Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
Gordon Bennett Cup (auto racing)
As one of three Gordon Bennett Cups established by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. millionaire owner of the New York Herald, the automobile racing award was first given in 1900 in France. In 1899 Gordon Bennett offered the Automobile Club de France a trophy to be raced for annually by the automobile clubs of the various countries; the trophy was awarded annually until 1905, after which the ACF held the first Grand Prix motor racing event at the Circuit de la Sarthe, in Le Mans. The 1903 event in Ireland gave rise to the birth of British Racing Green; the trophy given the winner was a Panhard, driven by the Genius of Progress, with Nike as his co-driver. Competition was intended to be between national automobile clubs, or nations, not individuals; the first contestants were France, Great Britain, the United States, Austria, Switzerland and Italy. Each club was required to pay a Fr3000 entry fee; each could send up to three cars. A race, once scheduled, had to be held between 15 May and 15 August, with a total distance of between 550 and 650 km.
Participating clubs shared the cost of running the event. The cars themselves had to have side by side, with driver and riding mechanic. Cars were to weigh at least 400 kg empty, had to be built in the country under whose colors they ran; the Gordon Bennett Cup auto races drew entrants from across Europe, including future aviator Henry Farman, competitors from the United States such as Alexander Winton driving his Winton automobile. Under the rules, the races were hosted in the country of the previous year's winner; as the races were between national teams, it led to the reorganisation and standardisation of national racing colours. Count Eliot Zborowski, father of inter-war racing legend Louis Zborowski, suggested that each national entrant be allotted a different colour. Britain had to choose a different colour from its usual national colours of red and blue, as these had been taken by USA, France respectively.. Reputedly as a concession to Ireland where the 1903 Gordon Bennett Cup race was run, the British adopted shamrock green which became known as British racing green, although the winning Napier of 1902 had been painted olive green, green was well-established as an appropriate colour for locomotives and machinery, in which Britain had led the world during the previous century.
The international motor car race from Paris to Lyons for the Gordon Bennett Cup took place on June 14, 1900. The start from Paris was made at 3 o'clock in the morning and Charron was the first to reach Lyons, arriving at 12:23 p.m. M. Girardot finished second at 2 o'clock. In 1901 the Gordon Bennett Cup race was run in conjunction with the Paris-Bordeaux race on 29 May over a distance of 527.1 km. The race was won by Henri Fournier driving a Mors with a time of 6h 10m 44s; the first of the Gordon Bennett Cup contestants was Leonce Girardot, driving a Panhard with a time of 8h 50m 59s. The 1902 Gordon Bennett Cup was run over a distance of 565 km from Paris to Innsbruck in conjunction with the Paris-Vienna motor car race; the race started in Paris on June 26. Competing were 30 heavy cars, 48 light cars, six voiturettes, three motorcycles, three motorcyclettes; each nation was allowed to nominate up to three cars to compete for the Gordon Bennett Cup, but only six entries were received, three French and three British.
The Automobile Club of Great Britain announced that car No. 160 driven by Mr White, car No. 45, made by Napier & Son of London with Dunlop tyres, driven by Mr Edge. The Times announced on June 30, it was announced in Vienna on July 1 that M. Marcel Renault had won the Paris-Vienna race, with M. Henri Farman second. On Thursday, 2 July 1903 the Gordon Bennett Cup was the first international motor race to be held in Ireland, an honorific to Selwyn Edge who had won the 1902 event in the Paris-Vienna race driving a Napier; the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland wanted the race to be hosted in the British Isles, their secretary, Claude Johnson, suggested Ireland as the venue because racing was illegal on British public roads. The editor of the Dublin Motor News, Richard J. Mecredy, suggested an area in County Kildare, letters were sent to 102 Irish MPs, 90 Irish peers, 300 newspapers, 34 chairmen of county and local councils, 34 County secretaries, 26 mayors, 41 railway companies, 460 hoteliers, 13 PPs, plus the Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, Patrick Foley, who pronounced himself in favour.
