The Amazon River in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, by some definitions it is the longest. The headwaters of the Apurímac River on Nevado Mismi had been considered for nearly a century as the Amazon's most distant source, until a 2014 study found it to be the headwaters of the Mantaro River on the Cordillera Rumi Cruz in Peru; the Mantaro and Apurímac join, with other tributaries form the Ucayali River, which in turn meets the Marañón River upstream of Iquitos, Peru, to form what countries other than Brazil consider to be the main stem of the Amazon. Brazilians call this section the Solimões River above its confluence with the Rio Negro to form what Brazilians call the Amazon at the Meeting of Waters at Manaus, the river's largest city. At an average discharge of about 209,000 cubic metres per second —approximately 6,591 cubic kilometres per annum, greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined—the Amazon represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean.
The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, with an area of 7,050,000 square kilometres. The portion of the river's drainage basin in Brazil alone is larger than any other river's basin; the Amazon enters Brazil with only one-fifth of the flow it discharges into the Atlantic Ocean, yet has a greater flow at this point than the discharge of any other river. The river was known by Europeans as the Marañón and the Peruvian part of the river is still known by that name today, it became known as the Rio Amazonas in Spanish and Portuguese, or The Amazon in English. The name Rio Amazonas was given after native warriors attacked a 16th-century expedition by Francisco de Orellana; the warriors were led by women, reminding de Orellana of the Amazon warriors, a tribe of women warriors related to Iranian Scythians and Sarmatians mentioned in Greek mythology. The word Amazon itself may be derived from the Iranian compound *ha-maz-an- " fighting together" or ethnonym *ha-mazan- "warriors", a word attested indirectly through a derivation, a denominal verb in Hesychius of Alexandria's gloss "ἁμαζακάραν· πολεμεῖν.
Πέρσαι", where it appears together with the Indo-Iranian root *kar- "make". During what many archaeologists call the formative stage, Amazonian societies were involved in the emergence of South America's highland agrarian systems; the trade with Andean civilisations in the terrains of the headwaters in the Andes, formed an essential contribution to the social and religious development of the higher altitude civilisations of among others the Muisca and Incas. Early human settlements were based on low-lying hills or mounds. Shell mounds were the earliest evidence of habitation, they are associated with ceramic age cultures. Artificial earth platforms for entire villages are the second type of mounds, they are best represented by the Marajoara culture. Figurative mounds are the most recent types of occupation. There is ample evidence that the areas surrounding the Amazon River were home to complex and large-scale indigenous societies chiefdoms who developed large towns and cities. Archaeologists estimate that by the time the Spanish conquistador De Orellana traveled across the Amazon in 1541, more than 3 million indigenous people lived around the Amazon.
These pre-Columbian settlements created developed civilizations. For instance, pre-Columbian indigenous people on the island of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population of 100,000 people. In order to achieve this level of development, the indigenous inhabitants of the Amazon rainforest altered the forest's ecology by selective cultivation and the use of fire. Scientists argue that by burning areas of the forest repetitiously, the indigenous people caused the soil to become richer in nutrients; this created dark soil areas known as terra preta de índio. Because of the terra preta, indigenous communities were able to make land fertile and thus sustainable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support their large populations and complex social structures. Further research has hypothesized; some say that its effects on forest ecology and regional climate explain the otherwise inexplicable band of lower rainfall through the Amazon basin. Many indigenous tribes engaged in constant warfare.
