National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Historic preservation, heritage preservation or heritage conservation, is an endeavour that seeks to preserve and protect buildings, landscapes or other artifacts of historical significance. This term refers to the preservation of the built environment, not to preservation of, for example, primeval forests or wilderness. In England, antiquarian interests were a familiar gentleman's pursuit since the mid 17th century, developing in tandem with the rise in scientific curiosity. Fellows of the Royal Society were also Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries. Many historic sites were damaged as the railways began to spread across the UK. In 1833 Berkhamsted Castle became the first historic site in England protected by statute under the London and Birmingham Railway Acts of 1833–1837, though the new railway line in 1834 did demolish the castle's gatehouse and outer earthworks to the south. Another early preservation event occurred at Berkhamsted. In 1866, Lord Brownlow who lived at Ashridge, tried to enclose the adjoining Berkhamsted Common with 5-foot steel fences in an attempt to claim it as part of his estate.
In England from early Anglo-Saxon times, Common land was an area of land which the local community could use as a resource. Across England between 1660 and 1845, 7 million acres of Common land had been enclosed by private land owners by application to parliament. On the night of 6 March 1866, Augustus Smith MP led gangs of local folk and hired men from London's East End in direct action to break the enclosure fences and protect Berkhamsted Common for the people of Berkhamsted in what became known nationally as the Battle of Berkhamsted Common. In 1870, Sir Robert Hunter and the Commons Preservation Society succeed in legal action that ensured protection of Berkhamsted Common and other open spaces threatened with enclosure. In 1926 the common was acquired by the National Trust. By the mid 19th century, much of Britain's unprotected cultural heritage was being destroyed. Well-meaning archaeologists like William Greenwell excavated sites with no attempt at their preservation, Stonehenge came under increasing threat by the 1870s.
Tourists were carving their initials into the rock. The private owners of the monument decided to sell the land to the London and South-Western Railway as the monument was "not the slightest use to anyone now". John Lubbock, an MP and botanist emerged as the champion of the country's national heritage. In 1872 he bought private land that housed ancient monuments in Avebury, Silbury Hill and elsewhere, from the owners who were threatening to have them cleared away to make room for housing. Soon, he began campaigning in Parliament for legislation to protect monuments from destruction; this led to the legislative milestone under the Liberal government of William Gladstone of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. The first government appointed inspector for this job was the archaeologist Augustus Pitt-Rivers; this legislation was regarded by conservative political elements as a grave assault on the individual rights of property of the owner, the inspector only had the power to identify endangered landmarks and offer to purchase them from the owner with his consent.
The Act only covered ancient monuments and explicitly did not cover historic buildings or structures. In 1877 the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings was founded by the Arts and Crafts designer William Morris to prevent the destruction of historic buildings, followed by the National Trust in 1895 that bought estates from their owners for preservation; the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 had only given legal protection to prehistoric sites, such as ancient tumuli. The Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900 took this further by empowering the government's Commissioners of Work and local County Councils to protect a wider range of properties. Further updates were made in 1910. Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire, a medieval manor house had been put up for sale in 1910 with its greatest treasures, the huge medieval fireplaces, still intact. However, when an American bought the house they were packaged up for shipping; the former viceroy of India, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, was outraged at this cultural destruction and stepped in to buy back the castle and reinstall the fireplaces.
After a nationwide hunt for them they were found in London and returned. He restored the castle and left it to the National Trust on his death in 1925, his experience at Tattershall influenced Lord Curzon to push for tougher heritage protection laws in Britain, which saw passage as the Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913. The new structure involved the creation of the Ancient Monuments Board to oversee the protection of such monuments. Powers were given for the board, with Parliamentary approval, to issue preservation orders to protect monuments, extended the public right of access to these; the term "monument" was extended to include the lands around it, allowing the protection of the wider landscape. The National Trust was founded in 1894 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter, Hardwicke Canon Rawnsley as the first organisation of its type in the world, its formal purpose is: The preservation for the benefit of the Nation of lands and tenements of beauty or historic interest and, as regards lands, for the preservation of their natural aspect and animal and plant life.
