Union Bridge (Tweed)
The Union Bridge known as the Union Suspension Bridge or Union Chain Bridge, is a suspension bridge that spans the River Tweed between Horncliffe, Northumberland and Fishwick, Scotland. In so doing it spans the border between England and Scotland; when it opened in 1820 it was the longest wrought iron suspension bridge in the world with a span of 449 feet, the first vehicular bridge of its type in the United Kingdom. Although work started on the Menai Suspension Bridge first, the Union Bridge was completed earlier. Today it is the oldest suspension bridge still carrying road traffic and is a Category A listed building in Scotland and a Grade I listed building in England, it lies on the Pennine Cycleway. Before the opening of the Union Bridge, crossing the river at this point involved an 11-mile round trip via Berwick-upon-Tweed downstream or a 20-mile trip via Coldstream upstream; the bridge was designed by Captain Samuel Brown. Brown joined the Navy in 1795, seeing the need for an improvement on the hemp ropes used, which failed with resulting loss to shipping, he employed blacksmiths to create experimental wrought iron chains.
HMS Penelope was fitted with iron rigging in 1806, in a test voyage proved successful enough that in 1808, with his cousin Samuel Lenox, he set up a company that would become Brown Lenox & Co. Brown left the Navy in 1812, in 1813 he built a prototype suspension bridge of 105 feet span, using 296 stone of iron, it was sufficiently strong to support a carriage, John Rennie and Thomas Telford reported favourably upon it. Brown took out a patent in 1816 for a method of manufacturing chains, followed by a patent titled Construction of a Bridge by the Formation and Uniting of its Component Parts in July 1817. In around 1817, Brown proposed a 1,000 feet span bridge over the River Mersey at Runcorn, but this bridge was not built, it is not known why Brown became involved with the Union Bridge project, but agreed to take on the work based on a specification dated September 1818. Brown knew little of masonry, Rennie did this aspect of the work; the bridge proposal received consent in July 1819, with the authority of an Act of Parliament, passed in 1802, construction began on 2 August 1819.
It opened on 26 July the following year, with an opening ceremony attended by the celebrated Scottish civil engineer Robert Stevenson among others. Captain Brown tested the bridge in a curricle towing twelve carts, before a crowd of about 700 spectators crossed; until 1885, tolls were charged for crossing the bridge. With the abolition of turnpike tolls in 1883, maintenance of the bridge passed to the Tweed Bridges Trust; when the Trust was wound up, the bridge became the responsibility of Scottish Borders Council and Northumberland County Council and it is now maintained by the County Council. In addition to the 1902 addition of cables, the bridge has been strengthened and refurbished on many occasions; the bridge deck was renewed in 1871, again in 1974, with the chains reinforced at intervals throughout its life. The bridge was closed to motor vehicles for several months during 2007. A newspaper report available online indicates that the closure happened shortly before 12 April 2007 and was due to one of the bridge hangers breaking.
The affected hanger has temporarily been replaced with a threaded bar to allow the bridge to reopen to motor vehicles. In December 2008 the bridge was closed to traffic as a result of a landslide. In March 2013 the media reported a proposal to close the bridge because of a lack of funds to maintain it. In October 2014, it was reported that local enthusiasts and activists had started a campaign to have the bridge restored in time for its bicentenary in 2020. In 2013, the bridge was placed on Historic England's Heritage at Risk register. In August 2017, Scottish Borders Council agreed to contribute £1 million towards a proposed £7.8 million upgrade of the bridge. The bridge has a single span of 449 feet, it runs with the western end in Scotland and the eastern end in England. At the Scottish end the road continues straight, but at the English end it turns south; the website of the Friends of the Union Chain Bridge
Tweedsmuir is a village and civil parish in Tweeddale, the Scottish Borders Council district, southeastern Scotland. The village is set in a valley, with the rolling hills and burns on both sides, covering some fifty square miles, it incorporates settlements at Hearthstane, Cockiland and Oliver. Tweedsmuir was in the historic former county of Peeblesshire, it is situated 8 miles from the source of the River Tweed. Oliver Castle was one of the local strongholds, country estates, of the Clan Tweedie family; the Parish Church of Tweedsmuir was built with Scottish red sandstone. There are notable Tweedie gravestones in the parish churchyard; the Crook Inn is in the village, on the A701. It is one of many claimants to be the oldest inn in Scotland, it is where Robert Burns wrote "Willie Wastle's Wife". The 22 MW Glenkerie wind farm of Infinis is located 3.1 miles northwest of the village. The Talla Reservoir is nearby. In 1894 the Edinburgh and District Water Trustees decided to build Talla as the new source of water for Edinburgh.
