Riverside Drive (Manhattan)

Riverside Drive is a scenic north-south thoroughfare in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The boulevard runs on the Upper West Side of Manhattan parallel to the Hudson River from 72nd Street to near the George Washington Bridge at 181st Street. North of 96th Street, Riverside Drive is a wide divided boulevard. At several locations, a serpentine local street diverges from the main road, providing access to the residential buildings; some of the city's most coveted addresses are located along its route. The 191 acres of land in the original park between 72nd to 125th Streets were inhabited by the Lenape people, but by the 18th century were used for farms. In 1846, the Hudson River Railroad was built along the waterfront, connecting New York City to Albany. In 1865, Central Park commissioner William R. Martin put forth the first proposal for a riverside park along the Hudson River. An act providing for such was presented to the Legislature by commissioner Andrew Haswell Green in 1866 and approved the same year.

The first segment of Riverside Park was acquired through condemnation in 1872. The park included the construction of Riverside Drive, a tree-lined drive curving around the valleys and rock outcroppings, overlooking the future park and the waterfront; the avenue was 100 feet wide for its entire length. The plans for Riverside Park and Avenue brought the attention of William M. Tweed, who bought several lots adjacent to the park in anticipation of its construction. A selection process for the designers of Riverside Park followed, in 1873 the commissioners selected Frederick Law Olmsted, a park commissioner who had designed Central Park. Riverside Avenue had been planned to run in a straight line, which would have required a retaining wall and extensive fill. By the difficult topography of the area had come to the attention of the Manhattan park commissioners, in 1873 Olmsted was given the authorization to redesign the grade of Riverside Avenue. To accommodate this, Olmsted devised a new plan that would create a main road extending from 72nd to 123rd Streets, with overpasses at 79th and 96th Streets, as well as "carriage roads" to serve the nearby neighborhood.

The grade of the road was not to exceed 1:27. Riverside Avenue's main road would contain two roadways, one for each direction, separated by a median. A pedestrian path and a horse path would run alongside the avenue, trees would provide shade along the route. Over the following years, work proceeded on Riverside Avenue, with various ramps and stairs to the park as well as a bridle path between 104th and 120th Streets. In 1876 Olmsted was asked to create plans for the design of the avenue as a country drive, but it was paved. In late 1876, bids were accepted for paving of Riverside Avenue. Olmsted was ousted as parks superintendent in December 1877. From 1875 to 1910, architects and horticulturalists such as Calvert Vaux and Samuel Parsons laid out the stretch of park/road between 72nd and 125th Streets according to the English gardening ideal, creating the appearance that the park was an extension of the Hudson River Valley; the avenue was opened in 1880 and was well-used by walkers and drivers.

The viaduct across 96th Street remained incomplete until 1902. In 1908, the avenue was renamed Riverside Drive. In the 1930s, New York Central Railroad's rail track north of 72nd Street was covered in a Robert Moses project called the West Side Improvement; the project, bigger than the Hoover Dam project, created the Henry Hudson Parkway and buried the West Side Line in the Freedom Tunnel. It was so skillfully done that many believe the road are set on a natural slope. Moses' biographer Robert Caro envisaged Moses surveying the area before his project, finding: a wasteland six miles long, stretching from where he stood all the way north to 181st street... The ` park' was nothing but a vast low-lying mass of mud. Unpainted, jagged wire fences along the tracks barred the city from its waterfront... The engines that pulled trains along the tracks burned oil. In the 1980s Donald Trump owner of the 57 acres of land just south of Riverside Park, the Penn Central freight rail yard, proposed a large real estate development project.

However, hampered by his weakened financial condition and opposed by six civic groups, Trump agreed in 1990 to their plan, designed to mimic Riverside Park and Drive further north. Though scaled down, the project is still the second biggest private real estate venture under construction in New York City; the agreed-upon plan would expand Riverside Park by 23 acres and extend Riverside Drive to the south as Riverside Boulevard. Starting at 72nd Street, Riverside Drive passes through the Manhattan neighborhoods of the Upper West Side, Morningside Heights, over Manhattanville in West Harlem by way of the Riverside Drive Viaduct and through Washington Heights. Below 72nd Street, Riverside Drive continues as Riverside Boulevard which stretches through Riverside South to 59th Street where it merges into the West Side Highway. Only a few stretches of Riverside Drive were built along an older road.