Local laws had to be adjusted, ergo the'Light Locomotives Bill' was passed on 27 March 1903. Kildare and other local councils drew attention to their areas, whilst Queen’s County declared That every facility will be given and the roads placed at the disposal of motorists during the proposed race. Kildare was chosen on the grounds that the straightness of the roads would be a safety benefit; as a compliment to Ireland the British team chose to race in Shamrock green which thus became known as British racing green although the winning Napier of 1902 had been painted Olive green. There was considerable public concern about safety after the 1901 Paris-Bordeaux Rally, in which at least eight people had been killed, severe crashes during the May 24th 1903 Paris-Madrid race where more than 200 cars competed over a distance of 800 miles but which had to be halted at Bordeaux because there had been so many fatalities. To allay these fears, the 1903 race was held over a closed course which had
Autodromo Nazionale Monza
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza is a historic race track located near the city of Monza, north of Milan, in Italy. Built in 1922, it is the world's third purpose-built motor racing circuit after those of Brooklands and Indianapolis; the circuit's biggest event is the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. With the exception of 1980, the race has been hosted there since the series's inception. Built in the Royal Villa of Monza park in a woodland setting, the site has three tracks – the 5.793-kilometre Grand Prix track, the 2.405-kilometre Junior track, a 4.250-kilometre high speed oval track with steep bankings, unused for many decades and is now decaying. The major features of the main Grand Prix track include the Curva Grande, the Curva di Lesmo, the Variante Ascari and the Curva Parabolica; the high speed curve, Curva Grande, is located after the Variante del Rettifilo, located at the end of the front straight or Rettifilo Tribune, is taken flat out by Formula One cars. Drivers are on full throttle for most of the lap due to its long straights and fast corners, is the scenario in which the open-wheeled Formula One cars show the raw speed of which they are capable: 372 kilometres per hour during the mid-2000s V10 engine formula, although in 2012 with the 2.4L V8 engines, top speeds in Formula One reached over 340 kilometres per hour.
The circuit is flat, but has a gradual gradient from the second Lesmos to the Variante Ascari. Due to the low aerodynamic profile needed, with its resulting low downforce, the grip is low. Since both maximum power and minimal drag are keys for speed on the straights, only competitors with enough power or aerodynamic efficiency at their disposal are able to challenge for the top places. In addition to Formula One, the circuit hosted the 1000 km Monza, endurance sports car race held as part of the World Sportscar Championship and the Le Mans Series. Monza featured the unique Race of Two Worlds events, which attempted to run Formula One and USAC National Championship cars against each other; the racetrack previously held rounds of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing, World Touring Car Championship, TCR International Series, Superbike World Championship, Formula Renault 3.5 Series and Auto GP. Monza hosts rounds of the Blancpain GT Series Endurance Cup, International GT Open and Euroformula Open Championship, as well as various local championships such as the TCR Italian Series, Italian GT Championship, Porsche Carrera Cup Italia and Italian F4 Championship.
The Monza circuit has been the site of many fatal accidents in the early years of the Formula One world championship, has claimed the lives of 52 drivers and 35 spectators. Track modifications have continuously occurred, to improve spectator safety and reduce curve speeds, but it is still criticised by the current drivers for its lack of run-off areas, most notoriously at the chicane that cuts the Variante della Roggia; the first track was built from May to July 1922 by 3,500 workers, financed by the Milan Automobile Club – which created the Società Incremento Automobilismo e Sport to run the track. The initial form was a 3.4 square kilometres site with 10 kilometres of macadamised road – comprising a 4.5 kilometres loop track, a 5.5 kilometres road track. The track was opened on 3 September 1922, with the maiden race the second Italian Grand Prix held on 10 September 1922. In 1928, the most serious Italian racing accident to date ended in the death of driver Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators at that year's Grand Prix.
The accident led to further Grand Prix races confinement to the high-speed loop until 1932. The 1933 race was marked by the deaths of three drivers and the Grand Prix layout was changed, with two chicanes added and the longer straights removed. There was major rebuilding in 1938–39, constructing new stands and entrances, resurfacing the track, moving portions of the track and adding two new bends; the resulting layout gave a Grand Prix lap of 6.300 kilometres, in use until 1954. The outbreak of World War II meant racing at the track was suspended until 1948 and parts of the circuit degraded due to the lack of maintenance. Monza was renovated over a period of two months at the beginning of 1948 and a Grand Prix was held on 17 October 1948. In 1954, work began to revamp the circuit, resulting in a 5.750 kilometres course, a new 4.250 kilometres high-speed oval with banked sopraelevata curves. The two circuits could be combined to re-create the former 10 kilometres long circuit, with cars running parallel on the main straight.