The preservation of furniture and chattels of any description having
Racial segregation in the United States
Racial segregation in the United States is the separation of racial groups in aspects of daily life in the history of the United States. For most of United States history, segregation maintained the separation of African Americans from whites; the term applies to the segregation of racial groups from one another the segregation of people of color from whites. The term refers to the physical separation of racial groups and to the separation of roles within an institution, such as white units being separated from black units in the United States Armed Forces. Segregation was maintained through the doctrine of providing so-called "separate but equal" facilities that were equal. Signs were used to show non-whites where they could walk, drink, rest, or eat. An African-American historian, Marvin Dunn, described segregation in Miami, about 1950: My mother shopped there but she was not allowed to try on clothes or to return clothes. Blacks were not allowed to eat at the lunch counter. All the white stores were similar in this regard.
The Greyhound Bus Station had separate waiting toilets for blacks and whites. Blacks could not eat at the counter in the bus station; the first black police offficers for the city had been hired in 1947…but they could not arrest white people. My parents were registered as Republicans until the 1950s because they were not allowed to join the Democrat Party before 1947. Racial segregation follows two forms. De jure segregation mandates the separation of races by law, was the form that segregation took from the founding of the United States until the 1960s, when Congress passed legislation protecting civil rights; these included the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Fair Housing Act in 1968. In specific areas, segregation was barred earlier by the Supreme Court in decisions such as the Brown v. Board of Education decision that overturned school segregation in the United States. De facto segregation, or segregation "in fact", is that. De facto segregation continues today in areas such as residential segregation and school segregation because of both contemporary behavior and the historical legacy of de jure segregation.
Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867, the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1870 providing the right to vote, the Civil Rights Act of 1875 forbidding racial segregation in accommodations. As a result, Federal occupation troops in the South assured blacks the right to vote and to elect their own political leaders; the Reconstruction amendments asserted the supremacy of the national state and the formal equality under the law of everyone within it. However, it did not prohibit segregation in schools; when the Republicans came to power in the Southern states after 1867, they created the first system of taxpayer-funded public schools. Southern Blacks wanted public schools for their children but they did not demand racially integrated schools. All the new public schools were segregated, apart from a few in New Orleans. After the Republicans lost power in the mid-1870s, conservative whites retained the public school systems but cut their funding.
All private academies and colleges in the South were segregated by race. The American Missionary Association supported the development and establishment of several black colleges, such as Fisk University and Shaw University. In this period, a handful of northern colleges accepted black students. Northern denominations and their missionary associations established private schools across the South to provide secondary education, they provided a small amount of collegiate work. Tuition was minimal, so churches supported the colleges financially, subsidized the pay of some teachers. In 1900 churches—mostly based in the North—operated 247 schools for blacks across the South, with a budget of about $1 million, they taught 46,000 students. Prominent schools included a federal institution based in Washington. Most new colleges in the 19th century were founded in northern states. By the early 1870s, the North lost interest in further reconstruction efforts and when federal troops were withdrawn in 1877, the Republican Party in the South splintered and lost support, leading to the conservatives taking control of all the southern states.'Jim Crow' segregation began somewhat in the 1880s.
Disfranchisement of the blacks began in the 1890s. Although the Republican Party had championed African-American rights during the Civil War and had become a platform for black political influence during Reconstruction, a backlash among white Republicans led to the rise of the lily-white movement to remove African Americans from leadership positions in the party and incite riots to divide the party, with the ultimate goal of eliminating black influence. By 1910, segregation was established across the South and most of the border region, only a small number of black leaders were allowed to vote across the Deep South; the legitimacy of laws requiring segregation of blacks was upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U. S. 537. The Supreme Court sustained the constitutionality of a Louisiana statute that required railroad companies to provide "separate but equal" accommodations for white and black passengers, prohibited whites and blacks from using railroad cars that were not assigned to their race.
