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River Teme

The River Teme rises in Mid Wales, south of Newtown, flows through Knighton where it crosses the border into England down to Ludlow in Shropshire to the north of Tenbury Wells on the Shropshire/Worcestershire border there, on its way to join the River Severn south of Worcester. The whole of the River Teme was designated as an SSSI, by English Nature, in 1996; the river is crossed by a number of historic bridges including one at Tenbury Wells, rebuilt by Thomas Telford following flood damage in 1795. It is crossed, several times, by the Elan aqueduct; the name Teme is similar to many other river names in England, testament to the name's ancient origin. Similar names include River Thames, River Thame, River Tame and River Tamar. Scholars now believe these names and the older names Temese and Tamesis derive from Brythonic Tamesa meaning'the dark one'; the river source is in Mid Wales on Cilfaesty Hill in the Kerry Hills near Dolfor, south of Newtown, Powys. Two other rivers - the River Ithon and the River Mule - rise within 500 metres.

It flows across the border into England through Knighton. From there to its confluence with the River Severn, at Worcester it flows through the counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire; the upper reaches of the river are steep with fast flowing but shallow waters. There are some water mills, a number of weirs, including several at the historic town of Ludlow. Below Tenbury Wells the river is still shallow, with strong cross currents. Water levels in the Teme are variable, something, made worse in recent years through increases in water extraction for agriculture use. During its journey the river flows over Devonian sandstones; the River Clun flows into the Teme at Leintwardine in north Herefordshire. The River Corve flows into the Teme just outside Ludlow and the Ledwyche Brook flows into the Teme at Burford, close to the Herefordshire/Shropshire/Worcestershire tripoint; the Kyre Brook flows into the Teme at Tenbury Wells, the River Rea flows into the Teme at Newnham Bridge, Worcestershire, a few miles south of Cleobury Mortimer, a small Shropshire town.

The river is the 16th longest river in the United Kingdom. It falls nearly 500 metres during its length from a height of 506 metres above sea level at its source to just 14 metres above sea-level at its confluence with the River Severn; the Teme has in recent times bursts its banks. June and July 2007 saw serious floods in a number of areas, including Leintwardine, Tenbury Wells and Ludlow although the watercourse that flooded the last location was a tributary, the River Corve. However, the upper reaches are prone to drying out, noted by the Environment Agency to occur every three years in the past 20 years; the Teme is a clean river and after many years of decline the population of otters is recovering, but obstructions keep salmon numbers at a low level. Fishing is a popular sport on many parts of the River Teme, with its barbel fishing being noted. Leisure boats have long been used on the river and rowing boats can still be hired at The Linney Park, Ludlow. An annual coracle regatta has been held on the Teme.

In June 2005 it was held at Leintwardine. In June 2006, the 12th regatta was held at Mortimer's Cross. A Countryside Agency report in September 2003 entitled Improving access for canoeing on inland waterways: A study of the feasibility of access agreements stated: There are no formal access agreements for canoeing on the Teme. However, unlawful canoeing does occur and there are many claims about the resulting conflict; as a result of its character, the demand for canoeing is seasonal, when there is enough water in the river, is more in the upper reaches where the faster water can be found. However, this part of the river is the most valuable for fishing, with riparian owners keen to protect their interests and prevent canoeing, on the grounds that the Teme is not suited to canoeing under any circumstances. While there is less conflict below Tenbury, there is less interest in canoeing, less opportunity, given the water levels. Information on canoeing on the Teme in the Ludlow area is available here and on the Tenbury Wells to Broadwas area here.

Historical evidence of leisure boating includes: Old maps show a few boat houses along the river in Worcestershire. Billings Directory 1855 mentions Boat House, evidently a farmhouse, at Eastham. Boat House Farm still exists at Eastham The boathouse at Newnham Bridge was large enough, substantial enough, to be converted into a house. At Tenbury Wells in 1886, people were rescued during floods using a boat that had broken loose from its mooring so there must have been at least one boat on the river at that time. Down Along Temeside includes an account of travelling by boat from Ludford Mill to Orleton in the early 20th century. Tenbury Wells and the Teme Valley includes a photograph taken at Little Hereford described as'Boating on the Teme in 1905'; the author mentions two gentlemen from Oxford who in 1894 travelled up the Teme from Worcester to Ludlow in 17.5 hours, returned in 9 hours. The final 1.5 miles from Powick bridge and Mill to its confluence with the river Severn that the Teme is navigable.

There was a coal wharf near Powick Bridge, belonging with the mill, whose owner had the right to use a towing path to the river Severn. In the 18th century, pig iron was brought up the river to Powick forge. In 1810 it was reported that "The Teme is navigable for barges from its junction wit

Peter Simpson (Native rights activist)

Peter Simpson was a Canadian-born Tsimshian activist for Alaska Native rights, co-owner of the first Indian-owned business in Alaska. Peter Simpson was most born July 4, 1871, in Metlakatla, British Columbia or Lax Kw'alaams, B. C. though there is conflicting information on his place of birth. He was listed as twenty-three years old in 1887 when 800 Tsimshians from "Old Metlakatla," B. C. founded the community of "New Metlakatla," Alaska. He was a member of the Gispwudwada of the Tsimshian and was raised by an uncle and aunt and Alice Ridley, he was related to the Rev. Edward Marsden, he was well liked by the Anglican lay minister William Duncan, founder of the Christian utopian communities at both Old and New Metlakatla. When Simpson was a young man, he was one of the eight people sent in a canoe by Duncan from New Metlakatla to dismantle the church they had left behind at Old Metlakatla. In one version of the story they hacked it to pieces and burned it to the ground and escaped back to Alaska before they could face prosecution.

Not all histories of Old Metlakatla record this as the cause of the fire that destroyed the church in 1901. Simpson along with another Metlakatla Tsimshian, Mark Hamilton, were the principal investors in the sawmill community of Port Gravina, near Ketchikan, from its founding in 1892 until it burned in 1904; this was an offshoot of the Metlakatla community, one committed to Presbyterianism under Marsden. After the fire, Simpson moved to Juneau, to Sitka where he was the owner of a boat-building business. In 1912, Simpson became chairman of the committee, to form the Alaska Native Brotherhood, the committee's only non-Tlingit member, he is considered the father of the ANB and "the father of Land Claims" in Alaska, the long process that led to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, long after his death. Simpson is known for his famous quotation, uttered to the Tlingit land-claims activist William Paul at the 1925 ANB convention: "Willie, who owns this land?" William Paul: "We do." Peter Simpson: "Then fight for it."

One biography of Paul, Then Fight for It, by Fred Paul, derives its title from this exchange. Simpson helped build Sitka's sawmill in 1935 and was involved in the life of the Sheldon Jackson School there; the school's workboat the SJS was built by Simpson in 1936, in 1942 it became a U. S. Navy patrol boat. Simpson's wife, Mary Sloan, was a Tlingit from Sitka, they raised fifteen children. He died December 1947, in Sitka. Johnson, Gertrude Mather "The Life of Peter Simpson." In Haa Kusteeyí, Our Culture: Tlingit Life Stories, ed. by Nora Marks Dauenhauer and Richard Dauenhauer, pp. 665–676. Seattle: University of Washington Press. "Canadian Tsimshian Was A Leader For Alaska Native Rights Peter Simpson Also Owned Alaska's First Native Business" By DAVE KIFFER

2013 Race of Champions

The 2013 Race of Champions was due to be the 26th running of the Race of Champions, was due to take place over 14–15 December 2013 at the Rajamangala Stadium in Bangkok, Thailand. However the event was cancelled on 2 December due to political unrest in Bangkok. Champions from numerous series were invited, while invited was nine-time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner Tom Kristensen. Listed below are drivers, announced to compete prior to the event's cancellation. Cars, announced. Ariel Atom Audi R8 LMS KTM X-Bow Euro Racecar ROC Car Toyota GT86 Volkswagen Scirocco A 697 metres tarmac track was constructed in the Rajamangala Stadium; the track had a bridge to connect the outer lane with the inner lane in an 8 shape track. All the races were planned to be 2 laps. Official website

Frank Harold Taylor

Lieutenant Frank Harold Taylor was a Canadian-born flying ace. During World War I, he was credited with ten aerial victories. Frank Harold Taylor was Toronto born, he was a student during the start of World War I, joined the Canadian militia circa February 1916 and became a lieutenant. On 13 September 1916, he joined the Canadian Expeditionary Force for overseas service, he subsequently served in two battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force before transferring to the Royal Flying Corps. Taylor was confirmed in rank as a Temporary second lieutenant with the RFC on 10 September 1917, he was assigned to 41 Squadron in September 1917 as an Airco DH.5 pilot. He scored his first victory with serial number B667, helping Russell Winnicott, Loudoun MacLean, Meredith Thomas destroy a German reconnaissance two-seater plane over Rumilly; the squadron re-equipped with newer Royal Aircraft Factory SE.5as. Flying SE-5a serial number C1752, the young pilot teamed with fellow Canadian Harry Watson to destroy an Albatros D.

