The Rosenberg family was a prominent Bohemian noble family that played an important role in Czech medieval history from the 13th century until 1611. Members of this family held posts at the Prague royal court, they were viewed as powerful lords of the Kingdom of Bohemia; this branch of the Vítkovci clan was founded by Vítek III, the son of Vítek of Prčice. Around 1250, the Vítkovci clan settled at the Rožmberk Castle in the region of Český Krumlov about 1253 erected the Český Krumlov castle; the Krumlov castle thus became the residence of the Lords of Rožmberk for the next three hundred years. It was the Rožmberks; the coat of arms and emblem of this family was represented by a red five-petalled rose on a silver field, still seen in a considerable part of southern Bohemia. Peter I of Rožmberk held the post of the superior chamberlain at the court of John of Bohemia, his wife was a widow of the Bohemian king Wenceslaus III. Another significant personage of the family was Jindřich III of Rožmberk, a son of Oldřich I, who led the Union of Nobility, being displeased during the reign of King Wenceslaus IV.
Jindřich's son, Oldřich II of Rožmberk, was a member of the Bohemian nobility who defended the interests of Bohemian catholic nobility and of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, during the times of the Hussite wars. A daughter of Oldřich II was Perchta of Rožmberk, identified with the Rožmberks "White Lady" ghost tales, current residents of the area still report seeing Perchta's spirit around the castle; the decline of the House of Rožmberk began with Vilém and Petr Vok, the sons of Jošt III, both being raised under the guardianship of their uncle, Peter V. Vilém of Rožmberk is considered the most significant representative of the family, making the Český Krumlov area the center of southern Bohemian cultural and political life. After Vilém's death in 1592, his younger brother, Petr Vok, assumed the position of reigning lord. In 1601, he was forced to sell the Krumlov castle to Holy Roman Emperor. Petr Vok transferred his residence after the sale to Třeboň, where he died in 1611. Petr Vok brought to a close the three-hundred-year-long reign of this illustrious dynasty.
Orsini family Orsini-Rosenberg family VESELÁ, Lenka. Knihy na dvoře Rožmberků. Praha: Knihovna Akademie věd ČR: Scriptorium, 2005. 359 s. ISBN 80-86675-06-8. ISBN 80-86197-60-3. Václav Březan: Životy posledních Rozmberků.. Praha 1985. Jaroslav Pánek: Poslední Rožmberkové. Velmoži české renesance. Praha 1989. History of the Rosenbergs The Rosenberg coat of arms Website of the castle of Rožmberk Arms of the Rosenberg family
Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was used for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century, its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows. Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior. Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the illiterate parishioners; these technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller and stronger. The first notable example is considered to be the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, whose choir and facade were reconstructed with Gothic features.
The choir was completed in 1144. The style appeared in some civic architecture in northern Europe, notably in town halls and university buildings. A Gothic revival began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum, The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, was very negative, suggesting barbaric. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his 1550 Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, in the introduction to the Lives he attributed various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, erecting new ones in this style; the Gothic style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France in the first half of the 12th century. A new dynasty of French Kings, the Capetians, had subdued the feudal lords, had become the most powerful rulers in France, with their capital in Paris.
They allied themselves with the bishops of the major cities of northern France, reduced the power of the feudal abbots and monasteries. Their rise coincided with an enormous growth of the population and prosperity of the cities of northern France; the Capetian Kings and their bishops wished to build new cathedrals as monuments of their power and religious faith. The church which served as the primary model for the style was the Abbey of St-Denis, which underwent reconstruction by the Abbot Suger, first in the choir and the facade, Suger was a close ally and biographer of the French King, Louis VII, a fervent Catholic and builder, the founder of the University of Paris. Suger remodeled the ambulatory of the Abbey, removed the enclosures that separated the chapels, replaced the existing structure with imposing pillars and rib vaults; this created higher and wider bays, into which he installed larger windows, which filled the end of the church with light. Soon afterwards he rebuilt the facade, adding three deep portals, each with a tympanum, an arch filled with sculpture illustrating biblical stories.