Plessy thus allowed segregation, which became standard througho
A bar is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, liquor and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and sell snack foods such as potato chips or peanuts, for consumption on premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may serve food from a restaurant menu; the term "bar" refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. The term "bar" is derived from the metal or wooden bar, located at feet along the length of the "bar". Bars provide chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are referred to as music bars, live venues, or nightclubs. Types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars to elegant places of entertainment accompanying restaurants for dining. Many bars have a discount period, designated a "happy hour" or discount of the day to encourage off-peak-time patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink purchase requirement during their peak hours.
Bars may have bouncers to ensure patrons are of legal age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons, to collect cover charges. Such bars feature entertainment, which may be a live band, comedian, or disc jockey playing recorded music. Patrons may be served by the bartender. Depending on the size of a bar and its approach, alcohol may be served at the bar by bartenders, at tables by servers, or by a combination of the two; the "back bar" is a set of shelves of bottles behind that counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass and lights. There have been many different names for public drinking spaces throughout history. In the colonial era of the United States, taverns were an important meeting place, as most other institutions were weak. During the 19th century saloons were important to the leisure time of the working class. Today when an establishment uses a different name, such as "tavern" or "saloon" or, in the United Kingdom, a "pub", the area of the establishment where the bartender pours or mixes beverages is called "the bar".
The sale and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the first half of the 20th century in several countries, including Finland, Iceland and the United States. In the United States, illegal bars during Prohibition were called "speakeasies", "blind pigs", "blind tigers". Laws in many jurisdictions prohibit minors from entering a bar. If those under legal drinking age are allowed to enter, as is the case with pubs that serve food, they are not allowed to drink. In some jurisdictions, bars cannot serve a patron, intoxicated. Cities and towns have legal restrictions on where bars may be located and on the types of alcohol they may serve to their customers; some bars may have a license to serve wine, but not hard liquor. In some jurisdictions, patrons buying alcohol must order food. In some jurisdictions, bar owners have a legal liability for the conduct of patrons. Many Islamic countries prohibit bars as well as the possession or sale of alcohol for religious reasons, while others, including Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, allow bars in some specific areas, but only permit non-Muslims to drink in them.
A bar's owners and managers choose the bar's name, décor, drink menu and other elements which they think will attract a certain kind of patron. However, they have only limited influence over. Thus, a bar intended for one demographic profile can become popular with another. For example, a gay or lesbian bar with a dance or disco floor might, over time, attract an heterosexual clientele. Or a blues bar may become a biker bar. A cocktail lounge is an upscale bar, located within a hotel, restaurant, or airport. A full bar serves liquor, cocktails and beer. A wine bar is a bar that focuses on wine rather than on liquor. Patrons of these bars may taste wines before deciding to buy them; some wine bars serve small plates of food or other snacks. A beer bar focuses on beer craft beer, rather than on wine or liquor. A brew pub serves craft beers. "Fern bar" is an American slang term for an preppy bar. A music bar is a bar. A dive bar referred to as a "dive", is a informal bar which may be considered by some to be disreputable.
A non-alcoholic bar is a bar. A Strip club is a bar with nude entertainers. A bar and grill is a restaurant; some persons may designate either an area of a room as a home bar. Furniture and arrangements vary from efficient to full bars. Bars categorized by the kind of entertainment they offer: Blues bars, specializing in the live blues style of music Comedy bars, specializing in stand-up comedy entertainment Dance bars, which have a dance floor where patrons dance to recorded music. If a venue has a large dance floor, focuses on dancing rather than seated drinking, hires professional DJs, it is considered to be a nightclub or discothèque rather than a bar. Karaoke bars, with nightly karaoke as entertainment Music bars. Piano bars are one example. Drag b
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U. S. state of Florida and its most significant one for commercial and recreational use. At 310 miles long, it borders twelve counties; the drop in elevation from headwaters to mouth is less than 30 feet. Numerous lakes are formed by the river or flow into it, but as a river its widest point is nearly 3 miles across; the narrowest point is in an unnavigable marsh in Indian River County. The St. Johns drainage basin of 8,840 square miles includes some of Florida's major wetlands, it is separated into three major basins and two associated watersheds for Lake George and the Ocklawaha River, all managed by the St. Johns River Water Management District. A variety of people have lived on or near the St. Johns, including Paleo-indians, Archaic people, Mocama and Spanish settlers, Seminoles and freemen, Florida crackers, land developers and retirees, it has been the subject of William Bartram's journals, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' books, Harriet Beecher Stowe's letters home.
Although Florida was the location of the first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States, it was the last U. S. territory on the east coast to be developed. When attention was turned to the state, much of the land was overdeveloped in a national zeal for progress; the St. Johns, like many Florida rivers, was altered to make way for agricultural and residential centers, it suffered severe pollution and human interference that has diminished the natural order of life in and around the river. In all, 3.5 million people live within the various watersheds. The St. Johns, named one of 14 American Heritage Rivers in 1998, was number 6 on a list of America's Ten Most Endangered Rivers in 2008. Restoration efforts are under way for the basins around the St. Johns as Florida continues to deal with population increases in the river's vicinity. Starting in Indian River County and meeting the Atlantic Ocean at Duval County, the St. Johns is Florida's primary commercial and recreational waterway.
It flows north from its headwaters, originating in the direction of the Lake Wales Ridge, only elevated at 30 feet above sea level. Because of this low elevation drop, the river has a long backwater, it flows with tides that pass through the barrier islands and up the channel. Uniquely, it shares the same regional terrain as the parallel Kissimmee River, although the Kissimmee flows south; the St. Johns River is separated into three basins and two associated watersheds managed by the St. Johns River Water Management District; because the river flows in a northerly direction, the upper basin is located in the headwaters of the river at its southernmost point. Indian River County is where the river begins as a network of marshes, at a point west of Vero Beach aptly named the St. Johns Marsh in central Florida; the St. Johns River is a blackwater stream, meaning that it is fed by swamps and marshes lying beneath it; the upper basin measures 2,000 square miles. The river touches on the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties, flows through the southeast tip of Seminole County, transitioning into its middle basin a dozen miles or so north of Titusville.
The upper basin of the St. Johns was lowered in the 1920s with the establishment of the Melbourne Tillman drainage project; this drained the St. Johns' headwaters eastward to the Indian River through canals dug across the Ten-Mile Ridge near Palm Bay; as of 2015, these past diversions are being reversed through the first phase of the Canal 1 Rediversion project. The river is at most unpredictable in this basin. Channel flows are not apparent and are unmarked; the most efficient way to travel on this part of the river is by airboat. 3,500 lakes lie within the overall St. Johns watershed; the river flows into many of the lakes. Eight larger lakes and five smaller ones lie in the upper basin. Lakes Washington and Poinsett— named for Joel Roberts Poinsett, a diplomat who brought the poinsettia to the United States— are located further along this stretch of the river; the northernmost points of the upper basin contain the Tosohatchee Wildlife Management Area, created in 1977 to assist with filtration of waters flowing into the larger St. Johns.
Wetlands in the upper and middle basin are fed by rainwater, trapped by the structure of the surrounding land. It is an oxygen- and nutrient-poor environment. Water levels fluctuate with the subtropical dry seasons. Rain in central and north Florida occurs seasonally during summer and winter, but farther south rain in winter is rare. All plants in these basins must tolerate both flooding and drought. Sweetbay and swamp tupelo tre
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Mediterranean Revival architecture
Mediterranean Revival is a design style introduced in the United States in the waning nineteenth century variously incorporating references from Spanish Renaissance, Spanish Colonial, Beaux-Arts, Italian Renaissance, Arabic Andalusian architecture, Venetian Gothic architecture. Peaking in popularity during the 1920s and 1930s, the movement drew on the style of palaces and seaside villas and applied them to the expanding coastal resorts of Florida and California. Structures are based on a rectangular floor plan, feature massive, symmetrical primary façades. Stuccoed walls, red tiled roofs, windows in the shape of arches or circles, one or two stories, wood or wrought iron balconies with window grilles, articulated door surrounds are characteristic. Keystones were employed. Ornamentation may be dramatic. Lush gardens appear; the style was most applied to hotels, apartment buildings, commercial structures, residences. Architects August Geiger and Addison Mizner were foremost in Florida, while Bertram Goodhue, Sumner Spaulding, Paul Williams were in California.
