SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Roadkill

Roadkill is an animal or animals that have been struck and killed by motor vehicles on highways. Wildlife-vehicle collisions have been the topic of academic research to understand the causes, how it can be mitigated; some roadkill can be eaten. Non-existent before the advent of mechanized transport, roadkill is associated with increasing automobile speed in the early century. A contemporary observer, naturalist Joseph Grinnell, noted in 1920 that "This is a new source of fatality. In Australia, specific actions taken to protect against the variety of animals that can damage vehicles – such as bullbars – indicate the Australian experience has some unique features with road kill; the development of roads affects wildlife by altering and isolating habitat and populations, deterring the movement of wildlife, resulting in extensive wildlife mortality. One writer states that "our insulated industrialized culture keeps us disconnected from life beyond our windshields." Driving "mindlessly" without paying attention to the movements of others in the vehicle's path, driving at speeds that do not allow stopping, distractions contribute to the death toll.

Moreover, a culture of indifference and hopelessness is created if people learn to ignore lifeless bodies on roads. A study in Ontario, Canada in 1996 found many reptiles killed on portions of the road where vehicle tires do not pass over, which led to the inference that some drivers intentionally run over reptiles. To verify this hypothesis, research in 2007 found that 2.7% of drivers intentionally hit reptile decoys masquerading as snakes and turtles. "Indeed, several drivers were observed speeding up and positioning their vehicles to hit the reptiles". Male drivers hit the reptile decoys more than female drivers. On a more compassionate note, 3.4% of male drivers and 3% of female drivers stopped to rescue the reptile decoys.. Sometimes trucks driven in careless manner leads to mortality of wildlife small species, which are sometimes not visible to drivers. On roadways where rumble strips are installed to provide a tactile vibration alerting drivers when drifting from their lane, the rumble strips may accumulate road salt in regions where it is used.

The excess salt can attract both small and large wildlife in search of salt licks. Large numbers of mammals, reptiles and invertebrates are killed on the world's roads every day; the number of animals killed in the United States has been estimated at a million per day. About 350,000 to 27 million birds are estimated to be killed on European roads each year. Mortality resulting from roadkill can be significant for species with small populations. Roadkill is estimated to be responsible for 50% of deaths of Florida panthers, is the largest cause of badger deaths in England. Roadkill is considered to contribute to the population decline of many threatened species, including wolf and eastern quoll. In Tasmania, Australia the most common species affected by roadkill are brushtail possums and Tasmanian pademelons. In 1993, 25 schools throughout New England, United States participated in a roadkill study involving 1,923 animal deaths. By category, the fatalities were: 81% mammals, 15% bird, 3% reptiles and amphibians, 1% indiscernible.

Extrapolating these data nationwide, Merritt Clifton estimated that the following animals are being killed by motor vehicles in the United States annually: 41 million squirrels, 26 million cats, 22 million rats, 19 million opossums, 15 million raccoons, 6 million dogs, 350,000 deer. This study may not have considered differences in observability between taxa, has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific literature. A recent study showed that insects, are prone to a high risk of roadkill incidence. Research showed interesting patterns in insect roadkills in relation to the vehicle density; the decrease in insects being killed by cars is called by scientists the "windshield phenomenon". In 2003–2004, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds investigated anecdotal reports of declining insect populations in the UK by asking drivers to affix a postcard-sized PVC rectangle, called a "splatometer", to the front of their cars. 40,000 drivers took part, the results found one squashed insect for every 5 miles driven.

This contrasts with 30 years ago when cars were covered more with insects, supporting the idea that insect numbers had waned. In 2011, Dutch biologist Arnold van Vliet coordinated a similar study of insect deaths on car license plates, he found two insects killed on the license-plate area for every 10 kilometres driven. This implies about 1.6 trillion insect deaths by cars per year in the Netherlands, about 32.5 trillion deaths in the United States if the figures are extrapolated there. One considered positive aspect of roadkill is the regular availability of carrion it provides for scavenger species such as vultures, foxes, Virginia opossums and a wide variety of carnivorous insects. Areas with robust scavenger populations tend to see roadkilled animal corpses being carried off, sometimes within minutes of being struck; this can cause a lower estimation of the number of roadkill animals per year. In roadkill-p

1994 AFL Grand Final

The 1994 AFL Grand Final was an Australian rules football game contested between the Geelong Football Club and West Coast Eagles, held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Melbourne on 1 October 1994. It was the 98th annual grand final of the Australian Football League, staged to determine the premiers for the 1994 AFL season; the match, attended by 93,860 spectators, was won by West Coast by a margin of 80 points. Geelong was looking for its first premiership since winning the 1963 VFL Grand Final and West Coast was attempting to repeat its success in the 1992 AFL Grand Final, when it had defeated Geelong by a margin of 28 points, becoming the first non-Victorian team to win the AFL Premiership. At the conclusion of the home and away season, West Coast had finished first on the AFL ladder with 16 wins and 6 losses, winning the McClelland Trophy. Geelong had finished fourth with 9 losses. During the lead-up to the game, West Coast were the strong favourites to win. Geelong had won through to the decider after winning three tough finals, including two dramatic after-the-siren wins over Footscray and North Melbourne.

West Coast had a smooth run into the grand final, beating Collingwood in a qualifying final to earn a week's rest, before accounting for Melbourne in a preliminary final. It was an entertaining first quarter, which saw West Coast stamp its authority early by bursting out of the blocks, before some stirring football by Geelong towards the end of the quarter saw the Cats lead by a point at quarter time. From on, West Coast started taking control. With Geelong's champion full-forward Gary Ablett well held and star Geelong midfielder Garry Hocking injuring his thigh, the Cats were in trouble as West Coast began to dominate general play. Billy Brownless took one of the great grand final marks halfway through the 2nd quarter and scored, but it was the only highlight for the Cats in the term as the Eagles booted 4 of their own to lead by 23 points at half time. Though they led well from quarter time onwards, the Eagles could not convert their dominant play onto the scoreboard, with a constant margin of 4-5 goals keeping the game in the balance for much of the 3rd quarter.

But the last term was all the Eagles, as they stormed home and steamrolled the Cats, kicking 8 final quarter goals to 1, winning the match by 80 points, with 20.23 being the Eagles' highest score of the year. The Norm Smith Medal was awarded to West Coast's Dean Kemp for being judged the best player afield, with 23 disposals and 2 goals, it was West Coast's second premiership in three years, Geelong's third grand final appearance without success in six years. Cats coach Malcolm Blight quit after the team's third grand final loss in six years, his next two grand finals as a coach came in 1997 and 1998 and both would be premierships with Adelaide against St Kilda and North Melbourne. West Coast's next success in a grand final came twelve years when it won the 2006 AFL Grand Final against the Sydney Swans, it would take until 2007 for Geelong to win its first AFL Premiership since 1963, when they defeated Port Adelaide in the 2007 AFL Grand Final. Lovett, Michael: AFL Record: Guide to Season 2007, AFL Publishing, 2007.

ISBN 978-0-9758362-7-9 Match details at AFL Tables 1994 AFL season

Criticism of Java

The Java programming language and Java software platform have been criticized for design choices in the language and platform, including the implementation of generics, forced object-oriented programming, the handling of unsigned numbers, the implementation of floating-point arithmetic, a history of security vulnerabilities in the primary Java VM implementation, HotSpot. Additionally, software written in Java its early versions, has been criticized for its performance compared to software written in other programming languages. Developers have remarked that differences in various Java implementations must be taken into account when writing complex Java programs that must be used across these implementations; when generics were added to Java 5.0, there was a large framework of classes, so generics were chosen to be implemented using type erasure to allow for migration compatibility and re-use of these existing classes. This limited the features; because generics were implemented using type erasure the actual type of a common template parameter E is unavailable at runtime.

Thus, the following operations are not possible in Java: By design, Java encourages programmers to think of a programming solution in terms of nouns interacting with each other, to think of verbs as operations that can be performed on or by that noun. Steve Yegge argues that this causes an unnecessary restriction on language expressiveness because a class can have multiple functions that operate on it, but a function is bound to a class and can never operate on multiple types. In many other multi-paradigm languages, there is support for functions as a top-level construct; when combined with other language features such as function overloading and/or generic functions, the programmer is given the ability to decide whether it makes more sense to solve a specific problem in terms of nouns or verbs. Java version 8 introduced. In 2008 the U. S. DOD's Center Software Technology Support published in the "Journal of Defense Software Engineering" an article discussing the unsuitableness of Java as first learned programming language in education.

Disadvantages given for Java as first language were that students "had no feeling for the relationship between the source program and what the hardware would do" and the impossibility "to develop a sense of the run-time cost of what is written because it is hard to know what any method call will execute". Joel Spolsky in 2005, criticised Java as overfocused part of universities' curriculum in his essay The Perils of JavaSchools. Others, like Ned Batchelder, disagree with Spolsky for criticizing the parts of the language that he found difficult to understand, claiming that Spolsky's commentary was more of a'subjective rant'. Java lacks native unsigned integer types. Unsigned data is generated from programs written in C and the lack of these types prevents direct data interchange between C and Java. Unsigned large numbers are used in a number of numeric processing fields, including cryptography, which can make Java more inconvenient to use for these tasks. Although it is possible to circumvent this problem with conversion code and using larger data types, it makes using Java cumbersome for handling unsigned data.

While a 32-bit signed integer may be used to hold a 16-bit unsigned value losslessly and a 32-bit unsigned value would require a 64-bit signed integer, a 64-bit unsigned value cannot be stored using any integer type because no type larger than 64 bits exists in the Java language. In all cases, the memory consumed may increase by a factor of up to two, any logic that depends on the rules of two's complement overflow must be rewritten. If abstracted using functions, function calls become necessary for many operations which are native to some other languages. Alternatively, it is possible to use Java's signed integers to emulate unsigned integers of the same size, but this requires detailed knowledge of bitwise operations; some support for unsigned integer types were provided in JDK 8, but not for unsigned bytes and with no support in the Java language. Java has been criticized for not supporting the capability of implementing user-defined operators. Operator overloading improves readability, thus the lack of it in Java can make the code less readable for classes representing mathematical objects, such as complex numbers, etc.

A form of operator overloading is implemented in the language: other than for adding numeric primitive types, the operator + is employed for string concatenation. However, this form of overloading is a built-in feature of the language, users are in no way capable of defining their own operators. Java lacks compound value types, such as structs in C, bundles of data that are manipulated directly instead of indirectly via references. Value types can offer significant performance improvements and memory savings in some cases. A typical example is Java's HashMap, internally implemented as an array of HashMap. Entry objects; because Java lacks value types, this array is an array of references to Entry objects, which in turn contains references to key and value objects. Looking up something in the map requires inefficient double indirection. If Entry were a value type, the array could store pairs of key and value references directly, eliminating the first indirection, increasing locality and reducing memory usage and heap fragmentation.

If Java further supported generic primitive types, primitive keys and