James Stuart Olson wrote: "The Munduruku expansion dislocated and displaced the Kawahíb, breaking the tribe down into much smaller groups... first came to the attention of Europeans in 1770 when they began a series of widespread attacks on Brazilian settlements along the Amazon River." In March 1500, Spanish conquistador Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was the first documented European to sail up the Amazon River. Pinzón called the stream Río Santa María del Mar Dulce shortened to Mar Dulce sweet sea, because of its fresh water pushing out into the ocean. Another Spanish explorer, Francisco de Orellana, was the first European to travel from the origins of the upstream river basins, situated in the Andes, to the mouth of the river. In this journey, Orellana baptised some of the affluents of the Amazonas like Rio Negro and Jurua; the name Amazonas is taken from the native warriors that attacked this expedition women, that reminded De Orellana of the mythical female Amazon warriors from the
The River Wey is a tributary of the River Thames in south east England and one of two major tributaries in Surrey. The name is of unknown meaning, it begins as two branches rising outside the county which join at Tilford between Guildford and Farnham. Once combined the flow is eastwards northwards via Godalming and Guildford to meet the Thames while in Surrey; the main sub-tributary is the Tillingbourne flowing from the western slopes of Leith Hill in Surrey westwards to a point just south of Guildford between the main village of Shalford and the hamlet of Peasmarsh. Downstream the river forms the backdrop to Newark Brooklands; the Wey has a total catchment area of 904 square kilometres, draining parts of Surrey and West Sussex. It is navigable from Godalming to its confluence with the Thames as part of the Wey and Godalming Navigations, a trade-minded 17th century canal; the river morphology and flow are well studied, with many places to take samples and record data. The Wey North branch rises in Alton in Hampshire and runs eastwards through Upper Froyle and Bentley, turning southeast at Farnham to Tilford.
This branch was the upper catchment of the Blackwater. When this branch was blocked at Farnham, the flow spilt over into areas such as Elstead; the Blackwater remains as a much shorter river to the north of Farnham, with a wind gap between it and the Wey. The Wey South branch commences in two shorter rivers leading from separate sources. One is at Blackdown, south of Haslemere, beside Gibbet Hill and the Devil's Punch Bowl, next to Hindhead village centre, runs through Liphook, Passfield, Standford and Frensham to Tilford; the other rises at Inval, below Gibbet Hill, Hindhead in the civil parish of Haslemere. This joins the Blackdown-source south branch west of Haslemere. Other smaller tributaries of the south branch are the River Slea. From Tilford the river runs through Elstead, Godalming, Peasmarsh/Shalford, Send, Old Woking, Byfleet, New Haw and forms the Addlestone/Weybridge border between Hamm Court and Whittets Ait respectively. From Godalming the river is intertwined with the Godalming Navigations.
It joins the River Thames between Hamm Court and Whittets Ait facing a weirstream of Shepperton Lock. The River Ock joins at Godalming, Cranleigh Waters and the River Tillingbourne at Shalford and the Hoe Stream at Woking; the 19.5 miles towpath of the lower section is open to pedestrians. During the seventeenth century the river was made navigable to Guildford and extended in the eighteenth century to Godalming; the Basingstoke Canal and Wey and Arun Junction Canal were connected to the river. The navigable sections are now owned by the National Trust; the river has long been used as a source of power for mills, many are recorded in the Domesday Book. At one point there were 22 mills on the river, more on its tributaries. At various times they have been used for grinding grain, fulling wool, rolling oats, crushing cattle cake, leather dressing, paper production and gunpowder manufacture. Willey Mill, at Farnham, was still in use in 1953. Guildford Town Mill, though no long used for milling, still harnesses the power of the river to generate electricity.
Wey Valley is a term for the narrowing basin of the River Wey before it empties into the River Thames. Much of the upper reaches of the river are within the Surrey Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the river passes through a variety of habitats including heathland and watermeadow, resulting in a diversity of wildlife. There are Sites of Special Scientific Nature Reserves along the river; the area of the aquifers which drain steeply to the river is great so, as with the Mole, in its natural state much of the flood plains were prone to regular flooding. This has been reduced by flood alleviation, upstream lakes such as Frensham Great Pond and, the Wey Navigation. Urban lowest parts of Godalming and Weybridge saw extensive flooding in the exceptional Winter storms of 2013–14. Aside from the River Thames, which does not belong to any one county, the river is one of the two main Surrey rivers, alongside the Mole; until its incorporation into London in 1965, next in order of size was the River Wandle.