The surface and the gradient of the main road were unsuitable for carting the quantities of material that would be needed for the new reservoir, so the Talla Railway was built from Broughton to Talla. While work on the railway and the reservoir was in progress, a large number of workmen lived in Tweedsmuir increasing the population; the valve-closing ceremony was held at Talla on 20 May 1905, on 28 September, when the reservoir was about two-fifths full, there was an inaugural ceremony. The large company was brought from Edinburgh in two special trains, which were hauled for the last stage of the journey, from Broughton Station, by small service engines on the Talla railway. Fruid Reservoir is nearby. List of places in the Scottish Borders Scott, Sheila: Tales of Tweedsmuir: glimpses of an Upland Parish in the Past. Borders Family History Society: article on Tweedsmuir
National scenic area (Scotland)
National scenic area is a conservation designation used in Scotland, administered by Scottish Natural Heritage. The designation's purpose is to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to protect them from inappropriate development. There are 40 national scenic areas in Scotland, covering 13% of the land area of Scotland; the areas protected by the designation are considered to represent the type of scenic beauty "popularly associated with Scotland and for which it is renowned". As such they tend to be found in the remote, mountainous areas of Scotland, with an SNH review in 1997 noting a potential weakness of national scenic areas was that the original selection placed undue emphasis on the mountainous parts of Scotland. National scenic areas do however cover seascapes, with 26% of the total area protected by the designation being marine; the designation is concerned with scenic qualities, although designated national scenic areas may well have other special qualities, for example related to culture, archaeology, geology or wildlife.
Areas with such qualities may be protected by other designations that overlap with the NSA designation. National scenic areas are designated by the IUCN as Category V Protected Landscapes, the same international category as Scotland's two national parks. Within the United Kingdom the NSA designation is regarded as equivalent to the Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty of England and Wales; the national scenic area designation does not have a high profile when compared to other conservation designations used in Scotland: in 2018 a survey by the National Trust for Scotland found that only 20 % of Scots were "definitely aware" of national scenic areas, compared to 80 % for National Parks. After the Second World War, the Labour government passed the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, which led to the creation of ten national parks in England and Wales between 1951 and 1957, although no parks were created in Scotland. A committee, chaired by Sir Douglas Ramsay, was however established to consider preservation of the landscape in Scotland.
The report, published in 1945, proposed. Accordingly, the government designated these areas as "national park direction areas", giving powers for planning decisions taken by local authorities to be reviewed by central government. After a further review of landscape protection in 1978, additional areas were identified for protection, in 1981 the direction areas were replaced by national scenic areas, which were based on the 1978 recommendations. SNH reviewed the national scenic areas between November 2007 and March 2009 to try to identify what makes the scenery of each NSA special; the current national scenic areas, which therefore remain as mapped in 1978, were redesignated in 2010. Despite calls from bodies such as the John Muir Trust for the protection to be extended to other areas to protect landscape and support tourism, the Scottish Government has stated that it has no plans to designate further areas. In September 2017 the Scottish Parliament's Public Petitions Committee asked the government to explain why it is not reviewing the NSAs.
There is no equivalent to a national park authority for national scenic areas, rather it is a designation to provide an additional level of protection to specified areas. For developments that would ordinarily require only local authority planning permission the Scottish Government must be informed if advice from Scottish Natural Heritage is ignored. Additionally, there are some classes of development that would not require planning permission to proceed when located outwith a national scenic area, but which are subject to controls within them; these developments include the erection of agricultural and forestry buildings over 12 m high, the construction of vehicle tracks for agriculture or forestry purposes, local authority roadworks outside present road boundaries costing more than £100,000. Local authorities can produce a management strategy for each of the NSA within its territory; this strategy defines the area's special qualities and identifies the actions needed to safeguard them. As of 2018, only the three national scenic areas within Dumfries and Galloway have current management strategies.
Public access to all land in Scotland is governed by the Land Reform Act 2003, which grants the public a right of responsible access to most land for activities such as walking, cycling, canoeing and climbing. In 2010 there were 40 national scenic areas: Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Protected areas of Scotland National parks of Scotland European Landscape Convention Map showing location and extent of the National Scenic Areas National Scenic Areas - Scottish Natural Heritage
The River Leader, or Leader Water, is a small tributary of the River Tweed in Lauderdale in the Scottish Borders. It flows southwards from the Lammermuir Hills through the towns of Lauder and Earlston, joining the River Tweed at Leaderfoot; the feeder burns of the Leader Water are the Headshaw Burn, the Hillhouse Burn and the Kelphope Burn. They combine at the village of Oxton; the river is now sandwiched between the A68 and the A697, it has absorbed the Cleekhimin Burn, Harry Burn, Washing Burn and Earnscleugh Burn. The Leader Water now passes by Thirlestane Castle; the A679 bridges the river which continues past Lauder Barns, West Mains and St. Leonards where the Leader receives his final feeder burn, the Boondreigh Burn, it now sticks by the A68, near the Whitslaid Tower, the Blainslies, Birkhill, Chapel-on-Leader and Leadervale. After passing through the outskirts of Earlston, the course of the river is done, as it skirts some woodland, after passing Drygrange, it joins the Tweed at Leaderfoot Viaduct.
Nearby are Scott's View, Bemersyde House, Bemersyde Moss, Dryburgh Abbey, the William Wallace Statue and the Roman forts at Newstead. Whiteadder Water, Blackadder Water River Till, Eden Water, River Teviot, River Leader, Leithen Water, Quair Water, Eddleston Water, Manor Water, Lyne Water, Holms Water List of places in the Scottish Borders List of places in East Lothian List of places in Midlothian List of places in West Lothian Scottish Borders Local Biodiversity Action Plan SCRAN: Leader Water Earlston Angling Association
Carham or Carham on Tweed is a village in Northumberland, England. The village lies on the south side of the River Tweed about 3 miles west of Coldstream. According to the United Kingdom Census 2011, it is the place in England with greatest proportion of Scottish-born people, at 33%. Carham has been etymologised as an Old English place-name; the first syllable would be from carr'rock', the second either a dative plural ending or the word hām. However, the twelfth-century chronicler Richard of Hexham appears not to have considered the name an English one, so it may come from Cumbric *kair'fortification'. Near to Carham are the extensive remains of Early British camps and a bronze sword, now in the British Museum, discovered in the nearby Tweed. Carham on the Tweed, where a stream divides Northumberland from Scotland, was the scene of two battles in Anglo-Saxon times. In 833 the Danes fought the English, the English were routed. Leland tells us that in the 33rd year of Ecbright the Danes arrived at Lindisfarne and fought with the English at Carham where Eleven Bishops and two English Countes were slayne, a great numbre of people.
A field between the glebe and Dunstan Wood, where bones have been from time to time disinterred, is the site of the battle. In 1018 the Battle of Carham between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Northumbrians resulted in a Scottish victory; the fact that the Tweed is the border between Scotland and England can be traced to the outcome of this battle.. Carham is in the parliamentary constituency of Berwick-upon-Tweed; the church is dedicated to St Cuthbert. The Official Carham Parish Website GENUKI
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
The Gala Water is a river in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland and a tributary of the River Tweed. It is sometimes known as the "Gala", which nickname is shared with Galashiels, which it flows through; the "Braw Lads O Gala Watter" is a song about people from Galashiels. List of places in the Scottish Borders Leader Water