The track infrastructure was updated and improved to better accommodate the teams and spectators. The Automobile Club of Italy held 500-mile Race of Two Worlds exhibition competitions, intended to pit United States Auto Club IndyCars against European Formula One and sports cars; the races were held on the oval at the end of June in 1957 and 1958, with three 63 lap 267.67 kilometres heat races each year, races which colloquially became known as the Monzanapolis series. Concerns were raised among the European drivers that flat-out racing on the banking would be too dangerous, so only Ecurie Ecosse and Maserati represented European racing at the
Royal Automobile Club
The Royal Automobile Club is a British private club and is not to be confused with RAC, an automotive services company, which it owned. It has two club houses: one in London at 89–91 Pall Mall, the other in the countryside at Woodcote Park, near Epsom in Surrey, both with accommodation and a range of dining and sporting facilities; the Royal Automobile Club welcomes both women as members. It was founded on 10 August 1897 as the Automobile Club of Great Britain; the headquarters was in a block of flats at 4 Whitehall Court, moving to 119 Piccadilly in 1902. During 1902 the organisation, together with the formed Association of Motor Manufactures and Traders campaigned vigorously for the relaxation of speed limits claiming that the 14 mph speed limit imposed by the Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 was'absurd' and was observed; the organisations, with support from the Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, had considerable influence over the forthcoming Motor Car Act 1903 which proposed to remove all speed limits for cars while introducing the offence of driving recklessly.
In the face of considerable opposition a speed limit of 20 mph was retained in addition to the creation of the offence of driving recklessly, dangerously or negligently. In 1905, the Club organised the first Tourist Trophy motorcycle race, the oldest run motor race; the Club became the governing body for motor sport in Britain. King Edward VII's interest in motoring led to the command in 1907 "that the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland should henceforth be known as The Royal Automobile Club". In 1911 they moved to part of the site of the old War Office, it cost over a quarter of a million pounds and is described in the Survey of London as "a polished essay in the late French Renaissance manner". At the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, the Club arranged for twenty-five of their members, with their personal cars, to accompany the British Expeditionary Force to France and Belgium to act as chauffeurs and messengers for the British General Staff. Describing themselves as the "RAC Corps of Volunteer Motor Drivers", the drivers included the Duke of Westminster, Lord Dalmeny and "Toby" Rawlinson.
In September 1914, a further group of RAC members put themselves and their cars at the disposal of the British Red Cross, to help transport war casualties. The RAC was responsible for organising the first British Grand Prix motor race at Brooklands, Surrey in 1926 and runs its sister organisation, the MSA. In 1978 during a re-organisation the'Associate Section' was established as a separate company RAC Motoring Services Ltd, owned by the organisation. In 1991 the RAC Foundation was split off as the research arm of'RAC Motoring Services'; when RAC Motoring Services was sold in 1999 the Foundation was granted a legacy and was subsequently established as a charity to research and promote issues of safety, mobility and the environment related to motoring. In September 1999 members sold RAC Motoring Services to Lex Service plc, who renamed themselves RAC plc in 2002. RAC Plc was acquired by Aviva plc in March 2005 for around £1.1 billion. The RAC introduced uniformed mobile patrols around the roads of Britain during 1901 with the patrolmen wearing a uniform not unlike the military police of the day, including tailored jodhpur trousers.
The patrolmen had an army-like rank structure with corporals and officers. Mounted on Matchless motorbikes with sidecars containing a tool kit, engine hoses, metal cans of spare petrol they were located on standby at laybys and major road junctions; until around 1930 control could only contact the mobile patrolmen by telephone, so they waited by public telephone boxes for the callout. From 1957 onwards they were equipped with radio sets for two way contact with their local headquarters. In 1912, following the lead of the competitor organisation The Automobile Association, the RAC installed roadside telephones on laybys and junctions of the main trunk roads in the UK for members to summon help. Although they were never as numerous as AA boxes there was a measure of cooperation between the two motoring clubs—keys fitted both types of box and members' messages were passed on; the telephones were installed in locked boxes painted in royal blue with the RAC logo badge mounted on the top of the box.
Members were provided with a key to the boxes. Members' cars were identified by a metal club badge affixed to the radiator grille and the patrolmen would come to attention and salute as a member drove past, or, if the patrolman was riding a motorcycle salute; this practise was the basis of an unofficial service given by the club to its members. The RAC issued an annual'Guide and Handbook' that contained road maps of the UK with the location of all RAC telephones marked on it, together with lists of local RAC approved garages and hotels. To give members an indication of the quality of each establishment the RAC was one of the first organisations to provide an recognisable grading system, their inspectors assessed each hotel and garage and awarded between one and five stars in the case of hotels and one to three spanners to garages. The RAC disbanded its hotel inspection team in 2004. Motorcycle patrols gave way to small vans during the 1960s and by 1970 the last motorcycle patrols had been phased out.