Follow the River Bourne and the River Bourne, Chertsey which merge. They have sources in Berkshire. Surrey's Epsom area is drained by the Hogsmill River, most of, in outer London. Inland Waterways Association The River Wey and Godalming Navigation: Weybridge to Godalming Inland Waterways Association 1976 Tributaries of the River Thames Canals of the United Kingdom List of rivers of England Perseverance IV, last floating River Wey barge. Notes References River Wey and Godalming Navigations and Dapdune Wharf River Wey Catchment Flood Warnings
The Rhume Spring is a large karst spring in the eastern part of the Rotenberg ridge not far from the northeastern edge of the village of Rhumspringe in the Harz mountains of Germany. It is the source of the River Rhume; the spring is accessible by a nearby road. Rhumequelle – more information and photos, access via www.karstquellen.de Wie tief ist die Rhumequelle? – private website on theRhume Spring Description of the Rhume Spring by the State Office of Mining and Geology
Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England. The county town is the city of Winchester, its two largest cities and Portsmouth, are administered separately as unitary authorities. First settled about 14,000 years ago, Hampshire's history dates to Roman Britain, when its chief town was Winchester; when the Romans left Britain, the area was infiltrated by tribes from Scandinavia and mainland Europe, principally in the river valleys. The county was recorded in the 11th century Domesday Book, divided into 44 hundreds. From the 12th century, the ports grew in importance, fuelled by trade with the continent and cloth manufacture in the county, the fishing industry, a shipbuilding industry was established. By the 16th century, the population of Southampton had outstripped that of Winchester. By the mid-19th century, with the county's population at 219,210 in more than 86,000 dwellings, agriculture was the principal industry and 10 per cent of the county was still forest. Hampshire played a crucial military role in both World Wars.
The Isle of Wight left the county to form its own in 1974. The county's geography is varied, with upland to 286 metres and south-flowing rivers. There are areas of downland and marsh, two national parks: the New Forest, part of the South Downs, which together cover 45 per cent of Hampshire. Hampshire is one of the most affluent counties in the country, with an unemployment rate lower than the national average, its economy derived from major companies, maritime and tourism. Tourist attractions include the national parks and the Southampton Boat Show; the county is known as the home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, the childhood home of Florence Nightingale and the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Hampshire takes its name from the settlement, now the city of Southampton. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun meaning "village-town", so its surrounding area or scīr became known as Hamtunscīr; the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, from this spelling, the modern abbreviation "Hants" derives.
From 1889 until 1959, the administrative county was named the County of Southampton and has been known as Southamptonshire. Hampshire was the departure point of some of those who left England to settle on the east coast of North America during the 17th century, giving its name in particular to the state of New Hampshire; the towns of Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Portsmouth, Virginia take their names from Portsmouth in Hampshire. The region is believed to have been continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time, Britain was still attached to the European continent and was predominantly covered with deciduous woodland; the first inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The majority of the population would have been concentrated around the river valleys. Over several thousand years, the climate became progressively warmer, sea levels rose. Notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, with it a neolithic culture.
Some deforestation took place at that time, although during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from these early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 and 2200 BCE. In the late Bronze Age, fortified hilltop settlements known as hillforts began to appear in large numbers in many parts of Britain including Hampshire, these became more and more important in the early and middle Iron Age. By this period, the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, their culture shared much in common with the Celts described by classical writers. Hillforts declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Around this period, the first recorded invasion of Britain took place, as southern Britain was conquered by warrior-elites from Belgic tribes of northeastern Gaul - whether these two events are linked to the decline of hillforts is unknown.
By the Roman conquest, the oppidum at Venta Belgarum, modern-day Winchester, was the de facto regional administrative centre. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England in 55 and again in 54 BCE, but he never reached Hampshire. Notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, a major port; the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia quickly. It is believed their political leaders allowed themselves to be incorporated peacefully. Venta became the capital of the administrative polity of the Belgae, which included most of Hampshire and Wiltshire and reached as far as Bath. Whether the people of Hampshire played any role in Boudicca's rebellion of 60-61 CE is not recorded, but evidence of burning is seen in Winchester dated to around this period. For most of the next three centuries, southern Britain enjoyed relative peace; the part of th
Caledon is a town in the Regional Municipality of Peel in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada. Caledon is a developing urban area although it remains rural, it consists of an amalgamation of a number of urban areas and hamlets. Caledon is one of three municipalities of Peel Region; the town is just northwest of the city of Brampton. At over 688 km ², Caledon is town by area in the Greater Toronto Area. Maclean's magazine named Caledon the safest town in Canada to live in for two years running during the 2000s. In their 2018 list, Caledon was listed as the 20th safest. By 1869, Belfountain was a Village with a population of 100 in the Township of Caledon County Peel, it was established on the Credit River. There were stagecoaches to Georgetown; the average price of land was $20. In 1973 Caledon acquired more territory when Chinguacousy dissolved with most sections north of Mayfield Road transferred to the township. Caledon inherited the name from Caledon Township of Peel County, Ontario in 1974, named by settlers, like Edward Ellis or by public voting.
According to the 2016 Canadian Census the population of Caledon is 66,503, an 11.8% increase from 2011. The population density is 96.6 people per square km. The median age is 41 years old on par with the national median at 41.2 years old. There are 21,255 private dwellings. According to the 2011 National Household Survey, the median value of a dwelling in Caledon is $474,087, higher than the national average at $280,552; the median household income in Caledon is $83,454, much higher than the national average at $54,089. The average individual's income is $53,870. In 2011, Caledon's largest religious groups were: 77.5% Christian, 18.6% no religious affiliation and 2% Sikh. There were smaller numbers of Hindu, Jewish and Buddhist residents. According to the 2011 Census, 76.8% of the town's population spoke English as their mother tongue. Other common mother tongues included Italian, followed by Punjabi, German and Spanish. Caledon is divided into five wards represented on town council by: Mayor Allan Thompson Area Councillor Ward 1 Lynn Kiernan Area Councillor Ward 2 Christina Early Area Councillor Ward 3 & 4 Nick deBoer Area Councillor Ward 5 Tony Rosaand on regional council by: Mayor Allan Thompson Regional Councillor Ward 1 Ian Sinclair Regional Councillor Ward 2 Johanna Downey Regional Councillor Ward 3 & 4 Jennifer Innis Regional Councillor Ward 5 Annette GrovesPer capita, Caledon has by far the largest representation on Peel Regional Council among the three municipalities.
The Peel District School Board operates secular Anglophone schools. The Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board operates Catholic Anglophone separate schools; the Conseil scolaire Viamonde operates secular Francophone schools serving the area. The Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud operates Catholic Francophone schools serving the area. School Unlike Brampton and Mississauga, Caledon does not have any municipally-owned heritage attractions. Established in 1888 as the Cardwell Observer, The Caledon Enterprise is published weekly from Bolton by Metroland Media. Based out of Bolton is The Caledon Citizen, established in 1982. A MELINIUM paper, it is published by Caledon Publishing Ltd. A third newspaper was launched by Rick and Shelly Sargent in 2010: The Regional, published monthly in Bolton. In November 2012, this paper ceased publication; the Sargents began working with the Caledon Citizen. In January 2015 an online publication, specific to Caledon, called JustSayinCaledon.com, was started by former Bolton Ward 5 Regional Councillor Patti Foley.
JustSayinCaledon.com publishes stories about local residents and businesses as well as Caledon event listings, Town Council highlights, opinion pieces, a food section about local markets and restaurants. A short-lived student-run newspaper, The Caledon Underground, was published in 2010. There are no television stations in Caledon, within the broadcast area of stations in Greater Toronto Area and Hamilton. Key Porter Books and parent H. B. Fenn are headquartered in Bolton. Broadcast radio stations CJFB-FM and CFGM-FM. Brick Work Ruins Bruce Trail Caledon Trailway Canadian Heritage Humber River Elora-Cataract Trail Grand Valley Trail Great War Flying Museum Humber Valley Trail Andrew's Treasure Trail Oak Ridges Trail Hair Pin Turn Caledon Central Public School Freemasonry Caledon Ski Club Kinsmen Club Christmas Parade Columbian Squires Knights of Columbus Albion Hills Conservation Area Alton Forest Conservation Area Belfountain Conservation Area Caledon Lake Forest Conservation Area Cheltenham Badlands Forks of the Credit Provincial Park Glen Haffy Conservation Area Heart Lake Conservation Area Ken Whillans Conservation Area Palgrave Forest and Wildlife Area Robert Baker Forest Conservation Area Terra Cotta Conservation Area Warwick Conservation Area Junior hockey teams include the Caledon Golden Hawks and Caledon Canadians, the latter defunct.
