Corbridge is a village in Northumberland, England, 16 miles west of Newcastle and 4 miles east of Hexham. Villages nearby include Halton, Acomb and Sandhoe. Corbridge was known to the Romans as something like Corstopitum or Coriosopitum, wooden writing tablets found at Vindolanda suggest it was locally called Coria. According to Bethany Fox, the early attestations of the English name Corbridge'show variation between Cor- and Col-, as in the earliest two forms and Colebruge, there has been extensive debate about what its etymology may be; some relationship with the Roman name Corstopitum seems clear, however'. Coria was the most northerly town in the Roman Empire, lying at the junction of Stanegate and Dere Street; the first fort was established c. AD 85, although there was a earlier base nearby at Beaufront Red House. By the middle of the 2nd century AD, the fort was replaced by a town with two walled military compounds, which were garrisoned until the end of the Roman occupation of the site; the best-known finds from the site include the stone Corbridge Lion and the Corbridge Hoard of armour and sundry other items.
In Rudyard Kipling's Puck of Pook's Hill, the town of Hunno on the Wall is based on Corstopitum. The Roman Town is now managed by English Heritage on behalf of HM Government; the site has been excavated and features a large museum and shop. The fort is the top-rated attraction in Corbridge and is open daily between 10 and 6 in the summer and at weekends between 10 and 4 in the winter; the Church of England parish church of Saint Andrew is thought to have been consecrated in 676. Saint Wilfrid is supposed to have had the church built at the same time as Hexham Abbey, it has been altered several times since, with a Norman doorway, a lychgate built as a First World War memorial. The Church is built from stone taken from Hadrian's Wall, the entrance to the Church is through glass doors given by Rowan Atkinson and etched in memory of his mother. There are only three fortified vicarages in the county, one of these is in Corbridge. Built in the 14th century, the Vicar's Pele is to be found in the south-east corner of the churchyard, has walls 1.3 metres in thickness.
The register for St. Andrews dates from 1657. On in the town's history, Wesleyan and Free Methodist chapels were all built too. Older than the Vicar's Pele is Corbridge Low Hall, dating from the late 13th or early 14th century with one end converted to a pele tower in the 15th century; the main block was remodelled in the 16th and 17th centuries, the building restored c1890. A number of fine Victorian mansions were developed on Prospect Hill to house successful industrialists and local businessmen in the late 19th century. Corbridge suffered, as did many other settlements in the county, from the border warfare, prevalent between 1300 and 1700. Raids were commonplace, it was not unusual for the livestock to be brought into the town at night and a watch placed to guard either end of the street for marauders. A bridge over the Tyne was built in the 13th century; the present bridge, an impressive stone structure with seven arches, was erected in 1674. Corbridge is in the parliamentary constituency of Hexham.
An electoral ward of the same name exists. This ward includes Sandhoe, it had a total population taken at the 2011 census of 4,191. Corbridge is bypassed to the north by the A69 road, linking it to Carlisle, it is linked to Newcastle and the A1 by the A695 which passes about 1 mile away on the south side of the River Tyne. Railway The town is served by Corbridge railway station on the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway known as the Tyne Valley line; the line was opened in 1838, links the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in Tyne and Wear with Carlisle in Cumbria. The line follows the course of the River Tyne through Northumberland. Passenger services on the Tyne Valley Line are operated by Abellio ScotRail; the line is heavily used for freight. The railway station is about 1 mile away on the south side of the River Tyne. Stagshaw Bank Fair, traditionally held on 4 July, was one of the most famous of the country fairs, it included a huge sale of stock, was proclaimed each year by the bailiff to the Duke of Northumberland.
The Northumberland County Show, an agricultural event, was held in the fields outside Corbridge each year before moving to Bywell in 2013. The Corbridge Steam Fair and Vintage Rally is held every year in June to celebrate steam engines. There are classic cars and tractors. Ruth Ainsworth, children's writer of the Rufty Tufty Golliwog series John Blackburn, thriller writerBorn at CorbridgeAlan Brown, professional footballer and manager Steve Bruce, English football managerLived at CorbridgeCatherine Cookson, author Carol Malia, BBC Look North presenter Alan Pardew, English football manager "Corbridge". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. 1911. Vicar's Pele Tower Corbridge's river crossings Corstopitum Corbridge Parish Council Northumberland Communities Roman empire.net article on Roman Corbridge Ecology in Corbridge
England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law. The devolved National Assembly for Wales was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales; the powers of the Assembly were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, the Act formally separated the Welsh Government from the Assembly. There is no equivalent body for England, directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom. During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall – though the Roman-occupied area varied in extent, for a time extended to the Antonine/Severan Wall.
At that time, most of the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as the province of Britain. Long after the departure of the Romans, the Britons in what became Wales developed their own system of law, first codified by Hywel Dda when he was king of most of present-day Wales. However, after the Norman invasion of Wales in the 11th century, English law came to apply in the parts of Wales conquered by the Normans. In 1283, the English, led by Edward I, with the biggest army brought together in England since the 11th century, conquered the remainder of Wales organised as the Principality of Wales; this was united with the English crown by the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. This aimed to replace Welsh criminal law with English law. Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.
Prior to 1746 it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, so in 1746 Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act. This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales; the Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in 1967, although the statutory definition of "England" created by that Act still applies for laws passed before 1967. In new legislation since 1967, what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions. England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England; the continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the 1706 Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union 1707, as a consequence English law—and after 1801, Irish law—continued to be separate. Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, the effect of laws, where restricted, was applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.
Thus, most laws applicable to England applied to Wales. However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England, a practice, rare before the middle of the 20th century. Examples are the Welsh Language Acts 1967 and 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998. Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed since the Government of Wales Act 2006 apply in Wales but not in England. Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May 2007, the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it. Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster; this was the first time in 500 years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly. For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales, in Scotland or in Northern Ireland", which will determine the law applicable to that business entity.
A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf, rather than Limited or Ltd. or to avail itself of certain other privileges relating to the official use of the Welsh language. Outside the legal system, the position is mixed; some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate. In sports, cricket has a combined international team administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board, who govern the sport across both nations, whilst football, rugby union, rugby league, the Commonwealth Games and other sports have separate national representative teams for each country. A few Welsh association football clubs, most notably Cardiff City F. C. and Swansea City F. C. play in the English football league system, while The New Saints F. C. which represents places on both sides of the border, plays in the Welsh football league system. Some religious denominations organise on the basis of England and Wales, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, but small denominations, e.g. the Evangelical Presbyterian Church.
Prior to the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, the Anglican churc
Northumberland is a county in North East England. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a 64 miles path; the county town is Alnwick. The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself. Northumberland expanded in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. Islandshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles; the county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.
Northumberland meant'the land of the people living north of the River Humber'. The present county is the core of that former land, has long been a frontier zone between England and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall, it was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium; as evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including those at Alnwick, Dunstanburgh and Warkworth. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south; the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which united with Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century.
The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts reclaimed the land invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth, was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland is called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels, it became the home of St Cuthbert, buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century; the Earldom of Northumberland was held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217.
Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York. The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North against Elizabeth I of England; these revolts were led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur, the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1; the Percys were aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where Border Reivers hid from the law.
However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603. Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Blyth, Netherton and Pegswood; the region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s. Northumberland remains rural, is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its historical sites. Northumberland has a diverse physical geography, it is low and flat near the North Sea coast and mountainous toward the northwest.
Bywell is a village in Northumberland, in England. It is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne opposite Stocksfield, between Hexham and Newcastle. Bywell means bend in the river. Bywell is situated on a bend on the River Tyne; that is. Bywell is in the parliamentary constituency of Hexham. An electoral ward of the same name exists; this ward stretches east to Wylam with a total population of 4,534. Bywell Hall is an imposing house of 1766 by James Paine. Bywell Castle is a gatehouse tower built in the early 15th century for Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland. There are two churches in Bywell. St Andrew's Church, now redundant, is situated near Bywell Hall and has a fine tower of the Anglo Saxon period, considered to be the best in the county — 55 feet high and about 15 square feet. Part of a cross is another reminder of the early period, when the church had narrow nave and apse, it was much enlarged in the thirteenth century in a time of local prosperity. In the nineteenth century it was extensively restored, a lot of medieval grave covers were built into the walls of the church attractively.
The thirteenth-century font was where the sporting novelist was baptized. He was born at the Riding on 26 August 1806. There are monuments to Fenwicks of Bacons of Styford. St Andrew's Church is preserved as part of our heritage; the vicarage was demolished in 1852, Mr Beaumont gave land for building another at Riding Mill. St Peter's Church is different among the trees and close to the river, it has a square medieval tower, the church was extended in the thirteenth century. A close examination of the stonework will reveal features of the Saxon period, there is evidence of more extensive buildings. There is a tide dial on the south wall; the north chantry or chapel was for many years used as a school. One lancet window is a memorial to the curate Henry Parr Dwarris, drowned in the Tyne. There is a monumental brass to Wentworth Canning Blackett Beaumont, Viscount Allendale, born at Bywell Hall in 1860, he presented the Priory grounds to the people of Hexham. Another inscription commemorates artist in stained glass.
The church is partly 8th century in date and it is the building in which Bishop Egbert of Lindisfarne was consecrated in AD 802. The high garden wall to the south-west of the old vicarage is known locally as the "spite wall", it was built to hide the vicarage from the view of the Hall. When the village of Bywell was cleared, the vicar could not be made to leave. Lord and Lady Allendale own much of the land surrounding Bywell, they own a good chunk of Bywell itself. A substantial amount of Bywell is not open to the public; the village is served by Stocksfield railway station on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway known as the Tyne Valley Line. The line was opened in 1838, links the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in Tyne and Wear with Carlisle in Cumbria; the line follows the course of the River Tyne through Northumberland. Passenger services on the Tyne Valley Line are operated by Abellio ScotRail; the line is heavily used for freight. The station is about 1 mile away in the village of Stocksfield. Bywell is in close proximity to the A69 dual carriage-way, although you have to go up a B road to get to the A69.
Bywell is about 30 – 40 minutes away from Newcastle International Airport. Bywell is in the catchment area for Ovingham First School, despite Broomley First school in Stocksfield being closer. Bywell is in the catchment area for Prudhoe Community High School; each year Lord and Lady Allendale hold a hunter trial course in aid of the Charlotte Straker Project. It is held each year in May. From 27 May 2013, the Northumberland County Show is to be held around Bywell Castle Wentworth Canning Blackett Beaumont, Viscount Allendale was born at Bywell Hall Bywell Bridge Allendale Estates GENUKI
The River Wear in North East England rises in the Pennines and flows eastwards through County Durham to the North Sea in the City of Sunderland. At 60 mi long, it is one of the region's longest rivers, wends in a steep valley through the cathedral city of Durham and gives its name to Weardale in its upper reach and Wearside by its mouth; the Wear rises in an upland area raised up during the Caledonian orogeny. The Weardale Granite underlies the headwaters of the Wear. Devonian Old Red Sandstone in age, this Weardale Granite does not outcrop but was surmised by early geologists, subsequently proven to exist as seen in the Rookhope borehole, it is the presence of this granite that has retained the high upland elevations of this area and accounts for heavy local mineralisation, although it is considered that most of the mineralisation occurred during the Carboniferous period. It is thought that the course of the River Wear, prior to the last Ice Age, was much as it is now as far as Chester-le-Street.
This can be established as a result of boreholes, of which there have been many in the Wear valley due to coal mining. However, northwards from Chester-le-Street, the Wear may have followed the current route of the lower River Team; the last glaciation reached its peak about 18,500 years ago, from which time it began a progressive retreat, leaving a wide variety of glacial deposits in its wake, filling existing river valleys with silt and other glacial till. At about 14,000 years ago, retreat of the ice paused for maybe 500 years at the city of Durham; this can be established by the types of glacial deposits in the vicinity of Durham City. The confluence of the River Browney was pushed from Gilesgate, several miles south to Sunderland Bridge. At Chester-le-Street, when glacial boulder clay was deposited blocking its northerly course, the River Wear was diverted eastwards towards Sunderland where it was forced to cut a new, shallower valley; the gorge cut by the river through the Permian Magnesian Limestone can be seen most at Ford Quarry.
In the 17th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, reference is made to a pre-Ice Age course of the River Wear outfalling at Hartlepool. The upland area of Upper Weardale retains a flora that relates uniquely in England, to the end of the last Ice Age, although it or lacks the particular rarities that make up the unique "Teesdale Assemblage" of post-glacial plants; this may, in part, be due to the Pennine areas of Upper Weardale and Upper Teesdale being the site of the shrinking ice cap. The glaciation left behind many indications of its presence, including lateral moraines and material from the Lake District and Northumberland, although few drumlins. After the Ice Age, the Wear valley became thickly forested, however during the Neolithic period and in the Bronze Age, were deforested for agriculture. Much of the River Wear is associated with the history of the Industrial Revolution, its upper end runs through lead mining country, until this gives way to coal seams of the Durham coalfield for the rest of its length.
As a result of limestone quarrying, lead mining and coal mining, the Wear valley was amongst the first places to see the development of railways. The Weardale Railway continues to run occasional services between Wolsingham. Mining of lead ore has been known in the area of the headwaters of the Wear since the Roman occupation and continued into the nineteenth century. Spoil heaps from the abandoned lead mines can still be seen, since the last quarter of the twentieth century have been the focus of attention for the recovery of gangue minerals in present mining, such as fluorspar for the smelting of aluminium. However, abandoned mines and their spoil heaps continue to contribute to heavy metal mineral pollution of the river and its tributaries; this has significance to fishing in times of low flow and infrastructure costs as the River Wear is an important source of drinking water for many of the inhabitants along its course. Fluorspar is another mineral sporadically co-present with Weardale Granite and became important in the manufacture of steel from the late 19th century into the 20th century.
In many cases the steel industries were able to take fluorspar from old excavation heaps. Fluorspar explains why iron and steel manufacture flourished in the Wear valley and Teesside during the nineteenth century. Overlying are three Carboniferous minerals: limestone, Coal Measures as raw materials for iron and steel manufacture, sandstone, useful as a refractory material; the last remaining flourspar mine closed in 1999 following legislation re water quality. A mine at Rogerley Quarry, Frosterley, is operated by an American consortium who work it for specimen minerals. Minco are exploring the North Pennines and the upper Wear catchment for potential reserves of zinc at lower levels. Ironstone, important as the ore was won from around Consett and Tow Law around Rookhope, while greater quantities were imported from just south of the southerly Tees in North Yorkshire; these sources became uneconomic. The former cement works at Eastgate, until run by Lafarge, was based on an inlier of limestone; the site gained planning permission to form a visitor complex showcasing an eco-village using alternative technology, including a "hot rocks" water heating system.
The underlying granite has been drilled and reports confirm their presence. Bardon Aggregates continue to quarry at Heights near Westgate and operate a tarmac "blacktop" plant on site. Mineral extract
North East England
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers Northumberland, County Durham and Wear, the area of the former county of Cleveland in North Yorkshire; the region is home to three large conurbations: Teesside and Tyneside, the last of, the largest of the three and the eighth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom. There are three cities in the region: Newcastle upon Tyne, the largest, with a population of just under 280,000. Other large towns include Darlington, Hartlepool, South Shields, Stockton-on-Tees and Washington; the region is hilly and sparsely populated in the North and West, urban and arable in the East and South. The highest point in the region is The Cheviot, in the Cheviot Hills, at 815 metres; the region contains the urban centres of Tyneside and Teesside, is noted for the rich natural beauty of its coastline, Northumberland National Park, the section of the Pennines that includes Teesdale and Weardale.
The regions historic importance is displayed by Northumberland's ancient castles, the two World Heritage Sites of Durham Cathedral and Durham Castle, Hadrian's Wall one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. In fact, Roman archaeology can be found across the region and a special exhibition based around the Roman Fort of Segedunum at Wallsend and the other forts along Hadrian's Wall are complemented by the numerous artifacts that are displayed in the Great North Museum Hancock in Newcastle. St. Peter's Church in Monkwearmouth, Sunderland and St. Pauls in Jarrow hold significant historical value and have a joint bid to become a World Heritage Site; the area has a strong religious past, as can be seen in works such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The work of the 7th-century Cuthbert and Hilda of Whitby were hugely influential in the early church, are still venerated by some today; these saints are associated with the monasteries on the island of Lindisfarne, Wearmouth – Jarrow, the Abbey at Whitby, though they are associated with many other religious sites in the region.
Bede is regarded as the greatest Anglo-Saxon scholar. He worked at the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, translating some forty books on all areas of knowledge, including nature, astronomy and theological matters such as the lives of the saints, his best known work is "The Ecclesiastical History of the English People". One of the most famous pieces of art and literature created in the region is the Lindisfarne Gospels, are thought to be the work of a monk named Eadfrith, who became Bishop of Lindisfarne in 698; this body of work is thought to have been created in honour of Cuthbert, around 710–720. On 6 June 793 the Vikings arrived on the shores of north-east England with a raiding party from Norway who attacked the monastic settlement on Lindisfarne; the monks fled or were slaughtered, Bishop Higbald sought refuge on the mainland. A chronicler recorded: "On the 8th June, the harrying of the heathen miserably destroyed God's church by rapine and slaughter." There were three hundred years of Viking raids and settlement until William the Conqueror defeated King Harold at Hastings in 1066.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle notes the change from raiding to settlement when it records that in 876 the Vikings "Shared out the land of the Northumbrians and they proceeded to plough and support themselves" The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria extended from the Scottish borders at the Firth of Forth to the north, to the south of York, its capital, down to the Humber. The last independent Northumbrian king from 947–8 was Eric Bloodaxe, who died at the Battle of Stainmore, Westmorland, in 954. After Eric Bloodaxe's death, all England was ruled by the grandson of Alfred the Great. Today the Viking legacy can still be found in the language and place names of north-east England and in the DNA of its people; the name Newcastle comes from the castle built shortly after the conquest in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. North East England has an oceanic climate with narrower temperature ranges than the south of England. Summers and winters are mild rather than hot or cold, due to the strong maritime influence of the North Atlantic Current of the Gulf Stream.
The Met Office operates several weather stations in the region and are able they show the regional variations in temperature and its relation to the distance from the North Sea. The warmest summers in the region are found in Stockton-on-Tees and the Middlesbrough area, with a 1981-2010 July average high of 20.4 °C. Precipitation is low by English standards, in spite of the low levels of sunshine, with Stockton-on-Tees averaging only 574.2 millimetres annually, with the seaside town of Tynemouth recording 597.2 millimetres annually. The summers on the northern coastlines are cooler than in the southern and central inland areas: Tynemouth is only just above 18 °C in July. Further inland, frosts during winter are more common, due to the higher elevations and distance from the sea. After more than 2,000 years of industrial activity as a result of abundant minerals such as salt and coal the chemical industry of the Northeast England is today spread across the whole of the region with pharmaceuticals being produced in the north of the region and fine chemicals spread across the middle of the region and commodity chemicals and petrochemicals on Teessi