River Wye

The River Wye is the fifth-longest river in the UK, stretching some 215 kilometres from its source on Plynlimon in mid Wales to the Severn estuary. For much of its length the river forms part of the border between Wales; the Wye Valley is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Wye is important for nature recreation; the meaning of the name is not clear. The earliest reference to the name is Guoy in Nennius' early 9th Century Historia Brittonum and the modern Welsh name is Gwy; the Wye was much given a Latin name Vaga, an adjective meaning'wandering'. The Tithe map references a Vagas Field in both Chepstow. Philologists such as Edward Lye and Joseph Bosworth in the 18th and early 19th centuries suggested an Old English derivation from wæg, "wave"; the source of the Wye is in the Welsh mountains at Plynlimon. It flows through or past several towns and villages including Rhayader, Builth Wells, Hay-on-Wye, Ross-on-Wye, Symonds Yat and Tintern, meeting the Severn estuary just below Chepstow, its total length is 134 miles.

The lower 16 miles of the river from Redbrook to Chepstow forms the border between England and Wales. The River Wye is protected by two Sites of Special Scientific Interest, one covering the Upper Wye above Hay-on-Wye, one covering the Lower Wye downstream to Chepstow; the criteria for inclusion of the river as an SSSI include geology, flora, invertebrates and birdlife, as the river and its tributaries constitute a large linear ecosystem. The Lower Wye SSSI is itself divided into seven units of assessment set by Natural England, administrative responsibilities are shared between the councils of Powys, Herefordshire and Monmouthshire; the Wye abuts a range of other SSSIs in England and Wales, including the Upper Wye Gorge and Lower Wye Gorge. It is a Special Area of Conservation and one of the most important rivers in the UK for nature conservation, it is an important migration route and wildlife corridor, as well as a key breeding area for many nationally and internationally important species.

The river supports a range of species and habitats covered by European Directives and those listed under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. In Powys the river lies within the Radnorshire Environmentally Sensitive Area. Much of the lower valley is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the Lower Wye has been designated as a salmonid fishery under the EC Freshwater Fish Directive. The Wye is unpolluted and used to be considered one of the best rivers for salmon fishing in the United Kingdom, outside Scotland. In the 1980s and 1990s salmon in the Wye declined dramatically. In 1967 the Wye rod catch was 7,864, as as 1988 it was 6,401, it is now recovering from this low in response to the extensive habitat improvement work carried out by the Wye and Usk Foundation, set up to restore the spring salmon runs. In 2015 the five-year average once again climbed above 1,000 and it is now the third best salmon river in England and Wales, surpassed only by the Tyne and Wear; the Wye was famous for its large "spring" salmon that had spent three or more years at sea before returning to spawn.

They used to enter the river between January and June and sometimes reached weights of over 50 pounds, the largest recorded being 59 lb 8 oz landed after a long fight by Miss Doreen Davey from the Cowpond Pool at Winforton on 13 March 1923. The last recorded 50 lb rod-caught salmon from the Wye was taken in 1963 by Donald Parrish and weighed 51 lb 8 oz. Since the early 2000s the spring catch has been recovering and salmon of over 35 lb have been reported every year since 2011; the Romans constructed a bridge of stone just upstream of present-day Chepstow. The River Wye has been navigable up to Monmouth since at least the early 14th century, it was improved from there to a short distance below Hereford by William Sandys in the early 1660s with locks to enable vessels to pass weirs. According to Herefordshire Council Archaeology, these were flash locks; the work proved to be insufficiently substantial and in 1696 a further Act of Parliament authorised the County of Hereford to buy up and demolish the mills on the Wye and Lugg.

All locks and weirs were removed, except that at New Weir forge below Goodrich, which survived until about 1815. This was paid for by a tax on the county. Weirs were removed all along the Wye in Herefordshire, making the river passable to the western boundary, beyond it at least to Hay on Wye. A horse towing path was added in 1808, but only up to Hereford. Money was spent several times improving the River Lugg from Leominster to its confluence with the Wye at Mordiford, but its navigation is to have been difficult; the Wye remained commercially navigable until the 1850s. It is still used by pleasure craft; the Environment Agency is the navigation authority for the river. The Normal Tidal Limit of the river is Bigsweir and navigation below this point is under the control of the Gloucester Harbour Trustees as Competent Harbour Authority. There is a public right of navigation downstream from Hay-on-Wye. Canoes are permitted at and downstream of Glasbury, so long as they do not disturb anglers; the River Wye provides for canoeing and kayaking as it has sections suitable for all ranges of skills and free access all the way downstream from Hay to Hereford and Monmouth, the tidal Wye to Chepstow and the Severn Estuary.