Minor hockey teams include the Caledon Hawks and Caledon Coyotes Lacrosse in the Town of Caledon is represented by the Caledon Vaughan Minor L
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
The Madison River is a headwater tributary of the Missouri River 183 miles long, in Wyoming and Montana. Its confluence with the Jefferson and Gallatin rivers near Three Forks, Montana forms the Missouri River; the Madison rises in Teton County in northwestern Wyoming at the confluence of the Firehole and Gibbon rivers, a location known as Madison Junction in Yellowstone National Park. It flows west north through the mountains of southwestern Montana to join the Jefferson and Gallatin rivers at Three Forks; the Missouri River Headwaters State Park is located on the Madison at Three Forks. In its upper reaches in Gallatin County, the Hebgen Dam forms Hebgen Lake. In its middle reaches in Madison County, the Madison Dam forms Ennis Lake and provides hydroelectric power. In 1959, the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake formed. Downstream from Ennis, the Madison flows through Bear Trap Canyon, known for its class IV-V whitewater; the Bear Trap Canyon section is part of the Lee Metcalf Wilderness area. The river was named in July 1805 by Meriwether Lewis at Three Forks.
The central fork of the three, it was named for U. S. Secretary of State James Madison, who would succeed Thomas Jefferson as President in 1809; the western fork, the largest, was named for President Jefferson and the east fork for Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin. The Madison is a Class I river in Montana for the purposes of access for recreational use; the Madison River, from Madison Junction in Yellowstone to Three Forks, is a fly fishing mecca for serious anglers. It is classified as a blue ribbon fishery in Montana and is one of the most productive streams in Montana for brown trout, rainbow trout and mountain whitefish. For angling purposes, the Madison can be divided into four distinct sections. Trout Unlimited — Trout Unlimited's mission is to conserve and restore North America's coldwater fisheries and their watersheds. Western Watersheds Project — The mission of Western Watersheds Project is to protect and restore western watersheds and wildlife through education, public policy initiatives and litigation.
Montana River Action — The clean flowing waters of Montana belong to the people and are held in trust by the State for a pollution-free healthful environment guaranteed by our Montana Constitution. Montana River Action's mission is to protect and restore rivers and other water bodies. Madison River Foundation--- The mission of the Madison River Foundation is to preserve and enhance the Madison River watershed. Angling in Yellowstone National Park Fishes of Yellowstone National Park Montana Stream Access Law List of rivers of Montana List of Wyoming rivers Back, Howard; the Waters of the Yellowstone with Rod and Fly. New York: Dodd & Mead. Parks, Richard. Fishing Yellowstone National Park. Helena, MT: Falcon Press. ISBN 1-56044-625-0. Brooks, Charles E.. The Living River-A Fisherman's Intimate Profile of the Madison River Watershed--Its History, Ecology and Angling Opportunities. Garden City, NJ: Nick Lyons Books. ISBN 0-385-15655-3. Mathews, Craig; the Yellowstone Fly-Fishing Guide-A authoritative guide to the waters of Yellowstone National Park.
Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-55821-545-X. Brooks, Charles E.. Fishing Yellowstone Waters. Clinton, NJ: New Win Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-8329-0353-1. Holt, John. Montana Fly-Fishing Guide-East. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-529-4. Holt, John. River Journal - Madison. Portland, OR: Frank Amato Publications. ISBN 1-878175-27-0. "Madison River". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921