RAC telephone boxes were withdrawn from service when they were eclips
Superbike racing is a category of motorcycle racing that employs modified production motorcycles, as opposed to MotoGP in which purpose-built motorcycles are used. The Superbike World Championship is the official world championship series, though national Superbike championships are held in many countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan and Canada. Superbike racing is popular with manufacturers, since it helps promote and sell their product, as captured by the slogan "Win on Sunday. Superbike racing motorcycles are derived from standard production models, so for a bike to be eligible, the manufacturer must first homologate the model and manufacture the required number of roadgoing machines. While rules vary from series to series, in general the motorcycles must maintain the same profile as their roadgoing counterparts, with the same overall appearance as seen from the front and sides. In addition, the frame cannot be modified. Teams may modify some elements of the bike, including the suspensions, brakes and the diameter and size of the wheels.
Superbike racing motorcycles must have four-stroke engines of between 850 cc and 1200 cc for twins, between 750 cc and 1000 cc for four cylinder machines. The restriction to production models distinguishes Superbike racing from MotoGP racing, which uses prototype machines that bear little resemblance to production machines; this is somewhat similar to the distinction in car racing between sports cars and Formula One cars, though the performance gap between Superbike and MotoGP racing is much smaller. The world's first ` Superbike' was built by brothers Ralph Hannan in the mid/late 1970s. First ridden in Australia and overseas, including the Suzuka 8 hour and the Bol d'Or 24-hour endurance races, by Graeme Crosby who went on to international success and was inducted into the NZ sports "Hall of Fame". Superbike World Championship is the premier international superbike Championship; the championship was founded in 1988. It is managed and promoted by FGSport. Once regarded as the poor cousin to the more glamorous MotoGP championship, the Superbike World Championship has grown into a world-class professional racing series.
Many of the riders that competed in SBK over the years are household names among motorcycle racing fans. The most successful rider thus far has been England’s Carl Fogarty, who won the championship four times. Ducati has been the most successful manufacturer in the series over the years, accumulating 15 manufacturer championships. Honda has won it 6 times, with Suzuki claiming one championship. Australia's Troy Bayliss won the 2006 and 2008 titles riding for Xerox Ducati and James Toseland, from the UK, was the winner of the 2007 championship riding for Hannspree Ten Kate Honda. National Superbike series vary in challenge and popularity, the most popular being in Britain and North America. Both Japan and Australia have well supported national superbikes series, though they only run for short, 10-race seasons; the British Superbike championship is the leading motorcycle racing championship in the United Kingdom. It is organised by MCRCB-Events; the commercial and television rights have been delegated to MotorSport Vision.
Ducati, Kawasaki and Yamaha all have well supported teams, while Honda has the only HRC supported superbike team outside Japan. Japanese rider Ryuichi Kiyonari won the 2007 and 2010 titles riding for HM Plant Honda. Beginning in 2015 the US National Superbike championship moved to a new organization, MotoAmerica, after several years of decline; the new championship is known as the MotoAmerica Superbike Championship, incorporates classes similar to those operating at world championship level, other national series, i.e. Superbike, Superstock 1000, Superstock and KTM Junior cup.. The aim of the new championship is to reinvigorate motorcycle road racing in North America and send its riders to the top-level international championships - MotoGP and World Superbike; the AMA Superbike was the premier superbike racing series in the United States. It was part of the AMA Pro Racing series, was managed by the AMA until 2009 when the AMA sold the series to the Daytona MotorSports Group; the series was replaced in 2015 by the MotoAmerica Superbike championship.
The All Japan Road Race Championship known as MFJ Superbike is the premiere motorcycle road racing championship in Japan and is run by MFJ. The championship started in 1967 and has been running a superbike class since 1994; the series has a large field of Japanese riders and bikes. Atsushi Watanabe won the 2007 championship riding a Yoshimura Suzuki; the Mopar Canadian Superbike Championship is the Canadian national Superbike series. The series consists of six to eight rounds per season. Riders from the Canadian series compete in AMA Superbike during the Canadian off-season. Jordan Szoke won his 8th title in 2012, riding a BMW S1000RR; the Nigeria Superbike Road Race, The Bikers Trophy is held annually on the last weekend in November, in Edo State, Nigeria. It is the premier motorcycling sports event in Nigeria and West Africa with participants and spectators from all over the World. Modelled after the Isle of Man TT races, The Bikers Trophy races take place in a time trial format over a 32 km street circuits which traverse the 8 communities of Urhonigbe, Umughun, Evbonogbon, Ugo and Ugbokirima in Orhiomwon Local Government Area of Edo State.