There are a wide range of canoe hire

Ariza Makukula

Ariza Makukula is a Portuguese former footballer who played as a centre forward. He only amassed Primeira Liga totals of 26 matches and nine goals over three seasons, spending the vast majority of his professional career abroad, he competed in Spain, Turkey and Thailand, being Süper Lig top scorer with Kayserispor. Makukula earned four caps during three and a half months; the son of a Congolese footballer who played seven years in Portugal for four clubs Vitória de Setúbal, his mother being Portuguese, Makukula was born in Kinshasa. He started playing professionally in Spain, for UD Salamanca and CD Leganés, scoring 20 goals with the former in the 2001–02 season – spent in the second division – second-best in the competition; the following summer, Makukula moved to France to play with FC Nantes, splitting the campaign between the first team and the reserves. He was subsequently loaned to Real Valladolid, netting eight times but suffering relegation from La Liga. Makukula was bought by another Spanish side, Sevilla FC.

He appeared sparingly in his first year, in no games whatsoever in the following after the Andalusians purchased Luís Fabiano, Frédéric Kanouté and Javier Saviola. S. Marítimo, the latter in his adopted nation. After seven Primeira Liga goals in only 13 matches, Makukula transferred to S. L. Benfica for €3.5 million and four and a half years in late January 2008. On 14 February, he scored the game's only goal in a home win against 1. FC Nürnberg in the UEFA Cup round of 32. Makukula was not used at all by Benfica in the first part of 2008–09. On 16 January 2009, he signed for Bolton Wanderers on loan until the end of the campaign with a view to a permanent move costing around £4.5 million in the summer. He made his debut a day against Manchester United, playing 64 minutes in a 0–1 home loss. On 11 August 2009, Makukula was loaned now to Süper Lig club Kayserispor in Turkey, he ended the season as the competition's top scorer, with eight goals more than the second player as his team finished eighth.

In the summer of 2012, Makukula agreed to a contract with another Turkish team, Karşıyaka S. K. in division two. He was released in January of the following year, returning to his country of adoption after five years and joining Vitória de Setúbal. Makukula chose to represent Portugal internationally, he started appearing in the 2002 UEFA European Championship. As a senior, Makukula tried to switch to DR Congo, but a FIFA amended rule regarding international careers came out in 2005, stating that change in nationality representation should occur before a player's 21st birthday and if they have not yet gained their first full cap, so he was denied in his intentions. In October 2007, after solid performances with Marítimo, he was called up to the Portuguese squad for a UEFA Euro 2008 qualifier against Kazakhstan on the 17th, after Nuno Gomes suffered an injury: in the 84th minute of the game, he scored the first goal in an eventual 2–1 away win. Although not part of 24-men Portuguese 2010 FIFA World Cup provisional squad, Makukula was named in a backup list of six players, although he did not make the final cut.

Sevilla UEFA Cup: 2005–06 Ariza Makukula at ForaDeJogo Ariza Makukula at BDFutbol Ariza Makukula at Soccerbase Ariza Makukula at the Turkish Football Federation National team data Ariza Makukula at


Macroramphosus, snipefishes or bellowfishes, is a genus of fishes found in tropical and subtropical oceans at depths down to 600 metres. According to FishBase, they are part of the family Centriscidae, but Nelson split that family, in which case the genus Macroramphosus is in the family Macroramphosidae, they have long second spines on their dorsal fins and tiny mouths at the tip of their elongated snouts. The bodies of snipefish are more streamlined than in the related bellowfishes, they reach a maximum length of about 20 cm, are silvery or reddish in colour. They are sometimes found in large schools; this is the only genus on the monogeneric family Macroranphosidae but some authorities include the genera Centriscops and Notopogon in this family too. Two recognized species are placed in this genus: Macroramphosus gracilis Macroramphosus scolopax