The new facade was flanked by two towers. He installed a small circular rose window over the central portal; this design became the prototype for a series of new French cathedrals. Sens Cathedral was the first Cathedral to be built in the new style. Other versions of the new style soon appeared in Noyon Cathedral; the Gothic style was adapted by some French monastic orders, notably the Cistercian order under Saint Bernard of Clairvaux It was used in an austere form without ornament at the new Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay and the church of Clairvaux Abbey, whose site is now occupied by a French prison. The new style was copied outside the Kingdom of France in the Duchy of Normandy. Early examples of Norman Gothic included Coutances Cathedral. Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the new style was introduced to England and spread from there to Low Countries, Spain, northern Italy and Sicily; the Gothic style did not replace the Romanesque everywhere in Europe. The Late Romanesque continued to flourish in the Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufens and Rhineland.
From the end of the 12th century until the middle of the 13th century, the gothic style spread from the Île-de-France to appear in other cities of northern France. New structures in the style included Chartres Cathedral; the early type of rib vault used of Saint Denis and Notre Dame, with six parts, was modified to four parts, making it simpler and stronger. Amiens and Chartres were among the first to use the flying buttress. At Reims, the buttresses were given greater weight and strength by the addition of heavy stone pinnacles on top; these were decorated with statues of ange
National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Rožmberk nad Vltavou
Rožmberk nad Vltavou is a town in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 330 inhabitants; the village is most known for nearby Rožmberk Castle. Rožmberk, founded in the middle of the 13th century, lies on the banks of the Vltava river, it developed on a trade route from Český Krumlov to Linz in Austria. While owned by the Bohemian aristocratic House of Rožmberk, it obtained township rights and grew in wealth. In 1620 the town became property of Count of Bucquoy. Historical spelling of the village name include: Rosenberch, Rosemberg, Rozmberg, Rožumbergk, Rosenberg, Rožmberk. Apart from the famous castle visitors can see church of St. Nikolaus and townhouses from the 17th-18th centuries in the central square. Official website
White Lady (ghost)
A White Lady is a type of female ghost dressed in all white seen in rural areas and associated with some local legend of tragedy. While White Lady legends are found in many countries around the world, they are most prominent in parts of the United States and Great Britain. Common to many of these legends is the theme of loss of a daughter or husband and a sense of purity before death. In popular medieval legend, a White Lady is fabled to appear by day as well as by night in a house in which a family member is soon to die. According to The Nuttall Encyclopædia, these spirits were regarded as the ghosts of deceased ancestresses. Called Dama Branca or Mulher de Branco in Portuguese, the Brazilian Lady in White is said to be the ghost of a young woman who died of childbirth or violent causes. According to legend, she appears as a pale woman in a long white dress or a sleeping gown, although speechless, will recount her misfortunes; the origins of the myth are not clear, Luís da Câmara Cascudo's Dicionário do Folclore Brasileiro proposes that the ghost is related to the violent deaths of young white women who were murdered by their fathers or husbands in an "honor" killing.
The most frequent reasons for these honor killings were denial of sex, or abuse. Monteiro Lobato in his book Urupês describes a young woman starved to death by her husband because he suspected she was in love with a black slave and only gave her the stewed meat of his corpse for food. A popular legend claims that the surroundings of the Montmorency Falls, near Quebec City are haunted by a white lady, it is said to be the spirit of a young Canadienne woman whose soon-to-be husband was killed while fighting against the British in the battle of Beauport. The young couple used to meet near the top of the falls and, the grieving woman is said to have chosen the site to end her life by throwing herself in the raging waters while wearing the wedding dress that she had ordered to be made. A smaller waterfall in the vicinity now bears the name Chute de la Dame Blanche in reference to this legend; the best-known White Lady of the Czech Republic is the ghost of Perchta of Rožmberk at Rožmberk Castle. Perchta of Rožmberk was a daughter of Oldřich II of Rožmberk.
She married another nobleman, Jan of Lichtenštejn in 1449. The marriage was quite unhappy. One of the reasons might have been the fact that Perchta's father had been reluctant to pay the agreed dowry. Legend has it. Perchta refused, her husband cursed her; this is why she haunts his holdings, which include Český Krumlov Castle, where she has been seen most often. During her married life, Perchta wrote many letters to her father and brothers with colourful descriptions of her unhappy family life; some 32 of these letters had been handed down. The most famous white lady of Estonia resides in Haapsalu castle, she is said to be the woman. She hid in the castle as a choir boy, remained a secret for a long time, but when the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek visited Haapsalu she was discovered, immured in the wall of the chapel for her crime. To this day she is said to grieve for her beloved man, she can be seen on clear August full-moon nights. A White Lady was first reported to be seen in the Berliner Schloss in 1625 and sightings were reported up until 1790.