V over Vitry on 25 January 1918. Taylor would use the same plane for six more wins in the latter part of March, capped by the destruction of another Albatros D. V at 0900 hours on 24 March 1918, followed by a successful balloon busting within the hour. In May 1918, Taylor returned to Canada for home leave. Upon his return, he was assigned to 84 Squadron. Using SE.5a serial F855, he scored two final victories, on 3 and 10 November 1918. His final tally was an observation balloon and five enemy planes destroyed solo, two enemy planes destroyed in joint attacks, two German planes driven down out of control. Taylor gave up his commission and became unemployed by the Royal Air Force on 16 September 1919. Frank Harold Taylor died on Long Island, New York, on 7 June 1985. Text of citation for award of the Military Cross For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On one occasion, whilst on offensive patrol, he shot down a hostile scout in flames and a second out of control. On the following day he shot down an enemy triplane, which crashed to earth.

During the recent operations he has carried out many successful attacks on enemy infantry from low altitudes, has taken part in over 80 offensive patrols. His gallantry and good service merit the highest praise

Aumann's agreement theorem

In game theory, Aumann's agreement theorem is a theorem which demonstrates that rational agents with common knowledge of each other's beliefs cannot agree to disagree. It was first formulated in the 1976 paper titled "Agreeing to Disagree" by Robert Aumann, after whom the theorem is named. Aumann's agreement theorem says that two people acting rationally and with common knowledge of each other's beliefs cannot agree to disagree. More if two people are genuine Bayesian rationalists with common priors, if they each have common knowledge of their individual posterior probabilities their posteriors must be equal; this theorem holds if the people's individual posteriors are based on different observed information about the world. Knowing that another agent observed some information and came to their respective conclusion will force each to revise their beliefs, resulting in total agreement on the correct posterior. Thus, two rational Bayesian agents with the same priors and who know each other's posteriors will have to agree.

A question arises whether such an agreement can be reached in a reasonable time and, from a mathematical perspective, whether this can be done efficiently. Scott Aaronson has shown. Of course, the assumption of common priors may not hold in practice. However, Robin Hanson has presented an argument that Bayesians who agree about the processes that gave rise to their priors should, if they adhere to a certain pre-rationality condition, have common priors. Studying the same issue from a different perspective, a research paper by Ziv Hellman considers what happens if priors are not common; the paper presents a way to measure. If this distance is ε under common knowledge, disagreement on events is always bounded from above by ε; when ε goes to zero, Aumann's original agreement theorem is recapitulated. In a 2013 paper, Joseph Halpern and Willemien Kets argued that "players can agree to disagree in the presence of ambiguity if there is a common prior, but that allowing for ambiguity is more restrictive than assuming heterogeneous priors."

Bliss v Canada (AG)

Bliss v Canada 1 S. C. R. 183 is a famous Supreme Court of Canada decision on equality rights for women under the Canadian Bill of Rights. The Court held that women were not entitled to benefits denied to them by the Unemployment Insurance Act during a certain period of pregnancy; this case has since become the prime example demonstrating the inadequacies of the Canadian Bill of Rights in protecting individuals' rights. This ruling was overturned in Brooks v. Canada Safeway Ltd. 1 SCR 1219. Stella Bliss had to leave her work due to pregnancy four days before giving birth. Due to her situation she was not entitled to full benefits under section 30 of the Act, but rather she was subject to section 46 which denied her benefits for a period of six weeks after childbirth. Bliss challenged the limitation of benefits under section 46 as a violation of section 1 of the Bill of Rights which protects against discrimination based on sex and ensures "the right of the individual to equality before the law and the protection of the law".

Bliss claimed that the law violated her right to "equality before the law". The Board of Referees, the employment tribunal of the day, rejected her claim, however on appeal to the "Umpire" she succeeded. At the Federal Court of Appeal the Umpire's decision was overturned. Justice Ritchie, writing for a unanimous court, held that the Act was valid and did not violate the Bill of Rights equality provision. Richie noted that the Act was a complete code that took into account the interests of women, "any inequality between the sexes in this area is not created by legislation but by nature." This means that while the Bill of Rights guards against sex discrimination, in this case the discrimination was not against women but pregnant people. He rejected the argument that section 46 denied "equality before the law" and found that the Act was a valid exercise of Parliament's authority to create legislation; the decision in this case influenced the equality rights in section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

In Brooks v. Safeway Canada, the Supreme Court overturned Bliss; the Court found discrimination against pregnant people to be discrimination against women under the provincial Human Rights Code of Manitoba. Like Bliss, Brooks was not a Charter case, though the Court did consider a definition of discrimination under the Charter case Andrews v. Law Society of British Columbia. Stella Bliss died of brain cancer at age 56 in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1997. Gender equality List of gender equality lawsuits Full text of Supreme Court of Canada decision at LexUM and CanLII