Nobleza gaucha (1915 film)

Nobleza gaucha is a 1915 Argentine silent film, loosely based on the Martín Fierro by José Hernández and Santos Vega by Rafael Obligado. It was directed by Eduardo Martinez de la Pera, who shared credit with Humberto Cairo, the producer, Ernesto Gunche, the cinematographer. Don José Gran, a rich businessman from Buenos Aires, travels to La Pampa to search for horses, he hires a noble gaucho who tames horses for a living, to aid him in his search. On that day, Juan rescues a damsel in distress, María, from a crazed horse. Don José Gran kidnaps María and goes back to Buenos Aires with her. Juan decides to rescue her. Juan and Don Genaro try to go by cart to Buenos Aires, but the vehicle gets stuck, so they take the train instead. Once in Buenos Aires, they ask for directions and end up chasing a fleeing streetcar that takes them all the way to Gran's mansion. Don Genaro gets in trouble for smoking in the streetcar, decides not to be involved in María's rescue, preferring instead to go shopping for supplies.

Juan waits for Don Gran to arrive. María, assaulted by Gran, is supposed dead by Juan and he mourns her; as María wakes up, Gran creeps up behind Juan, ready to kill him, but Juan blocks the stab and overcomes him once more. As Juan is about to kill Gran, María stops him, claiming that a gaucho would never kill a defenseless man, they escape the mansion and board the train home. The last shot shows Don Genaro on his way to the train, losing his step and scattering his supplies over the street, he picks them up, waving young boys away, picks his way up. After María and Juan return to the country, Gran plans a revenge, he talks to the "comisario" and accuses falsely Juan of being a "cuatrero". The comisario begins a search for Juan. María tells Juan to escape. Juan starts a pursuit on horses. Gran falls down. Juan goes down and try to help him. Justice wins; the film ends. The film was re-released in 2003 at the Polish Latin American Film Festival on June 28, it was featured in 2008 at the Mar del Plata International Film Festival on November 8.

Nobleza gaucha was director de la Pera's debut in cinema. The film was made with $20,000 in budget; the film earned about $1,000,000 upon its release, resulting in the highest-grossing Argentine film of its times. Using the money earned, de la Pera went on to make his second film in 1916, Hasta después de la muerte; the movie caused de la Pera to retire. Since the movie has spanned a series of remakes, most notable of, the 1937 remake, directed by Francisco Mugica. Nobleza gaucha on IMDb

Santa Cecilia Orchestra (Los Angeles)

The Santa Cecilia Orchestra, Spanish:'Orquesta Santa Cecilia', is an American symphony orchestra. It was founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1993 by Sonia Marie De León de Vega, who has since been the principal conductor; the orchestra performs chamber music and full orchestral concerts at the Thorne Hall, part of Occidental College in Eagle Rock, California. Its two-year music education program, Discovering Music, is offered in 16 elementary schools throughout Los Angeles; the orchestra seeks to promote Latin American composers, presenting their pieces alongside works by major Western composers of classical music. Sonia Marie De León de Vega founded the orchestra in 1992 with money of her own. At the orchestra's first concert, in St. Ignatius Church in Highland Park, Los Angeles, 28 musicians performed for an audience of 12 people. Thorne Hall at Occidental College, where De León teaches, became the permanent residence of the orchestra for the 1999-2000 season; the orchestra has 85 paid professional musicians from other orchestras, both symphonic and cinematic.

The orchestra has an annual budget of about $250,000, has received funding from the National Endowment for the Arts, the California Arts Council, the Cultural Affairs Department and County Arts Commission of Los Angeles. The Discovering Music program of the orchestra was started in 1998. Orchestra members visit elementary schools in the Los Angeles area to present classical music and orchestral instruments; the program has reached more than 40 schools and tens of thousands of students