There are examples of this architectural style in Cuba, such as the Hotel Nacional de Cuba, in Havana. E. W. Marland Mansion in Ponca City, completed in 1928 Hayes Mansion in San Jose, completed in 1905 Rose Crest Mansion in Jamaica Estates, New York, completed in 1909 Delaware and Hudson Passenger Station, Lake George, New York, 1909–1911 Villa Vizcaya in Miami, completed in 1914 Presidio building in San Francisco, completed in 1912 The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California, 1921 Temple Terrace Country Club in Temple Terrace, completed in 1921 Allouez Pump House in Allouez, Wisconsin, 1925 Freedom Tower in Miami, completed in 1925 The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror in Walt Disney World, Florida. 1994 Vinoy Park Hotel in St. Petersburg, completed in 1925 Snell Arcade in St. Petersburg, Florida. 1925 Boca Raton Resort & Club in Boca Raton, completed in 1926 Miami-Biltmore Hotel in Coral Gables, completed in 1926 Fort Harrison Hotel in Clearwater, completed in 1926 Cà d'Zan, former John Ringling estate in Sarasota, completed in 1926 Francis Marion Stokes Fourplex in Portland, completed in 1926 Florida Theatre in Jacksonville, completed in 1927 Pasadena City Hall in Pasadena, California, 1927 Winter Park Ninth Grade Center 1927 Nottingham Cooperative, 1927, Wisconsin Greenacres in Beverly Hills, completed in 1928 Don CeSar Hotel, St. Pete Beach, completed in 1928 Beverly Shores Railroad Station, 1928 Catalina Casino in Avalon, completed May 29, 1929 Mildred Building, Texas 1929 Port Washington Fire Engine House in Port Washington, completed in 1929 Casa Casuarina in Miami Beach, Florida, 1930 Santa Fe Railway depot in Fullerton, completed 1930 Town Club, completed 1931 Beverly Hills City Hall, Beverly Hills, California, 1932 Cabrillo Beach Bath House in San Pedro, completed 1932 Francis Lederer residence, in West Hills, Los Angeles, completed 1936 Cooley High School, Michigan, built in 1928 W.
J. Bryan Elementary School, in Miami, completed in 1928 Sunrise Theatre, Fort Pierce, built in 1922 The Colony Hotel, Delray Beach, built in 1926 The Church of Scientology's Flag Building, Florida, completed in 2011 Plymouth County Hospital, a tuberculosis sanatorium, in Hanson, Massachusetts. Completed in 1919 Italianate architecture Gothicmed-project which includes finding further insight to Gothic architecture in the Mediterranean area Mission Revival Style architecture Spanish Colonial style architecture Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture Moorish Revival architecture Gustafson and Phil Serpico. Santa Fe Coast Lines Depots: Los Angeles Division. Acanthus Press, Palmdale, CA. ISBN 0-88418-003-4. Newcomb, Rexford. Mediterranean Domestic Architecture for the United States. Hawthorne Printing Company, New York, NY. ISBN 0-926494-13-9. Signor, John R.. Southern Pacific Lines: Pacific Lines Stations, Volume 1. Southern Pacific Historical and Technical Society, Pasadena, CA. ISBN 0-9657208-4-5.
Nolan, David. The Houses of St. Augustine. Sarasota, Pineapple Press, 1995. Nylander, Justin A.. Casas to Castles: Florida's Historic Mediterranean Revival Architecture. Schiffer publishing. ISBN 978-0-7643-3435-1