The 2014 event saw podium places go to Armstrong Ngugu and Ikhide Izokpu. Other cou
Track racing is a form of motorcycle racing where teams or individuals race opponents around an unpaved oval track. There are differing variants, with each variant racing on a different surface type; the most common variant is Speedway which has many professional domestic and international competitions in a number of countries. Administered internationally by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme, the sport became popular in the 1920s and remains so today. Track racing involves between four and six, sometimes eight competitors riding around an oval track in a counter-clockwise direction over a set number of laps - four to six sometimes eight - with points being awarded to all but the last finisher on a sliding scale; these points are accumulated over a number of heats, with the winner being the team or individual who has scored the most overall. The machines used are customised motorcycles, these are fuelled with methanol. Speedway uses motorcycles with no gears or rear suspension; the use of methanol means the engines can run high compression ratios, resulting in more power and higher speeds although the skill of Track Racing lies in the overall ability of the rider to control his motorcycle when cornering and thus avoid losing places through deceleration.
This has resulted in powersliding or broadsiding being used as a technique in most variants of the sport to progress around the track. Competitions take place on tracks which are defined by the FIM as being of the following: Speedway - a track with a top surface in granite, brick granules or similar unbound material rolled in on the base ground Long track - sand, shale or similar unbound material rolled in on the base ground Grass track - firm, level turf with minor undulations Ice Racing - ice with a minimum thickness of 10 cm Speedway racing takes place on a flat oval track measuring between 260 and 425 metres long consisting of dirt or loosely packed shale. Competitors use this loose surface to slide their machines sideways into the bends using the rear wheel to scrub-off speed while still providing the drive to power the bike forward and around the bend. FIM regulations state that the motorcycles used must have no brakes, run on pure methanol, use only one gear and weigh a minimum of 78 kg.
Races consist of between six riders competing over four to six laps. Originating in New South Wales, Australia in the 1920s, there are now both domestic and international competitions in a number of countries including the Speedway World Cup whilst the highest overall scoring individual in the Speedway Grand Prix events is pronounced the Speedway world champion. Flat track racing known as dirt track racing, looks similar to Speedway racing but is quite different. Flat track motorcycles can have either four-stroke engines in amateur competition. Flat track bikes have front and rear suspension, rear brakes; the brakes are what make it distinct from speedway, as the brakes allow for a different cornering technique. Four-stroke motorcycles dominate professional competition and depending on the venue, can be single or multi-cylinder. Racetracks vary in length from 1/4 mile to 1 mile. Successful riders will move to road racing, more lucrative. Many top American riders in Grand Prix motorcycle racing began their racing careers as flat track racers.
Grasstrack racing takes place on a flat oval track constructed in a field. The motorcycles have two gears, rear suspension, no brakes, are larger in length overall than speedway bikes. Races take place over four laps from a standing start. Unlike Speedway, which has four riders per race, Grasstrack racing can have many riders in each heat and the circuit is longer, allowing higher speeds. Longtrack is a variant of Grasstrack held on tracks up to 1000 – 1200 meters in length and with speeds reaching 90–100 mph; the machinery and rules used are the same as for Grasstrack. The sport is popular in Germany more so than Speedway; this means that the majority of tracks are to be found in that country, although tracks can be found in the Czech Republic and Norway. Longtrack meetings are held in Australia and the United States, but these take place around horse trotting arenas during their off-seasons. Individual Long Track World Championship Team Long Track World Championship Ice Racing includes a motorcycle class, the equivalent of Speedway on ice.
Bikes race anti-clockwise around oval tracks between 260 and 425 metres in length. The race structure and scoring is similar to Speedway; the sport is divided into classes for studded tyres. The studded tyre category involves competitors riding on bikes with inch-long spikes screwed into each tread-less tyre, each bike has 90 spikes on the front tyre and 200 on the rear. In the studded tyre class there is no broadsiding around the bends due to the grip produced by the spikes digging into the ice. Instead, riders lean their bikes into the bends at an angle where the handlebars just skim the track surface; this riding style is different from that used in the other track racing disciplines. This means riders from this discipline participate in Speedway or its other variants and vice versa; the majority of team and individual meetings are held in Russia and Finland, but events are held in the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, other countries. Track Racing rules - Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme Speedway FAQ - speedway-faq.org
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate