. A lifeboat station was opened on Braunton Burrows in 1848, although its crew always came from the established Appledore Lifeboat Station on the other side of the estuary, it was closed in 1918 as it was difficult to find men and horses to launch the boat following World War I. It is used by local people, for a range of leisure activities dog-walking, from three large car parks adjacent to the site. There is a long tradition of scientific research botanical. Tourism is an important use of the area in summer; the more isolated parts of the Burrows are noted for naturism. Braunton Burrows played an important role during the Second World War. In 1943 Lieutenant Colonel Paul W. Thompson was tasked with training the Americans for their assault on the defended Normandy beaches.
All good training ground had been claimed by the British and so Thompson had no choice but to accept the Atlantic coast near Braunton. The perimeter of the land he needed did in fact stretch south from Mortehoe Station to Braunton, the River Caen to the Taw Torridge Estuary; every acre was needed for exercise and for rehearsals using live ammunition, tanks and air support – all of which became features of the US Assault Training Centre. The beaches here were ideal for amphibious exercises, despite the fierce Atlantic surf, the nearby sands were soon found to be identical to Omaha in every respect – including sand quality, beach gradient and tidal range. Anyone who has seen Omaha beach will recognise an uncanny resemblance to Woolacombe and Saunton. Thompson was tasked with teaching the troops how to neutralise the enemy beach defences and fight their way inland, although the second part of his mission was relocated to Slapton beach in South Devon. Ranges for all weapons were required in order to help the troops practice and construction of such ranges and other aids had to be carried out as the first units arrived in North Devon on 1 September 1943.
6 Replica landing craft made from concrete can still be found at the southern end of the Burrows. As winter approached, a permanent camp was needed. 505 Nissen huts were erected to house 4250 men. Some of the narrow country lanes were made one-way for ease of use and where no metalled roads existed temporary tracks were laid. One such track is the old ferry way, which extended from the south end of Sandy Lane across the back of the dunes to the White House near Crow Point; this road was widened and straightened and exists today as ‘the American Road’. The site is leased by the Ministry of Defence from the Christie Devon Estates Trust; the area is closed for 10 days per year for military training. The fact that it is so difficult to navigate makes it ideal for land-based exercises, although the sandy conditions are useful to all disciplines; the Royal Air Force sometimes use Saunton Sands to practice STOL beach landing and take off with the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. The Royal Marines occasionally use the beach to practice amphibious landings.
Situated at the south end of Braunton Burrows is Crow Point Lighthouse, which guides vessels navigating the Taw and Torridge estuary. Erected in 1954, the lighthouse is a small tubular steel structure, powered when first built by acetylene gas from 1978 by electricity and now by solar power following conversion in 1987, it is operated by Trinity House. The current light replaced a much larger structure, Braunton Lighthouse, which consisted of an octagonal wooden tower built on top of keepers' accommodation, 86 foot high in total. There was an associated low light; the low light was 300 metres to the north-west of the main light. The lower light was contained in a wooden shed mounted on a short railway running perpendicular to the shore, so that it could be moved to keep pace with the dynamically shifting shoals.
Bishop's Tawton is a village and civil parish in the North Devon district of Devon, England. It is in the valley of the River Taw, about three miles south of Barnstaple. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 1,176. Notable residents included Clara Codd, the suffragette and theosophist, born in Pill, Bishop's Tawton in October 1877; the spire of St John the Baptist church in the village is 14th century. Within the church, the baptismal font is Norman and there survive several mural monuments to the Chichester family of Hall. Several sources dating from the 16th and 17th centuries record that the see of the first bishop for Devon was at Tawton in 905, though by 909 the see was at Crediton. Any link between a possible 10th-century former bishop's church/cathedral and the extant Church of St John the Baptist is conjectural; the case for a brief bishopric at Tawton is far from proved, but there are remains of a modest bishop's "palace" at Court Farm, next to the parish church.
This residence was used for centuries by the diocesan bishops, until Tudor times, the parish was a bishop's peculiar. Hall, a seat of the Chichester family. Pill, a seat of the Chichester family. Accott, a seat of the Giffard family. Media related to Bishop's Tawton at Wikimedia Commons
Tawstock is a village, civil parish and former manor in North Devon in the English county of Devon, England. The parish is surrounded clockwise from the north by the parishes of Barnstaple, Bishop's Tawton, Yarnscombe, Horwood and Newton Tracey and Fremington. In 2001 it had a population of 2,093. St Peter's church is, unusually for Devon, a church of the 14th century; the plan is cruciform and the site is in the former park of the Earls of Bath. The collection of church monuments is fine: most of the persons commemorated are members of the family of the Earls, connections of theirs, or household officers. Features of interest include the 16th century gallery, the manorial pew of the Earls of Bath and two ceilings of Italian plasterwork; the tomb of Lady Fitzwarren and the monument of Rachel, Countess of Bath are in the south chancel aisle. The tomb of Sir John Wray is a large slate-covered tomb-chest with decorated slate back-plate; the tomb was at St Ive in Cornwall because a Wray had married a Bourchier in 1652 and it was brought here in 1924.
The manor of Tawstock was an important one in North Devon, being at times a residence of the feudal barons of Barnstaple. It was held successively by the families of de Totnes, de Braose, de Tracy, FitzMartin, FitzWarin, Hankford and Wrey; the present Wrey baronet still lives within the former manor and retains ownership of much of the land within the parish, but no longer owns Tawstock Court, the manor house. All that remains of the Elizabethan mansion re-built by William Bourchier, 3rd Earl of Bath is the gatehouse, with date-stone 1574; the house burned down in 1787 and was rebuilt in the Neo-Gothic style by about 1800. In about 1940 Rev. Sir Albany Bourchier Sherard Wrey, 13th Baronet, let Tawstock Court to St Michael's Preparatory School; the 14th Baronet sold it to the school which continued to occupy it until it went into administration in 2012. That year it was bought by a property investor and developer, as a private residence; as part of the sale the nursery school division of St Michael's School continued to operate as of 2013 in the stable blocks to the immediate west of the house.
The estate of Corffe belonged to the Hearle family, came to the Lovett family by the marriage of Edward Lovett, whose mural monument survives in Tawstock Church with Joan Hearle, the heiress of Corffe. The Lovett family is ancient and William Lovett is said to have been "Wolf Hunter" to William the Conqueror, hence the family's arms of Argent, three wolves passant in pale sable, which can be seen on various mural monuments in Tawstock Church; the family retained its ancient seat of Liscombe until 1907. Edward Lovett's sister Anne Lovett became the second wife of Edward Bourchier, 4th Earl of Bath, of Tawstock Court, but the marriage was without children, she married secondly to Baptist Noel, 3rd Viscount Campden. Sir Henry Northcote, 4th Baronet, a physician, married Penelope Lovett and heiress of Edward Lovett, he lived at Corffe, died there in 1730. His mural monument is situated in Tawstock Church. Sir Henry Northcote's elder brother was Sir Francis Northcote, 3rd Baronet, of Hayne in the parish of Newton St Cyres, the husband of Anne Wrey, a daughter of Sir Chichester Wrey, 3rd Baronet, who had married Lady Anne Bourchier, one of the three daughters and co-heiresses of Edward Bourchier, 4th Earl of Bath, heiress of Tawstock.
In 1790 Corffe was exchanged with the Rector of Tawstock for glebe land, the parsonage-house was built on the premises by the Rev. Bourchier William Wrey, rector in 1822; the advowson of Tawstock, thus control of the Rectory, was held by the Wrey family. Sir Robert Bourchier Sherard Wrey, 11th Baronet made Corffe his residence, having let Tawstock Court. Pevsner, N. North Devon. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Walter de Stapledon
Walter de Stapledon was Bishop of Exeter 1308–1326 and twice Lord High Treasurer of England, in 1320 and 1322. He founded Exeter College and contributed liberally to the rebuilding of Exeter Cathedral, his tomb and monument, of great architectural importance, survives in Exeter Cathedral. Walter Stapledon was born either at Stapledon in the parish of Cookbury, North Devon or at Annery in the parish of Monkleigh, he was the son of Sir Richard Stapledon, descended from a noble stock. The Stapledons originated at the estate of Stapledon, in the parish of Cookbury, near Holsworthy, Devon, his elder brother was Richard Stapledon of Annery, a judge, whose monument survives in Exeter Cathedral near that of his brother the bishop. On 13 March 1307 Stapledon was appointed Bishop of Exeter, was consecrated on 13 October 1308, he went on embassies to France for both Kings Edward I and Edward II, attended the councils and parliaments of his time. He was twice appointed Lord High Treasurer of England, in 1320 and 1322, Stapeldon founded Exeter College, which originated in Stapeldon Hall, established in 1314 by the bishop and his elder brother, Sir Richard Stapeldon, a judge of the king's bench, whose monument with effigy exists in Exeter Cathedral near to that of his brother.
The college was much frequented by sons of the Devonshire gentry for many centuries. The armorials of the college are those of Bishop Stapledon. Stapledon was associated in the popular mind with the misdeeds of King Edward II. On fleeing London before the advancing troops of Queen Isabella, that king appointed Stapledon Custos or "Keeper" of the City of London, the population of, in favour of the Queen. Foreseeing her forced entry into the City, Stapledon demanded from the Lord Mayor of London the keys to the gates, to lock her out; the following account is related by William de Dene in his History of the See of Rochester. A gathering of bishops took place at Lambeth Palace, south of the River Thames, aimed at arranging a mission of two of their number to convene peace talks between the warring king and queen in St Paul's Cathedral in the City; however all the bishops were wary of crossing the Thames into London, where the population was known to be hostile to them. The Bishop of London and Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, appear to have volunteered and crossed the Thames to convene at the Blackfriars, just outside the City gates.
Here they met with a group of the Kings Justices. When the Londoners heard of this they met in the Guildhall and plotted how to ambush and kill the two bishops, loot the merchants, sent out scouting parties to report on the route of their journey; the plot came to fruition. He was accompanied by his elder brother Richard de Stapledon, a Justice of Assizes for the western circuit, who in trying to save him was dragged from his horse and murdered; this is said by Prince to have happened as he rode through the city gate of Cripplegate, when a cripple grasped one of the forelegs of Sir Richard's horse and by crossing it threw the horse and rider to the ground, whereupon Sir Richard was murdered by the mob. Sir Richard's elaborate monument with effigies survives in Exeter Cathedral, near to that of his brother the bishop; the bishop fled for safety into St Paul's Cathedral. However he found no safety there as a mob entered and dragged him out and proceeded to beat and wound him and dragged him to the Great Cross at Cheapside "where those sons of the devil most barborously murdered him" on 15 October 1326.
His head was chopped off and his body was thrown onto a dunghill "to be torn and devoured by dogs". Some of his supporters took away his body and re-buried it in the sand of the shoreline of the River Thames next to the bishop's palace, Exeter House, beyond Temple Bar on The Strand, which site was occupied by Essex House, the townhouse of the Earl of Essex during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. About six months the Queen "reflecting how dishonourable a thing it was to suffer the corps of so great and good prelate to lie thus vilely buried" ordered his body to be disinterred and removed for burial in Exeter Cathedral, "there to be honoured with most magnificent exequies", which duly occurred on 28 March 1327. A lengthy epitaph in Latin verse was composed by John Hooker and was inscribed on a heavy wooden tablet erected in 1568 over his tomb at the expense of Bishop William Alleigh; this was still in place at the time of Prince. It was destroyed in 1805 by Bishop John Fisher, who erected in its place coronet-work in gilded stone.
A shorter Latin eulogy inscribed on three white marble tablets survives attached to the north side of the monument. Stapledon's monument is located in Exeter Cathedral in the choir on the north side of the high altar, is the cathedral's most important 14th-century monument, it consists of a recumbent effigy within a gothic canopy all made of Beer stone. The colour scheme dates from an early 19th-century restoration since restored again; the effigy is shown in pontificalibus and holds in his left hand a crozier and in his right hand a book. On the outside of the tomb at his feet is shown a heraldic escutcheon bearing the bishop's arms. On the ceiling of the canopy, invisible to the casual observer, but looking down onto the bishop's effigy is a contemporary painting of Christ displaying his Five Holy Wounds. In 1733 the monument was repaired at the cost of Exeter College, his foundation, was re-painted with bright colours. In the summer of 1805 however at the direction of Bishop John Fisher the removal was effect
North Tawton is a small town in Devon, situated on the river Taw. It is administered by West Devon Council; the population of the electoral ward at the census 2011 was 2,026. Romans crossed the River Taw at what is now Newland Mill, a little outside the present town, established a succession of military camps there over the years; the Roman fort is believed to have had the name Nemetostatio, meaning "The road-station of the sacred groves", may have been located on the site of an ancient druidic sanctuary. It covered an area of 600 ft east-west by 390 ft, was located adjoining the Roman road between Isca Dumnoniorum and Okehampton. In addition, the site of a temporary marching camp has been identified half a mile to the north. By the time of the Domesday survey, there were six farm / manor holdings in what is now North Tawton Parish, including that of Tawton, the forerunner of the town we know today. St Peter's Church is first recorded in 1257. Only the tower of the present building dates from that time, with the rest being 14th and 15th century.
The tower is topped by an oak-shingled spire. There are a number of old benchends. North Tawton was a market town by the end of the 12th century. Agriculture and the woollen industry provided the chief sources of employment for many centuries, but the former has much declined as a source of employment and the latter has gone altogether, the last town woollen mill closing in 1930; the railway came to North Tawton in 1865. North Tawton railway station lies a mile or two outside the town on the line from Exeter to Okehampton which continued on to Plymouth and Cornwall, it closed to through passenger traffic in 1968, although a shuttle service between Okehampton and Exeter continued until 1972. Bathe Pool, a grassy hollow near North Tawton, is said to fill with water at times of national crisis; the former panier open air market became a cinema. Broad Hall is a house dated 1680 but it incorporates the remains of a house of the 15th century. Burton Hall is a mid-Victorian villa, brought from Norway. Cottles Barton is an Elizabethan manor house one mile south of the town.
Newland Mill on the outside of the village used to be a former mill house. It was refurbished into living accommodations with the original watermill and wheelhouse incorporated; the town has become something of a centre for light industry. There are three significant employers in the town: the haulier Gregory Distribution, which grew from a local concern founded in the 1920s and now employs 300 locally, the Taw Valley Creamery—a cheese factory built by Express Dairies in 1974, employing over 100, the pet products wholesaler Vital Pet Products employing over 100 people; the population stands at around 2,026. This is small for a "town", but as a former market town North Tawton has retained this title, is designated a Post Town by the Royal Mail. There are a number of bus services: 5B – Barnstaple to Exeter 5A – Okehampton / Hatherleigh to Exeter 318 – Okehampton The doctor William Budd was born in the town, son of Samuel Budd, the local surgeon, his researches into the incidence of typhoid during an epidemic in the town led to him establishing that typhoid fever was spread contagiously, in particular that the infection was excreted and could be contracted by drinking contaminated water.
This discovery contributed to national improvements in public health through improved sanitation. The poet Ted Hughes bought a house, Court Green, in North Tawton in 1961 with his then-wife Sylvia Plath, who lived there with him until their separation in December 1962. Ted Hughes moved his partner Assia Wevill into Court Green where Assia helped care for Hughes' and Plath's two children and Nicholas. In due course Hughes made North Tawton his permanent home, until his fatal myocardial infarction in a Southwark, hospital on 28 October 1998, while undergoing treatment for colon cancer. In 2005, North Tawton was chosen as the location for the filming of Jennifer Saunders' BBC television series Jam & Jerusalem; the town represents the fictional Clatterford St Mary. The Church and Town Hall feature prominently in the series, some of the acting'extras' for the series were recruited locally. Wednesday, 4 September 1765, John Wesley – "I rode on to North Tawton, a village where several of our preachers had preached occasionally.
About six I went to the door of our inn. After I had named my text, I said, "There may be some truths; the minister cried out, "That is false doctrine, predestination." The roar began. One of the gentlemen supplied their place, he assured us he was such. Dog, rascal and the like terms, adorned every sentence. Finding there was no probability of a quiet hearing, I left him the field, withdrew to my lodging." The nearby Den Brook Wind Farm and the residents local to it were featured in a four-part BBC documentary called Windfarm Wars. Broadcast in 2011, the documentary covered the seven years of legal processes involved with the windfarm receiving planning permission; the windfarm was constructed in 2016. Alison Baker, David Hoare & Jean Shields, The Book
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. They are a common feature of river deltas; the phenomenon is known as river bifurcation. The opposite of a distributary is a tributary. Distributaries occur as a stream nears a lake or an ocean, but they can occur inland as well, such as on alluvial fans or when a tributary stream bifurcates as it nears its confluence with a larger stream. In some cases, a minor distributary can divert so much water from the main channel that it can become the main route. Common terms to name individual river distributaries in English-speaking countries are arm and channel, they may refer to a distributary that does not rejoin the channel it has branched from, or to one that does. In Australia, the term anabranch is used to refer to a distributary that diverts from the main course of the river and rejoins it later. In North America an anabranch is called a braided stream. In Louisiana, the Atchafalaya River is an important distributary of the Mississippi River.
Because the Atchafalaya takes a steeper route to the Gulf of Mexico than the main channel, over several decades it has captured more and more of the Mississippi's flow, after the Mississippi meandered into the Red River of the South. The Old River Control Structure, a dam which regulates the outflow from the Mississippi into the Atchafalaya, was completed by the Army corps of engineers in 1963, it is intended to prevent the Atchafalaya from capturing the main flow of the Mississippi and stranding the ports of Baton Rouge and New Orleans. In British Columbia, the Fraser River has numerous sloughs and side-channels which may be defined as distributaries, its final stretch has three main distributaries: the North Arm and the South Arm, a few smaller ones adjoining them. Examples of inland distributaries: Teton River—a tributary of Henrys Fork in Idaho—splits into two distributary channels, the North Fork and South Fork, which join Henrys Fork miles apart. Parting of the Waters National Landmark within Wyoming's Teton Wilderness on the Continental Divide where North Two Ocean Creek splits into two distributaries, Pacific Creek and Atlantic Creek, which flow into their respective oceans.
Kings River has deposited a large alluvial fan at the transition from its canyon in the Sierra Nevada mountains to the flat Central Valley. Distributaries flow north into the Pacific Ocean via the San Joaquin River and south into an endorheic basin surrounding Tulare Lake; the Qu'Appelle River, in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, is a distributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Its flow is controlled by the Qu'Appelle River Dam; this dam forms the southern arm of Lake Diefenbaker. The Casiquiare is an inland distributary of the upper Orinoco, which flows southward into the Rio Negro and forms a unique natural canal between the Orinoco and Amazon river systems, it is the largest river on the planet. The IJssel, the Waal and the Nederrijn are the three principal distributaries of the Rhine; these are formed by two separate bifurcations within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. The Akhtuba River is a major distributary of the Volga; the bifurcation occurs close to, but before, the Volga Delta. The Tärendö River in northern Sweden is an inland distributary, far from the mouth of the river.
It ends at the Kalix River. The Little Danube in Slovakia branches off from the Danube near Bratislava, flows into the Vah before rejoining the main river near Komárno; the area in the middle is the largest freshwater island in Europe. The Abbey River, Limerick, in Ireland is a distributary arm of the River Shannon, it rejoins the Shannon to form an island upon. The Huai River in China splits into three streams; the main stream passes through the Sanhe Sluice, goes out of the Sanhe river, enters the Yangtze River through Baoying Lake and Gaoyou Lake. On the east bank of Hongze Lake, another stream goes out of Gaoliangjian Gate and enters the Yellow Sea at the port of Bidan through Subei Guan'gai Zongqu, the main irrigation channel of Northern Jiangsu); the third stream leaves the Erhe lock on the northeast bank of Hongze Lake, passes the Huaishuhe River to the north of Lianyungang city, flows into Haizhou Bay through the Hongkou. Kollidam River is a distributary of the Kaveri River. Himalayan rivers including Ganges and Indus plus many tributaries form inland distributaries over vast alluvial fans as they transition from the mountain region to the flat Indo-Gangetic Plain.
These areas are flood-prone, for example the 2008 Bihar flood on the Kosi River. Hoogli River is a Ganges distributary that flows through India, whereas most of the Ganges-Brahmaputra complex enters the sea through Bangladesh. Nara River is a distributary of the Indus River; the Nile River has the Rosetta and the Damietta branches. According to Pliny the Elder it had in ancient times seven distributaries: The Pelusiac The Tanitic The Mendesian The Phatnitic The Sebennytic The Bolbitine The CanopicSee History of the Nile Delta; the Okavango River ends in many distributaries in a large inland delta called the Okavango Delta. It is an example of distributaries. A number of the rivers that flow inland from Australia's Great Dividing Range form distributaries, most of which flow only intermittently during times of high river levels and end in shallow lakes or peter out in the deserts. Yarriambiack Creek, which
Bishop of Exeter
The Bishop of Exeter is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Exeter in the Province of Canterbury. The current incumbent, since 30 April 2014, is Robert Atwell; the incumbent signs his name as his Christian name or forename followed by Exon. abbreviated from the Latin Episcopus Exoniensis. From the first bishop until the sixteenth century the Bishops of Exeter were in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. However, during the Reformation the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church, at first temporarily and more permanently. Since the Reformation, the Bishop and Diocese of Exeter has been part of the reformed and catholic Church of England; the bishop's residence is Exeter. The history of Christianity in the South West of England remains to some degree obscure. At a certain point the historical county of Devon formed part of the diocese of Wessex. About 703 Devon and Cornwall were included in the separate Diocese of Sherborne and in 900 this was again divided, the Devon bishop having from 905 his seat at Tawton and from 912 at Crediton, birthplace of St Boniface.