This castle is the residence of the kings of Prussia, so the Lady has been linked to several historical figures: the guilt-ridden countess Kunigunda of Orlamünde, born Landgravine of Leuchtenberg, according to legend, murdered her two young children because she believed they stood in the way of her marriage to Albert of Nuremberg. The unfortunate widow Bertha of Rosenberg from Bohemia, overthrown by the heathen Perchta. There is a legend of a White Lady, a prince's wife in the town of Rheda-Wiedenbrück, Westphalia; the prince was away, fighting in the Thirty Years' War, his wife took a wandering minstrel as a lover. The prince returned unexpectedly, caught the two lovers, drowned the minstrel in the moat, he took his wife and encased her behind a wall in his manor with some food and water, so that she wouldn't cheat on him again as he returned to the fighting. The prince died in battle, the food and water ran out, his wife died, her spirit now haunts the manor. When the manor was renovated, the new owner had his builders tear down the wall behind which she was immured.
The next day, the worker who tore down the wall was working on the roof of the manor when he fell, broke his back, died. The manor is called Haus Aussel; the White Lady is the name of a female ghost that lives in Verdala Palace in the small forest of Buskett, Malta. Legend has it that many years ago, a woman was to be married to a man, her father told her. On the day of her wedding, she committed suicide by jumping off a balcony; this is why she is to this day known as the White Lady, because she was wearing her wedding gown on the day of her death. It is said that she haunts the Verdala Palace and many people who attend the August moon ball confirm that she does indeed appear in the palace. According to another Maltese legend, the White Lady of Mdina was killed by her lover after she was forced to marry another man. Many have claimed to see this spirit, always after eight o'clock in the evening, she appears to children under eight years old, heart-broken teenage boys, elderly men. While
The Hussites were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation. The Hussite movement began in the Kingdom of Bohemia and spread throughout the remaining Lands of the Bohemian Crown, including Moravia and Silesia, it made inroads into the northern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, but was rejected and gained infamy for the plundering behavior of the Hussite soldiers. There were very small temporary communities in Poland-Lithuania and Transylvania which moved to Bohemia after being confronted with religious intolerance, it was a regional movement. Hussites emerged as a majority Utraquist movement with a significant Taborite faction, smaller regional ones that included Adamites and Orphans. Major Hussite theologians included Petr Chelcicky, Jerome of Prague, others. A number of Czech national heroes were Hussite, including Jan Zizka, who led a fierce resistance to five consecutive crusades proclaimed on Hussite Bohemia by the Papacy.
Hussites were one of the most important forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. After the Council of Constance lured Jan Hus in with a letter of indemnity tried him for heresy and put him to death at the stake on 6 July 1415, the Hussites fought the Hussite Wars for their religious and political cause. After the Hussite Wars ended, the Catholic-supported Utraquist side came out victorious from conflict with the Taborites and became the most common representation of the Hussite faith in Bohemia. Catholics and Utraquists were emancipated in Bohemia after the religious peace of Kutná Hora in 1485. Bohemia and Moravia, or what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, remained majority Hussite for two centuries until Roman Catholicism was reimposed by the Holy Roman Emperor after the 1620 Battle of White Mountain during the Thirty Years' War. Due to this event and centuries of Habsburg persecution, Hussite traditions are represented in the Moravian Church, Unity of the Brethren, the refounded Czechoslovak Hussite churches among present-day Christians.
The arrest of Hus in 1414 caused considerable resentment in Czech lands. The authorities of both countries appealed urgently and to King Sigismund to release Jan Hus; when news of his death at the Council of Constance in 1415 arrived, disturbances broke out, directed against the clergy and against the monks. The Archbishop narrowly escaped from the effects of this popular anger; the treatment of Hus was felt to be a disgrace inflicted upon the whole country and his death was seen as a criminal act. King Wenceslaus, prompted by his grudge against Sigismund, at first gave free vent to his indignation at the course of events in Constance, his wife favoured the friends of Hus. Avowed Hussites stood at the head of the government. A league was formed by certain lords, who pledged themselves to protect the free preaching of the Gospel upon all their possessions and estates and to obey the power of the Bishops only where their orders accorded with the injunctions of the Bible; the university would arbitrate any disputed points.
The entire Hussite nobility joined the league. Other than verbal protest of the council's treatment of Hus, there was little evidence of any actions taken by the nobility until 1417. At that point several of the lesser nobility and some barons, signatories of the 1415 protest letter, removed Romanist priests from their parishes, replacing them with priests willing to give communion in both wine and bread; the chalice of wine became the central identifying symbol of the Hussite movement. If the king had joined, its resolutions would have received the sanction of the law; the prospect of a civil war began to emerge. Pope Martin V as Cardinal Otto of Colonna had attacked Hus with relentless severity, he energetically resumed the battle against Hus's teaching after the enactments of the Council of Constance. He wished to eradicate the doctrine of Hus, for which purpose the co-operation of King Wenceslaus had to be obtained. In 1418, Sigismund succeeded in winning his brother over to the standpoint of the council by pointing out the inevitability of a religious war if the heretics in Bohemia found further protection.
Hussite statesmen and army leaders had to leave the country and Roman Catholic priests were reinstated. These measures caused a general commotion which hastened the death of King Wenceslaus by a paralytic stroke in 1419, his heir was Sigismund. Hussitism organised itself during the years 1415–1419. From the beginning, there formed two parties, with a smaller number of people withdrawing from both parties around the pacifist Petr Chelčický, whose teachings would form the foundation of the Unitas Fratrum; the moderate party, who followed Hus more sought to conduct reform while leaving the whole hierarchical and liturgical order of the Church untouched. The more radical party identified itself more boldly with the doctrines of John Wycliffe, sharing his passionate hatred of the monastic clergy, his desire to return the Church to its supposed condition during the time of the apostles; this required the removal of the existing hierarchy and the secularisation of ecclesiastical possessions. The radicals preached the "sufficientia legis Christi"—the divine law is the sole rule and canon for human society, not only in the church, but in political and civi
Bartholomeus Spranger was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher who became a painter to the imperial court in Prague. His unique style combining elements of Netherlandish painting and Italian influences, in particular the Roman Mannerists, had an important influence on other artists in Prague and beyond, he trained with Cornelis van Dalem, Jan Mandijn, Frans Mostaert, all three landscape painters. He further copied prints of Frans Parmigianino, he traveled to Paris on 1 March 1565. He travelled on to Italy, where he first stayed for eight months in Milan, he worked for three months in Parma as an assistant to Bernardino Gatti on the painting of the dome of the Santa Maria della Steccata. He worked on wall paintings in various churches. In Rome he became, like El Greco, a protégé of Giulio Clovio. Here he met Karel van Mander who would include a biography of Spranger in the Schilder-boeck. Pope Pius V appointed him court painter in 1570, he was summoned to Vienna by Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, who died soon after his arrival in 1576.
But his successor Rudolf II was more keen to employ him, in 1581 he was appointed court painter and valet de chambre, the court having moved its seat to Prague, where he stayed until his death there in 1611, shortly before Rudolf was deposed. Rudolf arranged a wealthy marriage for him, his house was a centre for artists in Prague. Spranger's paintings for Rudolf depict mythological nudes in various complex poses, with some connection to the Emperor's esoteric Late-Renaissance philosophical ideas, his paintings are the most characteristic of the final phase of Northern Mannerism. By far the best collection is in Vienna, his drawings have great energy, in a free technique. Spranger worked as a sculptor, he may have a acquired his knowledge of sculpture through his collaboration with the Flemish sculptor Hans Mont, who worked at the Prague court. After Mont left the Prague court, Spranger appears to have worked intermittently as a sculptor for the emperor, at least until Adriaen de Vries arrived in Prague in 1601.
A terracotta relief of the'Body of Christ Supported by an Angel' is by his hand. The Walters Museum holds a bronze'Achelous and Deianeira', attributed to him. There is no record of any sculpture by Spranger in Rudolf II’s collection. Aegidius Sadeler, who lived in his house in Prague for some time, Hendrik Goltzius made engravings of his paintings, spreading Spranger's fame around Europe. Much the best collection is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna from the Imperial collection. Most museum print rooms will have examples of his prints. There are 3 oil paintings by Spranger in the Blanton Art Museum in Texas. Rijksmuseum: Bartholomeus Spranger Bartholomeus Spranger on Artcyclopedia