Lyfing became Bishop of Crediton in 1027 and shortly afterwards became Bishop of Cornwall. According to Tristram Risdon, the present village of Bishops Tawton, on the River Taw two miles south of Barnstaple in North Devon, was the earliest bishop's see in the shire of Devon, when in 905 "Edward, surnamed Senior, a nurse-father of the church, finding these western parts to want ecclesiastical discipline, by the advice of Pleymond, Archbishop of Canterbury, ordained a provincial synod and decreed that three new bishops should be consecrated, whereupon Edulph was appointed to Wells, Herstan to Cornwall and Werstan to Devon, who had here his see, where after him one only of his successors sat being hence removed to Crediton". Werstan's successor appears to have been Putta, murdered whilst travelling from his see at Tawton to visit the Saxon viceroy Uffa, whose residence was at Crediton, it is believed that Copplestone Cross, mentioned in a charter dated 947 and situated 6 miles north-west of Crediton and 22 miles south-east of Bishops Tawton, was erected in commemoration of his murder.
The Diocese of Crediton was created out of the Diocese of Sherborne in 909 to cover the area of Devon and Cornwall. Crediton was chosen as the site for its cathedral due it having been the birthplace of Saint Boniface and the existence of a monastery there. In 1046, Leofric became the Bishop of Crediton. Following his appointment he decided that the see should be moved to the larger and more culturally significant and defensible walled town of Exeter. In 1050, King Edward the Confessor authorised that Exeter was to be the seat of the bishop for Devon and Cornwall and that a cathedral was to be built there for the bishop's throne. Thus, Leofric became the first Bishop of Exeter; the two dioceses of Crediton and Cornwall, covering Devon and Cornwall, were permanently united under Edward the Confessor by Lyfing's successor Leofric, hitherto Bishop of Crediton, who became first Bishop of Exeter under Edward the Confessor, established as his cathedral city in 1050. At first the Abbey Church of St Mary and St Peter, founded by Athelstan in 932, rebuilt in 1019, etc. demolished 1971, served as the cathedral.
The present cathedral was begun by William de Warelhurst in 1112, the transept towers he built being the only surviving part of the Norman building, completed by Marshall at the close of the twelfth century. The cathedral is dedicated to St Peter; as it now stands, the cathedral is in the decorated style. It was begun by Peter Quinel, continued by Bytton and Stapeldon, completed, much as it has since remained, by John Grandisson during his long tenure of 42 years. In many respects Exeter cathedral resembles those of France rather than others found in England, its special features are the choir, containing much early stained glass. There is an episcopal throne, separated from the nave by a choir screen and a stately West front. In a comparison with certain other English cathedrals, it is disadvantaged by the absence of a central tower and a general lack of elevation, but it is undoubtedly fine; the bishops of Exeter, like the general population of the diocese, always enjoyed considerable independence, the see was one of the largest and richest in England.
The remoteness of the see from London prevented it from being bestowed on statesmen or courtiers, so that over the centuries the roll of bishops possessed more capable scholars and administrators than in many other sees. The result was a long and stable line of bishops, leading to active Christian observance in the area; the diocese contained 604 parishes grouped in four archdeaconries: Cornwall, Barnstaple and Totnes. There were Benedictine, Premonstratensian and Dominican religious houses, four Cistercian abbeys; this wealthy diocese was forced to cede land during the reign of Henry VIII, when Vesey was obliged to surrender fourteen of twenty-two manors, the value of the see was reduced to a third of what it had been. Vesey, despite his Catholic sympathies, held the see until 1551, when he had to resign, was replaced by the Bible translator Miles Coverdale. Following the accession of Mary, in 1553, Vesey was restored, but died soon after in 1554, he was succeeded by the last Catholic Bishop of Exeter.
Turberville was removed from the see by the Reformist Elizabeth I in 1559, died in prison in or about 1570. Henry Phillpotts served as Bishop of Exeter from 1830 to his death in office in 1869, he was En